Identification

Name
Topiramate
Accession Number
DB00273  (APRD00237)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. [Wikipedia]. A combination product containing phentermine and topiramate extended-release called QSYMIA® is indicated for the management of obesity. On August 2013, an extended released formulation, marketed as Trokendi XR has been approved for the management of partial onset, tonic-clonic, and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome seizures.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,3:4,5-Bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate
  • 2,3:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate
  • McN-4853
  • RWJ-17021
  • Tipiramate
  • Tipiramato
  • Topiramate
  • Topiramato
  • Topiramatum
  • TPM
External IDs
RWJ-17021-000 / USL-255 / USL255
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Topiramate calciumP956SY6RA61246279-00-4VNRLRDKZOMPUAG-RZTSBURASA-N
Topiramate potassiumSMU8E1YBZ3488127-51-1VEKVPJSPZRTTGR-WGAVTJJLSA-N
Topiramate sodiumN808MSN0PT488127-49-7ZUWVVMMRNQEJMW-WGAVTJJLSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Abbott-topiramateTablet200 mgOralBgp Pharma Ulc2014-03-172015-12-31Canada
Abbott-topiramateTablet100 mgOralBgp Pharma Ulc2014-03-122015-12-31Canada
Abbott-topiramateTablet25 mgOralBgp Pharma Ulc2014-03-122015-12-31Canada
Accel-topiramateTablet100 mgOralAccel Pharma Inc2015-03-262017-01-27Canada
Accel-topiramateTablet200 mgOralAccel Pharma Inc2015-03-262017-01-27Canada
Accel-topiramateTablet25 mgOralAccel Pharma Inc2015-03-262017-01-27Canada
Act TopiramateTablet100 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2007-07-12Not applicableCanada
Act TopiramateTablet200 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2007-07-12Not applicableCanada
Act TopiramateTablet25 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2007-07-12Not applicableCanada
Auro-topiramateTablet25 mgOralAurobindo Pharma Limited (Unit Iii)2011-11-28Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-topiramateTablet200 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-04-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-topiramateTablet25 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-04-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-topiramateTablet50 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-topiramateTablet100 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-04-21Not applicableCanada
TopamaxTablet50 mg/1OralDirectrx2016-05-10Not applicableUs
TopiramateTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralProficient Rx LP2009-03-27Not applicableUs
TopiramateTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralMajor2009-06-10Not applicableUs
TopiramateTablet, film coated50 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-12-15Not applicableUs
TopiramateTablet, film coated25 mg/1OralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-03-27Not applicableUs
TopiramateTablet25 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2009-03-27Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Topamax
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
QsymiaTopiramate (23 mg/1) + Phentermine Hydrochloride (3.75 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaTopiramate (92 mg/1) + Phentermine Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaTopiramate (46 mg/1) + Phentermine Hydrochloride (7.5 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaTopiramate (69 mg/1) + Phentermine Hydrochloride (11.25 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
0H73WJJ391
CAS number
97240-79-4
Weight
Average: 339.362
Monoisotopic: 339.098787343
Chemical Formula
C12H21NO8S
InChI Key
KJADKKWYZYXHBB-XBWDGYHZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H21NO8S/c1-10(2)18-7-5-16-12(6-17-22(13,14)15)9(8(7)19-10)20-11(3,4)21-12/h7-9H,5-6H2,1-4H3,(H2,13,14,15)/t7-,8-,9+,12+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[(1R,2S,6S,9R)-4,4,11,11-tetramethyl-3,5,7,10,12-pentaoxatricyclo[7.3.0.0²,⁶]dodecan-6-yl]methyl sulfamate
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@]12CO[[email protected]@]3(COS(N)(=O)=O)OC(C)(C)O[[email protected]@]3([H])[[email protected]]1([H])OC(C)(C)O2

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for the treatment and control of partial seizures and severe tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures and also for the prevention of migraine headaches. In children it is also used for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Qsymia® is indicated for the treatment and management of obesity.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Topiramate is an anticonvulsant indicated in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine. Topiramate enhances GABA-activated chloride channels. In addition, topiramate inhibits excitatory neurotransmission, through actions on kainate and AMPA receptors. There is evidence that topiramate has a specific effect on GluR5 kainate receptors. It is also an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, particular subtypes II and IV, but this action is weak and unlikely to be related to its anticonvulsant actions, but may account for the bad taste and the development of renal stones seen during treatment. Its possible effect as a mood stabilizer seems to occur before anticonvulsant qualities at lower dosages. Topiramate inhibits maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures as well as partial and secundarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the kindling model, findings predective of a broad spectrum of antiseizure activities clinically.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism of action of topiramate is not known. However, studies have shown that topiramate blocks the action potentials elicited repetitively by a sustained depolarization of the neurons in a time-dependent manner, suggesting a state-dependent sodium channel blocking action. Topiramate also augments the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) at some subtypes of the GABAA receptor (controls an integral chloride channel), indicating a possible mechanism through potentiation of the activity of GABA. Topiramate also demonstrates antagonism of the AMPA/kainate subtype of the glutamate excitatory amino acid receptor. It also inhibits carbonic anhydrase (particularly isozymes II and IV), but this action is weak and unlikely to be related to its anticonvulsant actions.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
ASodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1
antagonist
Human
ACarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Human
ACarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 3
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapid with pleak plasma concentrations occurring after 2 hours and a bioavailability of 80%. The pharmacokinetic profile of the extended release formulation is non linear at 25 mg due to binding of topiramate to carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells. The peak plasma concentration was 24 hours after a single 200 mg oral dose of the extended release formulation. It is also bioequivalent to immediate-release tablet that has been administered twice-daily. Fluctuation of topiramate plasma concentrations at steady-state for Trokendi XR™ administered once-daily was approximately 26% and 42% in healthy subjects and in epileptic patients, respectively, compared to approximately 40% and 51%, respectively, for immediate-release topiramate. When topiramate is given to elderly and young adults, the maximum plasma concentration was achieved in 1 to 2 hours.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

15-41% (over the blood concentration range of 0.5 - 250 mg/mL). The fraction bound decreased as blood concentration increased. Carbamazepine and phenytoin do not alter the binding of immediate-release topiramate. Sodium valproate, at 500 mcg/mL (a concentration 5 to 10 times higher than considered therapeutic for valproate) decreased the protein binding of immediate-release topiramate from 23% to 13%. Immediate-release topiramate does not influence the binding of sodium valproate.

Metabolism

Not extensively metabolized, 70% of the dose is eliminated unchanged in the urine. The other 30% is metabolized hepatically to six metabolites (formed by hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation), none of which constitute more than 5% of an administered dose. There is evidence of renal tubular reabsorption of topiramate.

Route of elimination

Topiramate is not extensively metabolized and is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine (approximately 70% of an administered dose).

Half life

19 to 23 hours. The mean elimination half-life was 31 hours following repeat administration of the extended-release formulation.

Clearance
  • Plasma clearance (CL/F) =20-30 mL/min [in humans following oral administration] Clearance in adults was not affected by gender or race. Pediatric patients on adjunctive treatment exhibited a higher oral clearance compared to those on monotherapy. This may be because of concomitant administration with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs.
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include abdominal pain, agitation, blurred vision, convulsions, depression, dizziness, double vision, drowsiness, impaired coordination, impaired mental activity, low blood pressure, reduced consciousness, severe diarrhea, sluggishness, and speech problems.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aclidinium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AdinazolamThe metabolism of Adinazolam can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adipiplon is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alcuronium is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Allopregnanolone is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphaprodine is combined with Topiramate.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmbrisentanThe metabolism of Ambrisentan can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Amiodarone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmoxicillinThe metabolism of Amoxicillin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisotropine Methylbromide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ApixabanThe metabolism of Apixaban can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
AprepitantThe metabolism of Aprepitant can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Artemether can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Atomoxetine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atracurium is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atracurium besylate is combined with Topiramate.Approved
AtropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
AxitinibThe metabolism of Axitinib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
AzelastineTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Topiramate.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Topiramate.Illicit
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benactyzine is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benperidol is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
BenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Topiramate.Approved
BiperidenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Biperiden is combined with Topiramate.Approved
BornaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bornaprine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
BortezomibThe metabolism of Bortezomib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
BrivaracetamThe metabolism of Brivaracetam can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromisoval is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromperidol is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
BumetanideBumetanide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canertinib is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Topiramate can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Topiramate.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Chloramphenicol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenoxamine is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Clarithromycin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopenthixol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Topiramate resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clothiapine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
ClotiazepamThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
Conjugated estrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
CyclopenthiazideCyclopenthiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Experimental
CyclopentolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclopentolate is combined with Topiramate.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
DarifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Darifenacin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deramciclane is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
DesogestrelThe serum concentration of Desogestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexetimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexetimide is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
DexlansoprazoleThe metabolism of Dexlansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
DicyclomineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dicyclomine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Dienestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethyl ether is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dixyrazine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe metabolism of Doxazosin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
DrospirenoneThe serum concentration of Drospirenone can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecopipam is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eltanolone is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
EmeproniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Emepronium is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
EnfuvirtideThe metabolism of Enfuvirtide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Esomeprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Estramustine can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Etacrynic acidEtacrynic acid may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
EtanautineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanautine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EthopropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethopropazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl chloride is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
Ethynodiol diacetateThe serum concentration of Ethynodiol diacetate can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Topiramate.Approved
EtonogestrelThe serum concentration of Etonogestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Topiramate.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Etravirine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
EtybenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etybenzatropine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FamotidineThe metabolism of Famotidine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fesoterodine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluanisone is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Topiramate.Approved
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Topiramate can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
FurosemideFurosemide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine Triethiodide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gepirone is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
GestodeneThe serum concentration of Gestodene can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
GlucosamineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
GlycopyrroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycopyrronium is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Topiramate.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
HexamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexamethonium is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Hexestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved
HomatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Homatropine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
HyoscyamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hyoscyamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
IbuprofenThe metabolism of Ibuprofen can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
IfosfamideThe metabolism of Ifosfamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Imatinib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indiplon is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
IndomethacinThe metabolism of Indomethacin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
Ipratropium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Lapatinib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe metabolism of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe serum concentration of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Topiramate.Illicit
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loprazolam is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lormetazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LumiracoxibThe metabolism of Lumiracoxib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
LynestrenolThe serum concentration of Lynestrenol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
MacitentanThe metabolism of Macitentan can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MazaticolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mazaticol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebicar is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medazepam is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe serum concentration of Medroxyprogesterone acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Topiramate can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Investigational, Withdrawn
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meptazinol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MetforminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Metformin.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Methallenestril can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MethanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methantheline is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Topiramate.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MethotrimeprazineTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylecgonine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MetixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metixene is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Metoprolol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineTopiramate may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Topiramate can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Moclobemide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Nelfinavir can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
NilutamideThe metabolism of Nilutamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
NorelgestrominThe serum concentration of Norelgestromin can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norflurane is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
NorgestimateThe serum concentration of Norgestimate can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
NorgestrelThe serum concentration of Norgestrel can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Omeprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Topiramate.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Topiramate can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
OtiloniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Otilonium is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxethazaine is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
OxiconazoleThe metabolism of Oxiconazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
OxitropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxitropium is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Topiramate.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
OxybutyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybutynin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OxyphenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ParaldehydeTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penfluridol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentolinium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenazocine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PhenglutarimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenglutarimide is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenibut is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoperidine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipecuronium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PirenzepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirenzepine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PiretanidePiretanide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Experimental
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piritramide is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PodofiloxThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleTopiramate may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
PraziquantelThe metabolism of Praziquantel can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propanidid is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PropanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propantheline is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propiverine is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proxibarbal is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
QuinethazoneQuinethazone may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
QuinidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinidine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Quinine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinisocaine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Rabeprazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Raclopride is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineThe metabolism of Ranitidine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Topiramate.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritanserin is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
RomidepsinThe metabolism of Romidepsin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
RopiniroleTopiramate may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
RosuvastatinThe metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
RotigotineTopiramate may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Scopolamine butylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine butylbromide is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sepranolone is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
SolifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Solifenacin is combined with Topiramate.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Topiramate.Approved
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sultopride is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
SuvorexantTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tandospirone is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Topiramate.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TeniposideThe metabolism of Teniposide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrahydropalmatine is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Topiramate.Investigational
ThalidomideTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiapride is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ticlopidine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tilidine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
TimololThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TiotropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiotropium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Tipranavir can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TofacitinibThe metabolism of Tofacitinib can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tolbutamide can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolterodine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved
TrabectedinThe metabolism of Trabectedin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tricaine methanesulfonate is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichloroethylene is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluperidol is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trihexyphenidyl is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrimethaphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimethaphan is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Withdrawn
TropatepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropatepine is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
TropicamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrospiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trospium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tubocurarine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vecuronium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Veralipride is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinyl ether is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Voriconazole can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xenon is combined with Topiramate.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZidovudineThe metabolism of Zidovudine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Topiramate.Vet Approved
ZolpidemTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Topiramate.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Following a single dose of the extended-release formulation with a high fat meal, Cmax of topiramate increased by 37% and shortened the Tmax to approximately 8 hours. AUC was not effected. According to the FDA label, Trokendi XR can be taken without regard to food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Orn Almarsson, "Topiramate salts and compositions comprising and methods of making and using the same." U.S. Patent US20040053853, issued March 18, 2004.

US20040053853
General References
  1. Blum D, Meador K, Biton V, Fakhoury T, Shneker B, Chung S, Mills K, Hammer A, Isojarvi J: Cognitive effects of lamotrigine compared with topiramate in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8;67(3):400-6. [PubMed:16894098]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB05034
KEGG Drug
D00537
KEGG Compound
C07502
PubChem Compound
5284627
PubChem Substance
46508334
ChemSpider
4447672
BindingDB
10887
ChEBI
63631
ChEMBL
CHEMBL220492
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000137
PharmGKB
PA451728
HET
TOR
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Topiramate
ATC Codes
N03AX11 — Topiramate
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92 — Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants
PDB Entries
3hku / 3lxe / 5jna
FDA label
Download (236 KB)
MSDS
Download (57.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentSleep-Related Eating Disorder1
0TerminatedPreventionEpilepsies / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1Active Not RecruitingPreventionCyanotic Congenital Heart Disease1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED) / Bulimia Nervosa (BN)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedNot AvailableSeizures1
1CompletedScreeningHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
1CompletedTreatmentAlteration of Cognitive Function1
1CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)2
1CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies2
1CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Migraines1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Impairment1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Volunteers / Migraines1
1Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMigraines1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCocaine Use Disorders1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSleep Apnea Syndrome1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Drinking1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Procedures / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Surgery / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss / Obesity, Morbid1
2CompletedNot AvailableTobacco Use Disorders1
2CompletedBasic ScienceAlcoholism1
2CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedEducational/Counseling/TrainingBasilar Migraine1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Binge Eating1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Nicotine Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Dependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED)1
2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Abuse / Cannabis Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentCompulsive Shopping1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine2
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Polyneuropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Epilepsy, Localization Related / Seizures5
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Absence1
2CompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
2CompletedTreatmentMethamphetamine1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraines2
2CompletedTreatmentSciatica1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCryptogenic Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Drinking1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcoholism1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeadaches / Migraines1
2SuspendedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Heavy Drinking / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDrug Induced Dyskinesia / Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcoholism1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentGambling1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailableBasilar Migraine1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED) / BMI >30 kg/m21
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Nicotine Dependence1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObese Children and Adolescents1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Migraine1
3CompletedPreventionHeadaches / Migraines1
3CompletedPreventionMigraines4
3CompletedTreatmentAffective Disorders, Psychotic / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Moods Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAffective Disorders, Psychotic / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Moods Disorders / Psychiatric Disorder NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m24
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypertensive1
3CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)3
3CompletedTreatmentCessation, Smoking1
3CompletedTreatmentClassic Migraine / Headaches / Migraine Without Aura / Migraines3
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies3
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Epilepsy, Generalized / Epilepsy, Localization Related / Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Epilepsy, Generalized / Epilepsy, Localization Related / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Epilepsy, Localization Related / Seizures2
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Partial Seizure Disorder / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures5
3CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome2
3CompletedTreatmentLennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraines2
3CompletedTreatmentMigraines / Vascular Headaches2
3CompletedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentTobacco Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentTremor, Essential1
3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEpilepsies1
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3SuspendedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedPreventionHeadaches / Migraine Disorders / Migraines1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depressive State / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertriglyceridemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Dependence, Cocaine1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedNot AvailableCognitive Deficits1
4CompletedNot AvailableBone destruction / Convulsions / Epilepsies / Osteopenia / Seizures1
4CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4CompletedNot AvailableMigraines1
4CompletedEducational/Counseling/TrainingRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
4CompletedPreventionMigraine Disorders1
4CompletedPreventionMigraines1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcoholism / PTSD1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Alcoholism / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Drinking1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Cannabis-Related Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Weight gain therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine2
4CompletedTreatmentClassic Migraine / Headaches / Migraine Without Aura / Migraines1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies3
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Epilepsy, Generalized / Epilepsy, Localization Related / Grand mal Generalized tonic-clonic seizure / Seizures1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Rolandic1
4CompletedTreatmentHazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPTSD1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEpilepsies1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSocial Phobia1
4TerminatedPreventionVomiting1
4TerminatedTreatmentCluster Headache1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeadaches1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAnalgesic Rebound Headache1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma, Angle-Closure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPathological Gambling1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBulimia Nervosa (BN)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies / Seizures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMigraine Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSeizures, Epileptic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBulimia Nervosa (BN) / Eating Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPatients With Chronic Migraine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome / Self-Injurious Behavior1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRett's Syndrome1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableArthritis / Gout Acute / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cyanide Poisoning / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / GYNAECOLOGICAL INFECTION / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertensive / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombosis / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMigraine Disorders / Vestibular Migraine1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders / Opioid-Related Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChronic Headaches / Migraines1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchMigraines1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Alcoholism / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders / PTSD1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentDizziness / Headaches / Migraines1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Accord healthcare inc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Cipla ltd
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva hrvatska doo
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Unichem laboratories ltd
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral50 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral150 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral25 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral15 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral50 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral25 mg
Capsule, coated pelletsOral15 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral25 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral200 1/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral25 meq/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Topiramate 200 mg tablet8.32USD tablet
Topamax 200 mg tablet7.68USD tablet
Topiramate 100 mg tablet7.11USD tablet
Topamax 100 mg tablet6.31USD tablet
Topamax 50 mg tablet5.96USD tablet
Topiramate 50 mg tablet5.21USD tablet
Topiramate 25 mg Sprinkle Capsule3.04USD capsule
Topiramate 25 mg tablet2.61USD tablet
Topiramate 99.7% powder2.59USD g
Topiramate 15 mg Sprinkle Capsule2.52USD capsule
Topamax 25 mg tablet2.46USD tablet
Co Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Mylan-Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Novo-Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Phl-Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Pms-Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Ratio-Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Sandoz Topiramate 200 mg Tablet2.08USD tablet
Topamax Sprinkle 25 mg Capsule1.35USD capsule
Sandoz Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Co Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Mylan-Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Novo-Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Phl-Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Pms-Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Ratio-Topiramate 100 mg Tablet1.31USD tablet
Topamax Sprinkle 15 mg Capsule1.29USD capsule
Pms-Topiramate 50 mg Tablet1.05USD tablet
Co Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Mylan-Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Novo-Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Phl-Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Pms-Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Ratio-Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Sandoz Topiramate 25 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2322644No2005-07-262019-03-01Canada
US5998380Yes1996-04-132016-04-13Us
US6503884Yes1996-04-132016-04-13Us
US7018983Yes1996-04-132016-04-13Us
US7498311Yes1996-04-132016-04-13Us
US7125560Yes1999-09-012019-09-01Us
US6071537No1997-06-232017-06-23Us
US8895057No2008-06-092028-06-09Us
US7056890No2000-06-142020-06-14Us
US7553818No2000-06-142020-06-14Us
US7659256No2000-06-142020-06-14Us
US7674776No2000-06-142020-06-14Us
US8580299No2009-06-142029-06-14Us
US9011906No2008-06-092028-06-09Us
US9011905No2008-06-092028-06-09Us
US8895058No2008-06-092028-06-09Us
US8580298No2009-05-152029-05-15Us
US9101545No2013-03-192033-03-19Us
US8652527No2013-03-192033-03-19Us
US8889190No2013-03-192033-03-19Us
US8889191No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US8298580No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US8663683No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US8877248No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US8298576No2008-04-042028-04-04Us
US8992989No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US9555005No2013-03-192033-03-19Us
US9549940No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US9555004No2007-11-162027-11-16Us
US9622983No2007-11-162027-11-16Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility9.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP-0.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.29ALOGPS
logP0.13ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area115.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity72.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9955
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable-0.6055
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5311
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9479
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9131
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9479
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.542
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6623
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7259
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8674
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6539
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8469
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7952
Ames testAMES toxic0.518
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5578
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9803
Rat acute toxicity2.5682 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8882
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-2960000000-a11a150bcada5055d2e9
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-c1fa3d6ff15890fc1418
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0059000000-a6337903cab01edce60e
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0239000000-994a7b97e101c455a792
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01x0-1970000000-f0e80f5cc5d6fc2b6d38

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dioxolopyrans. These are compounds containing a dioxolopyran moiety, which consists of a dioxole ring fused to a pyran ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Dioxolopyrans
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Dioxolopyrans
Alternative Parents
Ketals / Oxanes / Monosaccharides / Organic sulfuric acids and derivatives / 1,3-dioxolanes / Oxacyclic compounds / Organic oxides / Organic nitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dioxolopyran / Ketal / Oxane / Monosaccharide / Organic sulfuric acid or derivatives / Meta-dioxolane / Oxacycle / Acetal / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
cyclic ketal, sulfamate ester, ketohexose derivative (CHEBI:63631)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nowakowska E, Kus K, Czubak A, Jedrzejewska J: Memory improving and antidepressant effects of topiramate in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59(10):487-92. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296431. [PubMed:19998575]
  4. Braga MF, Aroniadou-Anderjaska V, Li H, Rogawski MA: Topiramate reduces excitability in the basolateral amygdala by selectively inhibiting GluK1 (GluR5) kainate receptors on interneurons and positively modulating GABAA receptors on principal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):558-66. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.153908. Epub 2009 May 5. [PubMed:19417176]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN1A
Uniprot ID
P35498
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Coppola G, Capovilla G, Montagnini A, Romeo A, Spano M, Tortorella G, Veggiotti P, Viri M, Pascotto A: Topiramate as add-on drug in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: an Italian multicenter open trial. Epilepsy Res. 2002 Mar;49(1):45-8. [PubMed:11948006]
  2. Ceulemans B, Cras P: "Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy". Relevance for the clinician of severe epilepsy starting in infancy. Acta Neurol Belg. 2004 Sep;104(3):95-9. [PubMed:15508261]
  3. Ceulemans B, Boel M, Claes L, Dom L, Willekens H, Thiry P, Lagae L: Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: toward an optimal treatment. J Child Neurol. 2004 Jul;19(7):516-21. [PubMed:15526956]
  4. Korff C, Laux L, Kelley K, Goldstein J, Koh S, Nordli D Jr: Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy): a retrospective study of 16 patients. J Child Neurol. 2007 Feb;22(2):185-94. [PubMed:17621480]
  5. Nieto Barrera M, Candau Fernandez Mensaque R, Nieto Jimenez M: [Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet's syndrome). Its nosological characteristics and therapeutic aspects]. Rev Neurol. 2003 Jul 1-15;37(1):64-8. [PubMed:12861512]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK1
Uniprot ID
P39086
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1
Molecular Weight
103979.665 Da
References
  1. Rogawski MA, Gryder D, Castaneda D, Yonekawa W, Banks MK, Lia H: GluR5 kainate receptors, seizures, and the amygdala. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Apr;985:150-62. [PubMed:12724156]
  2. Gryder DS, Rogawski MA: Selective antagonism of GluR5 kainate-receptor-mediated synaptic currents by topiramate in rat basolateral amygdala neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 6;23(18):7069-74. [PubMed:12904467]
  3. Kaminski RM, Banerjee M, Rogawski MA: Topiramate selectively protects against seizures induced by ATPA, a GluR5 kainate receptor agonist. Neuropharmacology. 2004 Jun;46(8):1097-104. [PubMed:15111016]
  4. Braga MF, Aroniadou-Anderjaska V, Li H, Rogawski MA: Topiramate reduces excitability in the basolateral amygdala by selectively inhibiting GluK1 (GluR5) kainate receptors on interneurons and positively modulating GABAA receptors on principal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):558-66. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.153908. Epub 2009 May 5. [PubMed:19417176]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
4. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Maryanoff BE, McComsey DF, Costanzo MJ, Hochman C, Smith-Swintosky V, Shank RP: Comparison of sulfamate and sulfamide groups for the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase-II by using topiramate as a structural platform. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 24;48(6):1941-7. [PubMed:15771438]
  2. Ma L, Huang YG, Deng YC, Tian JY, Rao ZR, Che HL, Zhang HF, Zhao G: Topiramate reduced sweat secretion and aquaporin-5 expression in sweat glands of mice. Life Sci. 2007 Jun 6;80(26):2461-8. Epub 2007 Apr 29. [PubMed:17521680]
  3. Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Winum JY, Montero JL, Pedone C, Supuran CT, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of an antiglaucoma glycosyl-sulfanilamide derivative to human isoform II and its consequences for the drug design of enzyme inhibitors incorporating sugar moieties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Mar 15;17(6):1726-31. Epub 2007 Jan 8. [PubMed:17251017]
  4. Casini A, Antel J, Abbate F, Scozzafava A, David S, Waldeck H, Schafer S, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: SAR and X-ray crystallographic study for the interaction of sugar sulfamates/sulfamides with isozymes I, II and IV. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Mar 10;13(5):841-5. [PubMed:12617904]
  5. Winum JY, Scozzafava A, Montero JL, Supuran CT: Sulfamates and their therapeutic potential. Med Res Rev. 2005 Mar;25(2):186-228. [PubMed:15478125]
Details
5. Carbonic anhydrase 4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Abbate F, Casini A, Owa T, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: E7070, a sulfonamide anticancer agent, potently inhibits cytosolic isozymes I and II, and transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme IX. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Jan 5;14(1):217-23. [PubMed:14684331]
  2. Dodgson SJ, Shank RP, Maryanoff BE: Topiramate as an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. Epilepsia. 2000;41 Suppl 1:S35-9. [PubMed:10768298]
  3. Masereel B, Rolin S, Abbate F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: anticonvulsant sulfonamides incorporating valproyl and other lipophilic moieties. J Med Chem. 2002 Jan 17;45(2):312-20. [PubMed:11784136]
  4. Vullo D, Franchi M, Gallori E, Antel J, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of mitochondrial isozyme V with aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. J Med Chem. 2004 Feb 26;47(5):1272-9. [PubMed:14971907]
Details
7. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Onishi S, Vullo D, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of the cytosolic isozyme III with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23):7229-36. Epub 2007 Aug 25. [PubMed:17826101]
Details
8. Carbonic anhydrase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA3
Uniprot ID
P07451
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Molecular Weight
29557.215 Da
References
  1. Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Onishi S, Vullo D, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of the cytosolic isozyme III with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23):7229-36. Epub 2007 Aug 25. [PubMed:17826101]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2017 21:49