Identification

Name
Fenfluramine
Accession Number
DB00574  (APRD00319)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
Description

Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, including a condition known as cardiac fibrosis.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Fenfluramina
  • Fenfluraminum
External IDs
DEA No. 1670
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Fenfluramine hydrochloride3KC089243P404-82-0ZXKXJHAOUFHNAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pondimin Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1991-12-311997-08-15Canada
Pondimin Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1996-09-231998-08-13Canada
International/Other Brands
Adifax / Ponderax / Pondimin
Categories
UNII
2DS058H2CF
CAS number
458-24-2
Weight
Average: 231.2573
Monoisotopic: 231.123484132
Chemical Formula
C12H16F3N
InChI Key
DBGIVFWFUFKIQN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H16F3N/c1-3-16-9(2)7-10-5-4-6-11(8-10)12(13,14)15/h4-6,8-9,16H,3,7H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
ethyl({1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propan-2-yl})amine
SMILES
CCNC(C)CC1=CC(=CC=C1)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

For the management of exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight reduction based on caloric restriction.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Used to treat obesity, Fenfluramine decreases caloric intake by increasing serotonin levels in the brain's synapses. Fenfluramine acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It also causes release of serotonin from the synaptosomes. This in turn increases serotonin transmission in the feeding centre of the brain which suppresses appetite.

Mechanism of action

Fenfluramine binds to the serotonin reuptake pump. This causes inhbition of serotonin uptake and release of serotonin. The increased levels of serotonin lead to greater serotonin receptor activation which in turn lead to enhancement of serotoninergic transmission in the centres of feeding behavior located in the hypothalamus. This suppresses the appetite for carbohydrates.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
agonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2ANot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Fenfluramine is well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and a maximal anorectic effect is generally seen after 2 to 4 hours.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

20 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Agitation and drowsiness, confusion, flushing, tremor (or shivering), fever, sweating, abdominal pain, hyperventilation, and dilated non-reactive pupils seem frequent in fenfluramine overdosage. Reflexes may be either exaggerated or depressed and some patients may have rotary nystagmus. Tachycardia may be present, but blood pressure may be normal or only slightly elevated. Convulsions, coma, and ventricular extrasystoles, culminating in ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest, may occur at higher dosages. Less than 5 mg/kg are toxic to humans. Five-ten mg/kg may produce coma and convulsions. Reported single overdoses have ranged from 300 to 2000 mg; the lowest reported fatal dose was a few hundred mg in a small child, and the highest reported nonfatal dose was 1800 mg in an adult. Most deaths were apparently due to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Toxic effects will appear within 30 to 60 minutes and may progress rapidly to potentially fatal complications in 90 to 240 minutes. Symptoms may persist for extended periods depending upon the dose ingested.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
AlaproclateAlaproclate may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Experimental
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alimemazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
BL-1020The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when BL-1020 is combined with Fenfluramine.Investigational
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brofaromine is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
BuspironeBuspirone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ChlorproethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorproethazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Investigational
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneEtoperidone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Fenfluramine.Approved
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Harmaline is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
MoricizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moricizine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Withdrawn
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Investigational
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PropiopromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propiopromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Vet Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineSertraline may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
ThiazinamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiazinam is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
ThiethylperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiethylperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
ZimelidineZimelidine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Barbara Galbiati, Angelo Spreafico, "Process for manufacturing 1-(3-trifluoromethyl)-phenyl-propan-2-one intermediate in the synthesis of the fenfluramine." U.S. Patent US5811586, issued August, 1965.

US5811586
General References
  1. Roth BL: Drugs and valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):6-9. [PubMed:17202450]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C06996
PubChem Compound
3337
PubChem Substance
46506096
ChemSpider
3220
BindingDB
84738
ChEBI
5000
ChEMBL
CHEMBL87493
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001478
PharmGKB
PA449592
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Fenfluramine
ATC Codes
A08AA02 — Fenfluramine
MSDS
Download (47.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1TerminatedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies / Lennox Gastaut Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDravet Syndrome2
3RecruitingTreatmentDravet Syndrome / Seizures Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral20 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)108-112 °C at 1.20E+01 mm HgNot Available
water solubility412 mg/LNot Available
logP3.36SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0215 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.3ALOGPS
logP3.47ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity59.2 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9868
Caco-2 permeable+0.7004
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5138
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5934
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7404
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8506
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6781
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8859
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8616
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7253
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5205
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5219
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6657
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8808
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6397
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.984
Rat acute toxicity3.1255 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9666
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7811
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-41a095f72665e3a6fc34
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0910000000-481b943f32db11f34ee9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b47283685814bef28517
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-68de81754e901e800d97
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-051ff0ad0ba0c9f76270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0290000000-a4eef1b513aee06fe04c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kb-2930000000-e89db6ca285f5e38a85e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-5900000000-d43b57acff766553a26a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9600000000-b49ac50c8a44403f71f6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0aor-9400000000-98167d6254e10b1cb5fe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-0900000000-8fa48db488adb62ea334
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-0970000000-f9a49d7622ec3ba9a1d4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-ab20d5fae96b357efb96
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-486062095dc4b5f9673d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-f339087f5b3e001e72e8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-7d7a0ce1b53c5f8aca3e

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenethylamines
Direct Parent
Amphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Trifluoromethylbenzenes / Phenylpropanes / Aralkylamines / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organofluorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides
Substituents
Amphetamine or derivatives / Trifluoromethylbenzene / Phenylpropane / Aralkylamine / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Alkyl fluoride / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organonitrogen compound / Organofluoride
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary amino compound, (trifluoromethyl)benzenes (CHEBI:5000)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Zolkowska D, Baumann MH: Serotonin (5-HT) transporter ligands affect plasma 5-HT in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Oct;1139:268-84. doi: 10.1196/annals.1432.042. [PubMed:18991872]
  2. Cosgrove KP, Staley JK, Baldwin RM, Bois F, Plisson C, Al-Tikriti MS, Seibyl JP, Goodman MM, Tamagnan GD: SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [123I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain. Nucl Med Biol. 2010 Jul;37(5):587-91. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.03.007. Epub 2010 May 6. [PubMed:20610163]
  3. Xie T, Tong L, McLane MW, Hatzidimitriou G, Yuan J, McCann U, Ricaurte G: Loss of serotonin transporter protein after MDMA and other ring-substituted amphetamines. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Dec;31(12):2639-51. Epub 2006 Jan 25. [PubMed:16452989]
  4. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Dunlop PC, Weir EK: The effect of the anorectic agent, d-fenfluramine, and its primary metabolite, d-norfenfluramine, on intact human platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Dec;1(12):2663-8. [PubMed:14675103]
  5. Rothman RB, Jayanthi S, Wang X, Dersch CM, Cadet JL, Prisinzano T, Rice KC, Baumann MH: High-dose fenfluramine administration decreases serotonin transporter binding, but not serotonin transporter protein levels, in rat forebrain. Synapse. 2003 Dec 1;50(3):233-9. [PubMed:14515341]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation...
Gene Name
HTR2B
Uniprot ID
P41595
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B
Molecular Weight
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Fitzgerald LW, Burn TC, Brown BS, Patterson JP, Corjay MH, Valentine PA, Sun JH, Link JR, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Largent BL, Hartig PR, Hollis GF, Meunier PC, Robichaud AJ, Robertson DW: Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):75-81. [PubMed:10617681]
  2. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Savage JE, Rauser L, McBride A, Hufeisen SJ, Roth BL: Evidence for possible involvement of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiac valvulopathy associated with fenfluramine and other serotonergic medications. Circulation. 2000 Dec 5;102(23):2836-41. [PubMed:11104741]
  3. Setola V, Hufeisen SJ, Grande-Allen KJ, Vesely I, Glennon RA, Blough B, Rothman RB, Roth BL: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") induces fenfluramine-like proliferative actions on human cardiac valvular interstitial cells in vitro. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1223-9. [PubMed:12761331]
  4. Blanpain C, Le Poul E, Parma J, Knoop C, Detheux M, Parmentier M, Vassart G, Abramowicz MJ: Serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptor loss of function mutation in a patient with fenfluramine-associated primary pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2003 Dec 1;60(3):518-28. [PubMed:14659797]
  5. Kaumann AJ, Levy FO: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in the human cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;111(3):674-706. [PubMed:16960982]
  6. Roth BL: Drugs and valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):6-9. [PubMed:17202450]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-...
Gene Name
HTR2C
Uniprot ID
P28335
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C
Molecular Weight
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Fitzgerald LW, Burn TC, Brown BS, Patterson JP, Corjay MH, Valentine PA, Sun JH, Link JR, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Largent BL, Hartig PR, Hollis GF, Meunier PC, Robichaud AJ, Robertson DW: Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):75-81. [PubMed:10617681]
  2. McCreary AC, Filip M, Cunningham KA: Discriminative stimulus properties of (+/-)-fenfluramine: the role of 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. Behav Neurosci. 2003 Apr;117(2):212-21. [PubMed:12708517]
  3. Schuhler S, Clark A, Joseph W, Patel A, Lehnen K, Stratford E, Horan TL, Fone KC, Ebling FJ: Involvement of 5-HT receptors in the regulation of food intake in Siberian hamsters. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005 May;17(5):276-85. [PubMed:15869562]
  4. Miller KJ: Serotonin 5-ht2c receptor agonists: potential for the treatment of obesity. Mol Interv. 2005 Oct;5(5):282-91. [PubMed:16249524]
  5. Nonogaki K, Nozue K, Oka Y: Hyperphagia alters expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2C and 5-HT1B receptor genes and plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels in Ay mice. Endocrinology. 2006 Dec;147(12):5893-900. Epub 2006 Sep 14. [PubMed:16973729]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Fitzgerald LW, Burn TC, Brown BS, Patterson JP, Corjay MH, Valentine PA, Sun JH, Link JR, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Largent BL, Hartig PR, Hollis GF, Meunier PC, Robichaud AJ, Robertson DW: Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):75-81. [PubMed:10617681]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Haritos VS, Ching MS, Ghabrial H, Gross AS, Taavitsainen P, Pelkonen O, Battaglia SE, Smallwood RA, Ahokas JT: Metabolism of dexfenfluramine in human liver microsomes and by recombinant enzymes: role of CYP2D6 and 1A2. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Oct;8(5):423-32. [PubMed:9825834]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 07, 2017 01:40