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Identification
NameFenfluramine
Accession NumberDB00574  (APRD00319)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsIllicit, Withdrawn
DescriptionFenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, including a condition known as cardiac fibrosis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Fenfluramina
Fenfluraminum
External Identifiers
  • DEA No. 1670
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pondimin Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1991-12-311997-08-15Canada
Pondimin Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1996-09-231998-08-13Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AdifaxNot Available
PonderaxNot Available
PondiminNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Fenfluramine hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: ZXKXJHAOUFHNAS-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 267.100161871
  • Average Mass: 267.718
DBSALT000802
Categories
UNII2DS058H2CF
CAS number458-24-2
WeightAverage: 231.2573
Monoisotopic: 231.123484132
Chemical FormulaC12H16F3N
InChI KeyDBGIVFWFUFKIQN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H16F3N/c1-3-16-9(2)7-10-5-4-6-11(8-10)12(13,14)15/h4-6,8-9,16H,3,7H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
ethyl({1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propan-2-yl})amine
SMILES
CCNC(C)CC1=CC(=CC=C1)C(F)(F)F
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the management of exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight reduction based on caloric restriction.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsUsed to treat obesity, Fenfluramine decreases caloric intake by increasing serotonin levels in the brain's synapses. Fenfluramine acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It also causes release of serotonin from the synaptosomes. This in turn increases serotonin transmission in the feeding centre of the brain which suppresses appetite.
Mechanism of actionFenfluramine binds to the serotonin reuptake pump. This causes inhbition of serotonin uptake and release of serotonin. The increased levels of serotonin lead to greater serotonin receptor activation which in turn lead to enhancement of serotoninergic transmission in the centres of feeding behavior located in the hypothalamus. This suppresses the appetite for carbohydrates.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporterProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP31645 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2BProteinyes
agonist
HumanP41595 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2CProteinyes
agonist
HumanP28335 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionFenfluramine is well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and a maximal anorectic effect is generally seen after 2 to 4 hours.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Fenfluramine
norfenfluramineDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life20 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAgitation and drowsiness, confusion, flushing, tremor (or shivering), fever, sweating, abdominal pain, hyperventilation, and dilated non-reactive pupils seem frequent in fenfluramine overdosage. Reflexes may be either exaggerated or depressed and some patients may have rotary nystagmus. Tachycardia may be present, but blood pressure may be normal or only slightly elevated. Convulsions, coma, and ventricular extrasystoles, culminating in ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest, may occur at higher dosages. Less than 5 mg/kg are toxic to humans. Five-ten mg/kg may produce coma and convulsions. Reported single overdoses have ranged from 300 to 2000 mg; the lowest reported fatal dose was a few hundred mg in a small child, and the highest reported nonfatal dose was 1800 mg in an adult. Most deaths were apparently due to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Toxic effects will appear within 30 to 60 minutes and may progress rapidly to potentially fatal complications in 90 to 240 minutes. Symptoms may persist for extended periods depending upon the dose ingested.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alimemazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
BL-1020The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when BL-1020 is combined with Fenfluramine.Investigational
BuspironeBuspirone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Investigational
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneEtoperidone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Fenfluramine.Approved
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Fenfluramine.Investigational
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
MoricizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moricizine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Withdrawn
NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Withdrawn
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Investigational
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
PropiopromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propiopromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Vet Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineSertraline may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Investigational
ThiethylperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiethylperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Fenfluramine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Fenfluramine.Approved, Vet Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Approved
ZimelidineZimelidine may increase the serotonergic activities of Fenfluramine.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.
References
Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Barbara Galbiati, Angelo Spreafico, “Process for manufacturing 1-(3-trifluoromethyl)-phenyl-propan-2-one intermediate in the synthesis of the fenfluramine.” U.S. Patent US5811586, issued August, 1965.

US5811586
General References
  1. Roth BL: Drugs and valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):6-9. [PubMed:17202450 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA08AA02
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (47.2 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9868
Caco-2 permeable+0.7004
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5138
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5934
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7404
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8506
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6781
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8859
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8616
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7253
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5205
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5219
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6657
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8808
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6397
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.984
Rat acute toxicity3.1255 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9666
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7811
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral20 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point108-112 °C at 1.20E+01 mm HgNot Available
water solubility412 mg/LNot Available
logP3.36SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0215 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.3ALOGPS
logP3.47ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity59.2 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Zolkowska D, Baumann MH: Serotonin (5-HT) transporter ligands affect plasma 5-HT in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Oct;1139:268-84. doi: 10.1196/annals.1432.042. [PubMed:18991872 ]
  2. Cosgrove KP, Staley JK, Baldwin RM, Bois F, Plisson C, Al-Tikriti MS, Seibyl JP, Goodman MM, Tamagnan GD: SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [123I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain. Nucl Med Biol. 2010 Jul;37(5):587-91. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.03.007. Epub 2010 May 6. [PubMed:20610163 ]
  3. Xie T, Tong L, McLane MW, Hatzidimitriou G, Yuan J, McCann U, Ricaurte G: Loss of serotonin transporter protein after MDMA and other ring-substituted amphetamines. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Dec;31(12):2639-51. Epub 2006 Jan 25. [PubMed:16452989 ]
  4. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Dunlop PC, Weir EK: The effect of the anorectic agent, d-fenfluramine, and its primary metabolite, d-norfenfluramine, on intact human platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Dec;1(12):2663-8. [PubMed:14675103 ]
  5. Rothman RB, Jayanthi S, Wang X, Dersch CM, Cadet JL, Prisinzano T, Rice KC, Baumann MH: High-dose fenfluramine administration decreases serotonin transporter binding, but not serotonin transporter protein levels, in rat forebrain. Synapse. 2003 Dec 1;50(3):233-9. [PubMed:14515341 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins ...
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Fitzgerald LW, Burn TC, Brown BS, Patterson JP, Corjay MH, Valentine PA, Sun JH, Link JR, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Largent BL, Hartig PR, Hollis GF, Meunier PC, Robichaud AJ, Robertson DW: Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):75-81. [PubMed:10617681 ]
  2. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Savage JE, Rauser L, McBride A, Hufeisen SJ, Roth BL: Evidence for possible involvement of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiac valvulopathy associated with fenfluramine and other serotonergic medications. Circulation. 2000 Dec 5;102(23):2836-41. [PubMed:11104741 ]
  3. Setola V, Hufeisen SJ, Grande-Allen KJ, Vesely I, Glennon RA, Blough B, Rothman RB, Roth BL: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") induces fenfluramine-like proliferative actions on human cardiac valvular interstitial cells in vitro. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1223-9. [PubMed:12761331 ]
  4. Blanpain C, Le Poul E, Parma J, Knoop C, Detheux M, Parmentier M, Vassart G, Abramowicz MJ: Serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptor loss of function mutation in a patient with fenfluramine-associated primary pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2003 Dec 1;60(3):518-28. [PubMed:14659797 ]
  5. Kaumann AJ, Levy FO: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in the human cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;111(3):674-706. [PubMed:16960982 ]
  6. Roth BL: Drugs and valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):6-9. [PubMed:17202450 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Fitzgerald LW, Burn TC, Brown BS, Patterson JP, Corjay MH, Valentine PA, Sun JH, Link JR, Abbaszade I, Hollis JM, Largent BL, Hartig PR, Hollis GF, Meunier PC, Robichaud AJ, Robertson DW: Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):75-81. [PubMed:10617681 ]
  2. McCreary AC, Filip M, Cunningham KA: Discriminative stimulus properties of (+/-)-fenfluramine: the role of 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. Behav Neurosci. 2003 Apr;117(2):212-21. [PubMed:12708517 ]
  3. Schuhler S, Clark A, Joseph W, Patel A, Lehnen K, Stratford E, Horan TL, Fone KC, Ebling FJ: Involvement of 5-HT receptors in the regulation of food intake in Siberian hamsters. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005 May;17(5):276-85. [PubMed:15869562 ]
  4. Miller KJ: Serotonin 5-ht2c receptor agonists: potential for the treatment of obesity. Mol Interv. 2005 Oct;5(5):282-91. [PubMed:16249524 ]
  5. Nonogaki K, Nozue K, Oka Y: Hyperphagia alters expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2C and 5-HT1B receptor genes and plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels in Ay mice. Endocrinology. 2006 Dec;147(12):5893-900. Epub 2006 Sep 14. [PubMed:16973729 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Haritos VS, Ching MS, Ghabrial H, Gross AS, Taavitsainen P, Pelkonen O, Battaglia SE, Smallwood RA, Ahokas JT: Metabolism of dexfenfluramine in human liver microsomes and by recombinant enzymes: role of CYP2D6 and 1A2. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Oct;8(5):423-32. [PubMed:9825834 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23