Identification

Name
Levetiracetam
Accession Number
DB01202  (APRD01068)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. Levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Levetiracetam
  • Levetiracetame
  • Levetiracetamum
  • Levitiracetam
External IDs
N03AX14 / UCB 22059 / UCB L059 / UCB-22059 / UCB-L059
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Abbott-levetiracetamTablet500 mgOralAbbott2014-05-302015-12-31Canada
Abbott-levetiracetamTablet750 mgOralAbbott2014-05-302015-12-31Canada
Abbott-levetiracetamTablet250 mgOralAbbott2014-05-302015-12-31Canada
Act LevetiracetamTablet750 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2005-12-07Not applicableCanada
Act LevetiracetamTablet250 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2005-12-07Not applicableCanada
Act LevetiracetamTablet500 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2005-12-07Not applicableCanada
Auro-levetiracetamTablet250 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-02-14Not applicableCanada
Auro-levetiracetamTablet500 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-03-15Not applicableCanada
Auro-levetiracetamTablet750 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2012-02-14Not applicableCanada
Ava-levetiracetamTablet750 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-levetiracetamTablet500 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-10-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-levetiracetamTablet750 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-10-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-levetiracetamTablet250 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-10-20Not applicableCanada
LevetiracetamTablet, film coated500 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2017-05-18Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamTablet750 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2009-10-15Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamTablet, film coated750 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2009-01-01Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamSolution100 mg/mLOralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-10-27Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamTablet, film coated500 mg/1OralCamber Pharmaceuticals2012-01-09Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamTablet, film coated750 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2013-02-28Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamTablet, film coated500 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-07-26Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LevetiracetamInjection5 mg/mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2017-11-07Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamInjection10 mg/mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2017-11-07Not applicableUs
LevetiracetamInjection15 mg/mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2017-11-07Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
44YRR34555
CAS number
102767-28-2
Weight
Average: 170.212
Monoisotopic: 170.105527699
Chemical Formula
C8H14N2O2
InChI Key
HPHUVLMMVZITSG-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H14N2O2/c1-2-6(8(9)12)10-5-3-4-7(10)11/h6H,2-5H2,1H3,(H2,9,12)/t6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide
SMILES
CC[[email protected]](N1CCCC1=O)C(N)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism(s) by which levetiracetam exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown. The antiepileptic activity of levetiracetam was assessed in a number of animal models of epileptic seizures. Levetiracetam did not inhibit single seizures induced by maximal stimulation with electrical current or different chemoconvulsants and showed only minimal activity in submaximal stimulation and in threshold tests. Protection was observed, however, against secondarily generalized activity from focal seizures induced by pilocarpine and kainic acid, two chemoconvulsants that induce seizures that mimic some features of human complex partial seizures with secondary generalization. Levetiracetam also displayed inhibitory properties in the kindling model in rats, another model of human complex partial seizures, both during kindling development and in the fully kindled state. The predictive value of these animal models for specific types of human epilepsy is uncertain. Levetiracetam is thought to stimulate synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), inhibiting neurotransmitter release.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A
agonist
Human
AVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration (99%). Peak plasma concentrations occurring in about an hour following oral administration in fasted subjects.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Very low (<10%)

Metabolism

The major metabolic pathway of levetiracetam (24% of dose) is an enzymatic hydrolysis of the acetamide group. No CYP450 metabolism detected.

Route of elimination

Sixty-six percent (66%) of the dose is renally excreted unchanged. The metabolites have no known pharmacological activity and are renally excreted. The mechanism of excretion is glomerular filtration with subsequent partial tubular reabsorption.

Half life

6-8 hours

Clearance
  • 0.96 mL/min/kg
Toxicity

Side effects include aggression, agitation, coma, drowsiness, reduced consciousness, slowed breathing

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adipiplon is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Allopregnanolone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphaprodine is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benperidol is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromisoval is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromperidol is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canertinib is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clemastine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobazam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopenthixol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clothiapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deramciclane is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desipramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethyl ether is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dixyrazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecopipam is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eltanolone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EthanolLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Levetiracetam.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl chloride is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluanisone is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gepirone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
HydrocodoneLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indiplon is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loprazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lormetazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebicar is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levetiracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meptazinol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Levetiracetam.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Levetiracetam.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MethotrimeprazineLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylecgonine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MetyrosineLevetiracetam may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levetiracetam can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrineLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxethazaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ParaldehydeLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penfluridol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenazocine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenibut is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoperidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piritramide is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleLevetiracetam may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propanidid is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proxibarbal is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinisocaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Raclopride is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritanserin is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
RopiniroleLevetiracetam may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
RotigotineLevetiracetam may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sepranolone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sultopride is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
SuvorexantLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tandospirone is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levetiracetam.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrahydropalmatine is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Levetiracetam.Investigational
ThalidomideLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiapride is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tilidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tricaine methanesulfonate is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichloroethylene is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluperidol is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Veralipride is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinyl ether is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xenon is combined with Levetiracetam.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Levetiracetam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Food does not affect bioavailabilty.

References

Synthesis Reference

Tooru Futagawa, Jean-Pierre Canvat, Emile Cavoy, Michel Deleers, Michel Hamende, Vincent Zimmermann, "Process for the preparation of levetiracetam." U.S. Patent US6107492, issued September, 1996.

US6107492
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00709
KEGG Compound
C07841
PubChem Compound
5284583
PubChem Substance
46508406
ChemSpider
4447633
BindingDB
50422542
ChEBI
6437
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1286
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000502
PharmGKB
PA450206
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levetiracetam
ATC Codes
N03AX14 — Levetiracetam
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92 — Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAphasia / Strokes1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers6
1CompletedBasic ScienceEpilepsies1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentBenign Childhood Epilepsy With Centro-Temporal Spikes1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentSeizures1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Fetus or Newborn / Seizures1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Malaria, Cerebral / Seizures1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSeizures1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSeizures / Term Neonates1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTremor, Essential1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2CompletedNot AvailableCranial Dystonia / Oromandibular Dystonia1
2CompletedNot AvailableDyskinesia, Medication-Induced1
2CompletedNot AvailableIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedNot AvailablePostherpetic Neuralgia1
2CompletedBasic ScienceMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2CompletedPreventionEpilepsies / Post-Traumatic Seizure Disorder1
2CompletedSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Seizures1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Anxiety Disorders / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Panic Disorders / Social Phobia1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Motor Neurone Disease / Primary Lateral Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine / Opioid Dependence / Opioid Dependency1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies6
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Malaria, Cerebral / Seizures1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Partial onset seizure Epilepsy1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
2CompletedTreatmentGrand Mal Status Epilepticus1
2CompletedTreatmentPhotosensitive Epilepsy1
2CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2CompletedTreatmentSeizure, Absence1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2SuspendedTreatmentCervical Dystonia1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDependence, Cocaine / Opioid Dependency1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLevodopa Induced Dyskinesia (LID)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentSeizure, Alcohol Related1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
2WithdrawnOtherPsychosis / Schizo Affective Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdverse Effects / Epilepsy, Localization Related1
3CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsy, Generalized1
3CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsy, Localization Related3
3CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsy, Tonic-Clonic1
3CompletedNot AvailableGeneralized Convulsive Epilepsy1
3CompletedPreventionAlcohol Dependence / Alcoholic Relapse1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies7
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Grand mal Generalized tonic-clonic seizure3
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Partial1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Partial onset seizure Epilepsy4
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Generalized1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related4
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Tonic-Clonic1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Convulsive Epilepsy1
3CompletedTreatmentPanic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentStatus; Epilepticus, Tonic-clonic1
3CompletedTreatmentTardive Dyskinesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPartial onset seizure Epilepsy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatment: Acute intraCerebral Haemorrhage1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPartial onset seizure Epilepsy1
3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEpilepsies1
3RecruitingTreatmentBenzodiazepine Refractory Status Epilepticus1
3TerminatedPreventionPost-Traumatic Seizure Disorder1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentDrug Resistant / Epilepsies1
3TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures1
3TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
3Unknown StatusPreventionSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentSeizures, Epileptic / Strokes1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies / Refractory seizure disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsy, Localization Related2
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Impaired Renal Function1
4CompletedPreventionManic State Associated With Corticosteroid Use / Memory Loss Associated With Corticosteroid Use1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
4CompletedTreatmentBody Dysmorphic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies8
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Primary Brain Tumors1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related4
4CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome / Tic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentGrand mal Generalized tonic-clonic seizure1
4CompletedTreatmentPainful Polyneuropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEpilepsies1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGliomas1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSeizures / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4RecruitingSupportive CareIntracranial Aneurysms / Seizures1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeonatal Convulsions1
4TerminatedTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms / Seizures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCSWS / Subclinical Sleep-Activated Epileptiform Activity1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareSeizures / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
4WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Seizures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies / Seizures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Drug Abuse1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChildhood Absence Epilepsy / Epilepsies / Seizures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPremenstrual Dysphoric Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSeizures4
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cyanide Poisoning / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / GYNAECOLOGICAL INFECTION / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertensive / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombosis / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBrain Cancer / Cancer of Brain / Cancer of the Brain / Neoplasms, Brain / Seizures1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpileptic Encephalopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnoxic Encephalopathy / Cardiac Arrest / Refractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHaematological disorders / Haemoglobinopathies congenital / Immunodeficiencies1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableNeonatal Convulsions1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAdults With Tonic Clonic Seizures and/or Partial Seizures1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies2
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Seizures / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1500 mg/1
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous100 mg/mL
TabletOral1000 mg/1
TabletOral250 mg
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral750 mg
TabletOral750 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous10 mg/mL
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/mL
InjectionIntravenous15 mg/mL
InjectionIntravenous5 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1000 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1500 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 mg/5mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous500 mg/5mL
SolutionOral100 mg/mL
SolutionOral1000 mg/10mL
SolutionOral1500 mg/15mL
SolutionOral500 mg/5mL
TabletOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1000 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral250 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral750 mg
TabletOral250 mg/1
TabletOral1000 mg
Tablet, for suspensionOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, for suspensionOral250 mg/1
Tablet, for suspensionOral500 mg/1
Tablet, for suspensionOral750 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Keppra 500 mg/5 ml vial9.28USD ml
Keppra 1000 mg tablet9.01USD tablet
Levetiracetam 1000 mg tablet7.18USD tablet
Keppra xr 750 mg tablet6.46USD tablet
Keppra xr 500 mg tablet6.43USD tablet
Keppra 500 mg tablet5.09USD tablet
Levetiracetam 750 mg tablet4.86USD tablet
Keppra 750 mg tablet4.74USD tablet
Keppra XR 500 mg 24 Hour tablet4.47USD tablet
Keppra 250 mg tablet3.62USD tablet
Levetiracetam 500 mg tablet3.59USD tablet
Levetiracetam 250 mg tablet2.93USD tablet
Apo-Levetiracetam 750 mg Tablet1.7USD tablet
Co Levetiracetam 750 mg Tablet1.7USD tablet
Pms-Levetiracetam 750 mg Tablet1.7USD tablet
Apo-Levetiracetam 500 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Co Levetiracetam 500 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Pms-Levetiracetam 500 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Apo-Levetiracetam 250 mg Tablet1.01USD tablet
Co Levetiracetam 250 mg Tablet1.01USD tablet
Pms-Levetiracetam 250 mg Tablet1.01USD tablet
Keppra 100 mg/ml Solution0.95USD ml
Levetiracetam 100 mg/ml Solution0.68USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8802142Yes2011-12-072031-12-07Us
US7858122No2008-09-172028-09-17Us
US6471992No1998-02-202018-02-20Us
US9463160No1998-02-202018-02-20Us
US9669009No2014-03-142034-03-14Us
US9339489No2014-03-142034-03-14Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility298.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.64ALOGPS
logP-0.59ChemAxon
logS0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity44.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.79 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.988
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9821
Caco-2 permeable-0.6114
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5137
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5612
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8786
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7024
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8801
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8184
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5191
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9394
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7603
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9471
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8459
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9669
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9502
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8783
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9094
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9305
Rat acute toxicity2.1707 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9206
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8735
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Pyrrolidine-2-ones / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Fatty amides / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Primary carboxylic acid amides / Lactams / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 2 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Fatty amide / Pyrrolidone / 2-pyrrolidone / Fatty acyl / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine / Tertiary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxamide group / Lactam
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
pyrrolidin-2-ones (CHEBI:6437)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays a role in the control of regulated secretion in neural and endocrine cells, enhancing selectively low-frequency neurotransmission. Positively regulates vesicle fusion by maintaining the readi...
Gene Name
SV2A
Uniprot ID
Q7L0J3
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A
Molecular Weight
82694.665 Da
References
  1. Lynch BA, Lambeng N, Nocka K, Kensel-Hammes P, Bajjalieh SM, Matagne A, Fuks B: The synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is the binding site for the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 29;101(26):9861-6. Epub 2004 Jun 21. [PubMed:15210974]
  2. Stahl SM: Psychopharmacology of anticonvulsants: levetiracetam as a synaptic vesicle protein modulator. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;65(9):1162-3. [PubMed:15367040]
  3. Lambeng N, Grossmann M, Chatelain P, Fuks B: Solubilization and immunopurification of rat brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with maintained binding properties. Neurosci Lett. 2006 May 1;398(1-2):107-12. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434140]
  4. Gillard M, Chatelain P, Fuks B: Binding characteristics of levetiracetam to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) in human brain and in CHO cells expressing the human recombinant protein. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Apr 24;536(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16556440]
  5. Newton HB, Dalton J, Goldlust S, Pearl D: Retrospective analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in patients with metastatic brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 2007 Sep;84(3):293-6. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17431542]
  6. Johannessen Landmark C: Antiepileptic drugs in non-epilepsy disorders: relations between mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CNS Drugs. 2008;22(1):27-47. [PubMed:18072813]
  7. De Smedt T, Raedt R, Vonck K, Boon P: Levetiracetam: the profile of a novel anticonvulsant drug-part I: preclinical data. CNS Drug Rev. 2007 Spring;13(1):43-56. [PubMed:17461889]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID
Q00975
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
Molecular Weight
262493.84 Da
References
  1. De Smedt T, Raedt R, Vonck K, Boon P: Levetiracetam: the profile of a novel anticonvulsant drug-part I: preclinical data. CNS Drug Rev. 2007 Spring;13(1):43-56. [PubMed:17461889]
  2. Lukyanetz EA, Shkryl VM, Kostyuk PG: Selective blockade of N-type calcium channels by levetiracetam. Epilepsia. 2002 Jan;43(1):9-18. [PubMed:11879381]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309]
  2. Luna-Tortos C, Fedrowitz M, Loscher W: Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Dec;55(8):1364-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.08.032. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18824002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34