General Surgery

Also known as: Surgery / Surgery, General / Operation / Operation NOS / Surgical procedure / Surgical Procedures, Operative

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00673AprepitantAprepitant, an antiemetic, is a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist which, in combination with other antiemetic agents, is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Aprepitant is a selective high-affinity antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. Aprepitant has little or no affinity for serotonin (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors, the targets of existing therapies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CI NV).
DB00612BisoprololBisoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. Bisoprolol is structurally similar to metoprolol, acebutolol and atenolol in that it has two substituents in the para position of the benzene ring. The β1-selectivity of these agents is thought to be due in part to the large substituents in the para position. At lower doses (less than 20 mg daily), bisoprolol selectively blocks cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors with little activity against β2-adrenergic receptors of the lungs and vascular smooth muscle. Receptor selectivity decreases with daily doses of 20 mg or greater. Unlike propranolol and pindolol, bisoprolol does not exhibit membrane-stabilizing or sympathomimetic activity. Bisoprolol possesses a single chiral centre and is administered as a racemic mixture. Only l-bisoprolol exhibits significant β-blocking activity.
DB01112CefuroximeBroad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, gonorrhea, and haemophilus. [PubChem]
DB00475ChlordiazepoxideAn anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
DB00477ChlorpromazineThe prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class, chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking dopamine receptors. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
DB06779DalteparinDalteparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) prepared by nitrous acid degradation of unfractionated heparin of porcine intestinal mucosa origin, is an anticoagulant. It is composed of strongly acidic sulphated polysaccharide chains with an average molecular weight of 5000 and about 90% of the material within the range of 2000-9000. LMWHs have a more predictable response, a greater bioavailability, and a longer anti-Xa half life than unfractionated heparin. Dalteparin can also be safely used in most pregnant women. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.
DB00303ErtapenemErtapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz®. It is structurally very similar to meropenem in that it possess a 1-beta-methyl group. [Wikipedia]
DB09222Fibrinogen HumanFibrinogen concentrate (human) is a hematological agent. It works by replacing a certain protein in the blood that helps with blood clotting. Fibrinogen (factor I) is a soluble plasma glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 340 kDa. It is a physiological substrate for three enzymes: plasmin, factor XIIIa and thrombin. it is indicated for the treatment of acute bleeding episodes in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiency, including afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia.
DB00986GlycopyrroniumGlycopyrronium (as the bromide salt glycopyrrolate) is a synthetic anticholinergic agent with a quaternary ammonium structure. A muscarinic competitive antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics. In October 2015, glycopyrrolate was approved by the FDA for use as a standalone treatment for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as Seebri Neohaler.
DB00889GranisetronA serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic and antinauseant for cancer chemotherapy patients. [PubChem]
DB01109HeparinUnfractionated heparin (UH) is a heterogenous preparation of anionic, sulfated glycosaminoglycan polymers with weights ranging from 3000 to 30,000 Da. It is a naturally occurring anticoagulant released from mast cells. It binds reversibly to antithrombin III (ATIII) and greatly accelerates the rate at which ATIII inactivates coagulation enzymes thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa. UH is different from low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the following ways: the average molecular weight of LMWH is about 4.5 kDa whereas it is 15 kDa for UH; UH requires continuous infusions; activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) monitoring is required when using UH; and UH has a higher risk of bleeding and higher risk of osteoporosis in long term use. Unfractionated heparin is more specific than LMWH for thrombin. Furthermore, the effects of UH can typically be reversed by using protamine sulfate.
DB01137LevofloxacinA synthetic fluoroquinolone (fluoroquinolones) antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA gyrase, halting DNA replication.
DB08813NadroparinNadroparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) which, when bound to antithrombin III (ATIII), accelerates the inactivation of factor II and factor Xa. Nadroparin halts the coagulation pathway by inhibiting the activation of thrombin (factor IIa) by factor Xa. The amplification of the fibrin clotting cascade is stopped once factors Xa and IIa are inactivated. It is derived from porcine sources and has a mean molecular size of 5000 daltons. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.
DB00085PancrelipasePancrelipase, in general, is composed of a mixture of pancreatic enzymes which include amylases, lipases, and proteases. These enzymes are extracted from porcine pancreatic glands.[L2509] The pancrelipase mixture was developed by Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc and FDA approved on April 12, 2010.[L2510] For further information on the components of this mixture please visit [DB11065], [DB11066] and [DB13147].
DB06822TinzaparinTinzaparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), produced by enzymatic depolymerization of unfractionated heparin from porcine intestinal mucosa. It is a heterogeneous mixture of with an average molecular weight between 5500 and 7500 daltons. Tinzaparin is composed of molecules with and without a special site for high affinity binding to antithrombin III (ATIII). This complex greatly accelerates the inhibition of factor Xa. It is an anticoagulant and considered an antithrombotic. Tinzaparin must be given either subcutaneously or parenterally. LMWHs are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.
DB00662TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide is a novel antiemetic which prevents nausea and vomiting in humans. Its actions are unclear but most likely involves the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). In dogs pretreated with trimethobenzamide HCl, the emetic response to apomorphine is inhibited, while little or no protection is afforded against emesis induced by intragastric copper sulfate.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00673AprepitantSubstance-P receptortarget
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00612BisoprololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00612BisoprololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00612BisoprololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00612BisoprololCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01112CefuroximePenicillin-binding protein 1Atarget
DB01112CefuroximeSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01112CefuroximeSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00475ChlordiazepoxideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00475ChlordiazepoxideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00475ChlordiazepoxideGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00477ChlorpromazineSerum albumincarrier
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00477ChlorpromazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00477ChlorpromazineSphingomyelin phosphodiesterasetarget
DB00477Chlorpromazinealpha1-acid glycoproteintarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00477ChlorpromazineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00477ChlorpromazineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB06779DalteparinVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
DB06779DalteparinTissue factor pathway inhibitortarget
DB00303ErtapenemPenicillin-binding protein 2target
DB00303ErtapenemPeptidoglycan synthase FtsItarget
DB00303ErtapenemPenicillin-binding protein 1Atarget
DB00303ErtapenemD-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacCtarget
DB00303ErtapenemD-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacBtarget
DB00303ErtapenemPenicillin-binding protein 1Btarget
DB00303ErtapenemPeptidoglycan synthase FtsItarget
DB00303ErtapenemPenicillin-binding protein 2target
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00986GlycopyrroniumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00889Granisetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01109HeparinCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 19target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 2target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 2target
DB01109HeparinPlatelet factor 4target
DB01109HeparinHepatocyte growth factortarget
DB01137LevofloxacinDNA gyrase subunit Atarget
DB01137LevofloxacinDNA topoisomerase 4 subunit Atarget
DB01137LevofloxacinDNA topoisomerase 2-alphatarget
DB01137LevofloxacinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01137LevofloxacinSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01137LevofloxacinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01137LevofloxacinSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01137LevofloxacinSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01137LevofloxacinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08813NadroparinProto-oncogene c-Fostarget
DB08813NadroparinMyc proto-oncogene proteintarget
DB00085PancrelipaseDietary fattarget
DB00085PancrelipaseDietary proteintarget
DB00085PancrelipaseDietary starchtarget
DB06822TinzaparinA disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4enzyme
DB06822TinzaparinIntegrin alpha-4target
DB06822TinzaparinStromal cell-derived factor 1target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00297Bupivacaine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01327Cefazolin1 / 2Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone1 / 2Recruiting1
DB09374Indocyanine green acid form1 / 2Enrolling by Invitation1
DB09287Polyethylene glycol1 / 2Completed1
DB11077Polyethylene glycol 4001 / 2Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00297Bupivacaine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01164Calcium Chloride2Completed1
DB04398Lactic Acid2Completed1
DB00295Morphine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00761Potassium Chloride2Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Recruiting1
DB00302Tranexamic Acid2Recruiting1
DB00513Aminocaproic Acid2 / 3Completed1
DB06196Icatibant2 / 3Completed1
DB00465Ketorolac2 / 3Completed1
DB00526Oxaliplatin2 / 3Recruiting1
DB01101Capecitabine3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00569Fondaparinux sodium3Completed1
DB02325Isopropyl Alcohol3Completed1
DB00526Oxaliplatin3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00296Ropivacaine3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Recruiting1
DB00302Tranexamic Acid3Completed1
DB00302Tranexamic Acid3Recruiting1
DB00335Atenolol4Unknown Status1
DB01076Atorvastatin4Unknown Status1
DB00921Buprenorphine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Withdrawn1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01225Enoxaparin4Unknown Status1
DB09106Hydroxyethyl Starch4Completed1
DB00047Insulin Glargine4Completed1
DB01183Naloxone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB03088Pidolic Acid4Completed1
DB00728Rocuronium4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Completed2
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Recruiting2
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Withdrawn1
DB09422Soybean oil4Recruiting1
DB06206Sugammadex4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB06206Sugammadex4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00302Tranexamic Acid4Recruiting1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00479AmikacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00297BupivacaineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01190ClindamycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01189DesfluraneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00633DexmedetomidineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00514DextromethorphanNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00586DiclofenacNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00586DiclofenacNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01075DiphenhydramineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01225EnoxaparinNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00016ErythropoietinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB13961Fish oilNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00301FlucloxacillinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00327HydromorphoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00760MeropenemNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00844NalbuphineNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB00788NaproxenNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00788NaproxenNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00994NeomycinNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00622NicardipineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00104OctreotideNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00526OxaliplatinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00497OxycodoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00497OxycodoneNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00388PhenylephrineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00728RocuroniumNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00728RocuroniumNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB01236SevofluraneNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01236SevofluraneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00202SuccinylcholineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00193TramadolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00193TramadolNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00302Tranexamic AcidNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB12661UrapidilNot AvailableRecruiting2