Identification

Name
Bupivacaine
Accession Number
DB00297  (APRD00247)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A widely used local anesthetic agent. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (±)-bupivacaine
  • (RS)-bupivacaine
  • 1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • 1-Butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Bupivacaina
  • Bupivacainum
  • dl-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • DL-Bupivacaine
  • racemic bupivacaine
External IDs
DUR-843 / LAC-43 / SKY-0402 / SKY0402
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Bupivacaine hydrochlorideAKA908P8J118010-40-7SIEYLFHKZGLBNX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Bupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate7TQO7W3VT873360-54-0HUCIWBPMHXGLFM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine Heavy Injection BPSolution15 mgIntraspinalAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2006-04-262016-11-01Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2006-05-302015-10-01Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride In Dextrose Injection USPSolution7.5 mgIntraspinalSterimax Inc2018-03-13Not applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution2.5 mgInfiltrationMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution5 mgEpidural; InfiltrationMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution5 mgInfiltrationMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution2.5 mgEpidural; InfiltrationMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution7.5 mgEpidural; RetrobulbarMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection USP .25%Solution2.5 mgEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalHospira, Inc.1996-07-302011-08-05Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BupivacaineInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLSubarachnoidHospira, Inc.2005-01-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2016-05-13Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLIntraspinalBaxter Laboratories2016-08-08Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-04-012015-04-01Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; RetrobulbarAuro Medics Pharma Llc2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-07Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-07Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2005-06-08Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; IntracaudalAuro Medics Pharma Llc2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2004-11-302018-06-01Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BlBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1)KitSa3, Llc2015-07-012017-12-01Us
BtBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1) + Triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/1mL)KitSa3, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HCl 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 InjectionBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg)SolutionInfiltrationNovocol Inc.2012-05-07Not applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health1988-06-16Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionPerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-07-26Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionDental; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-04-252011-01-01Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-06-15Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionInfiltration; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-11-29Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health1988-06-16Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2011-08-012015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-05-232006-05-23Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-08-092006-08-09Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (7.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2007-03-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-05-232006-05-23Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (7.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2007-03-31Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bupivan (Sun) / Carbostesin (AstraZeneca) / Marcain (AstraZeneca) / Marcaina (AstraZeneca) / Sensorcaine-MPF (Astra Zeneca)
Categories
UNII
Y8335394RO
CAS number
38396-39-3
Weight
Average: 288.4277
Monoisotopic: 288.220163528
Chemical Formula
C18H28N2O
InChI Key
LEBVLXFERQHONN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H28N2O/c1-4-5-12-20-13-7-6-11-16(20)18(21)19-17-14(2)9-8-10-15(17)3/h8-10,16H,4-7,11-13H2,1-3H3,(H,19,21)
IUPAC Name
1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
SMILES
CCCCN1CCCCC1C(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C

Pharmacology

Indication

For the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Bupivacaine is a widely used local anesthetic agent. Bupivacaine is often administered by spinal injection prior to total hip arthroplasty. It is also commonly injected into surgical wound sites to reduce pain for up to 20 hours after surgery. In comparison to other local anesthetics it has a long duration of action. It is also the most toxic to the heart when administered in large doses. This problem has led to the use of other long-acting local anaesthetics:ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Levobupivacaine is a derivative, specifically an enantiomer, of bupivacaine. Systemic absorption of local anesthetics produces effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. At blood concentrations achieved with therapeutic doses, changes in cardiac conduction, excitability, refractoriness, contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance are minimal. However, toxic blood concentrations depress cardiac conduction and excitability, which may lead to atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias and to cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in fatalities. In addition, myocardial contractility is depressed and peripheral vasodilation occurs, leading to decreased cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. Following systemic absorption, local anesthetics can produce central nervous system stimulation, depression or both.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as bupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. Bupivacaine binds to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocks sodium influx into nerve cells, which prevents depolarization. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone. The analgesic effects of Bupivicaine are thought to potentially be due to its binding to the prostaglandin E2 receptors, subtype EP1 (PGE2EP1), which inhibits the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing fever, inflammation, and hyperalgesia.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
UProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
other/unknown
Human
Absorption

The rate of systemic absorption of local anesthetics is dependent upon the total dose and concentration of drug administered, the route of administration, the vascularity of the administration site, and the presence or absence of epinephrine in the anesthetic solution.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

95%

Metabolism

Amide-type local anesthetics such as bupivacaine are metabolized primarily in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid. The major metabolite of bupivacaine is 2,6-pipecoloxylidine, which is mainly catalyzed via cytochrome P450 3A4.

Route of elimination

Only 6% of bupivacaine is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Half life

2.7 hours in adults and 8.1 hours in neonates

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The mean seizure dosage of bupivacaine in rhesus monkeys was found to be 4.4 mg/kg with mean arterial plasma concentration of 4.5 mcg/mL. The intravenous and subcutaneous LD 50 in mice is 6 to 8 mg/kg and 38 to 54 mg/kg respectively. Recent clinical data from patients experiencing local anesthetic induced convulsions demonstrated rapid development of hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis with bupivacaine within a minute of the onset of convulsions. These observations suggest that oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are greatly increased during local anesthetic convulsions and emphasize the importance of immediate and effective ventilation with oxygen which may avoid cardiac arrest.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Bupivacaine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Bupivacaine.
7-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 7-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Bupivacaine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Thuresson, B. and Egner, B.P.H.; U.S. Patent 2,792,399; May 14, 1957; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden. Thuresson, B. and Pettersson, B.G.; US. Patent 2,955.1 11; October 4,1960; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden.

US2955111
General References
  1. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovich CJ, Eisenkraft JB: Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul;105(1):217-8. [PubMed:16810015]
  2. Picard J, Meek T: Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob. Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):107-9. [PubMed:16430560]
  3. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014442
KEGG Compound
C07529
PubChem Compound
2474
PubChem Substance
46506768
ChemSpider
2380
BindingDB
50350790
ChEBI
77431
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1098
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001229
PharmGKB
PA135057240
IUPHAR
2397
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Bupivacaine
ATC Codes
N01BB01 — BupivacaineN01BB51 — Bupivacaine, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (147 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0CompletedNot AvailableTibial Plateau Fracture1
0CompletedOtherCaudal epidural block therapy1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes1
0CompletedTreatmentChronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain in ankle and foot1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticVasoplegia1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
0RecruitingTreatmentPain1
0RecruitingTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache1
0TerminatedOtherPain1
0Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative pain1
1CompletedNot AvailableSafety of Neosaxitoxin in Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain, Acute1
1CompletedDiagnosticCaudal Block1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoarctation of the Aorta1
1CompletedOtherHernioplasty1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Management1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentCerebral Vasospasm1
1CompletedTreatmentEffect Increased1
1CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease) / Pain Management1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentLower Abdominal Surgery1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1RecruitingOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Local Anesthesia1
1RecruitingSupportive CareCancer of Pancreas / Cancer of the Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pancreas Neoplasms1
1RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management2
1TerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
1Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative pain1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers / Postoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentFoley Catheter Discomfort / Prostate Cancer / Robotic Prostatectomy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentLower Extremity Fractures1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPosterior Fossa Tumors1
2CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
2CompletedOtherHernioplasty1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
2CompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionHeadaches1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedSupportive CareCholesteatoma / Cochlear Implants / Mastoidectomy / Tympanomastoid Surgery1
2CompletedSupportive CareIncisional Hernias / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias / Ventral Hernias1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain3
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia in Patients With Inguinal Herniorrhaphy1
2CompletedTreatmentBunions1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Herniorrhaphy / Regional Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
2CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Tooth Extractions1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Local Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Block / General Surgery / Thoracic Injury1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCaudal Block1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareReferred Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty / Knee / Replacement1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDecrease Discharge Time Status Post Hemmoriodectomy / Return of Motor and Sensory Blockade / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
2RecruitingDiagnosticPain1
2RecruitingPreventionCleft Palates1
2RecruitingPreventionForearm Surgeries1
2RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Orcheopexy1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes / Vasomotor Symptoms2
2RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentInjuries, Ankle1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Postoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentLacrimation increased / Procidentia1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentAppendicitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentBenign Headache1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2Unknown StatusDiagnosticPersistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Surgery1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
2, 3CompletedPreventionRecovery After Cleft Palate Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain6
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Opioid Dependence / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Diseases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentEsotropia / Exotropia / Graves Diseases / Nystagmus / Strabismus1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionShoulder Surgery1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCREST Syndrome / Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) / Raynaud's Disease1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis of Hip1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDegenerative Arthritis / Degenerative Joint Disease / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Osteoarthrosis Deformans1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionEpidural; Anesthesia / Spinal Anaesthesia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionAnalgesia2
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedSupportive CareHemorrhoids1
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Surgeries / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentBunions / Hallux Valgus1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
3CompletedTreatmentFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Migraines1
3CompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colecctomy1
3CompletedTreatmentPain2
3CompletedTreatmentPain Control1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
3CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticCancer, Breast / Pain / Pain, Neuropathic1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Coronary Artery Stenoses / Valve Regurgitation, Mitral / Valve Regurgitation, Tricuspid1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Renal Stones1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
3RecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle / Local Infiltration / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingPreventionLabour Pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareBreast - Female1
3RecruitingSupportive CareLaparoscopic TAP Block in TEP Inguinal Hernia Repair1
3RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Pain / Pregnant Women1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreech Presentation1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentDiseases of Liver1
3RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
3RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Post Operative Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3TerminatedSupportive CarePain1
3TerminatedTreatmentInjury of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
3TerminatedTreatmentPain1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
3WithdrawnPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareCesarean Delivery1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture of Lower Limb1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDisorder of Rotator Cuff / Disorder of Shoulder / Disorder of Tendon of Biceps / Injury of Shoulder Region / Shoulder Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
3WithdrawnTreatmentLabour Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic Disorder of Spine1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherTonsillectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPain1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareArthritis of Hip1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArthritis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain2
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedNot AvailableHemorrhoids / Peri Anal Fistula1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain1
4CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePeriarticular Block / Serum Bupivacaine Level / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchRetraction of Colostomy1
4CompletedOtherPain1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Bupivacaine / Hip Pain Chronic1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia / Toxicity1
4CompletedPreventionApplication Site Discomfort / Medical Device Discomfort1
4CompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionRetinal Detachment / Retinoschisis / Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m2 / General Surgery / Neuromuscular Inhibition / Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCaudal Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Post-Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareLumbar Spine Disc Herniation1
4CompletedSupportive CareObstetric Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareThe Duration of Motor Block for Sciatic Block Following TKR May Vary Between 12-36 Hrs Depending on the Amount of Local Anesthetic Given1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal/ Donor Site / DIEP or Free MS-TRAM Breast Reconstruction / Local Pain Management / Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block Catheter1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Early Ambulation / Pain Management / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAmputation Stumps / Neuroma1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia After ACL Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postsurgical Pain / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkle Arthrodesis / Hindfoot Arthrodesis / Tibitalocalceal Arthrodesis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cardiac Output / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee Joint / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Complications; Arthroplasty / Knee Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentAtypical Facial Pain / Typical Facial Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBrachial Plexus Blockade1
4CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Intractable1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentClosed Fracture of Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture of Shoulder and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHernia1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Injuries / Painful musculoskeletal conditions1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInternal Derangement of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Post Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentMeniscus Lesion1
4CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4CompletedTreatmentNasal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip2
4CompletedTreatmentPain12
4CompletedTreatmentPain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute4
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentPercutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Urinary Retention1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain2
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain9
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Spine Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome / Shoulder Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentScoliosis1
4CompletedTreatmentSequelae of Fracture of Forearm and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Remove of Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentThyroidectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentToothache1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)2
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence,Stress1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareColectomy / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEye Enucleation / Eye Evisceration1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentJoint Disease / Pain / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain Following Thoracotomy Surgery1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Operative Pain / Tonsillectomy / Tonsillitis1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionLabour Pain / Obstetric Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionThe Time to Achieve Effective Analgesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingScreeningPhrenic Nerve Paralysis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcromioclavicular Joint Resection / Acromioplasty / Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery / Intra-articular Debridement / Subacromial Decompression1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentActivity, Sexual / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / Analgesics, Opioid / Patients Satisfaction / Peripheral Nervous System Agents / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Postoperative pain / Return to Work1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthetics, Local / Caudal epidural block therapy / Erector Spinae Plane Block / Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArthropathy Shoulder1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthognathic Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentVaginal Prolapse1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceLow Back Pain (LBP) / Lumbar Disc Degeneration / Lumbosacral Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spinal Deformities / Spondylolisthesis / Spondylolysis / Stenosis1
4RecruitingOtherAdverse Reaction to Spinal Anesthetic / Maternal Care for Cervical Incompetence1
4RecruitingOtherComplex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) / Shoulder Hand Syndrome1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Delivery1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications2
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia3
4RecruitingPreventionPain in Pediatric Patients1
4RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingScreeningObstetrical Anesthesia1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis, Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePregnancy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentACL Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthetic complication neurological / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect, Spinal and Epidural1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentBupivacaine / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical incompetence1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain Management / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentChest Injury Trauma / Drug Effect / Intercostal Rib / Local Anesthesia / Local Infiltration / Nerve Pain / Opioid Dependence / Pain; Catheter (Other) / Pneumonia / Rib Fractures / Rib Trauma / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentClavicle Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentExternal Cephalic Version1
4RecruitingTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Hip Hemiarthroplasty / Intracapsular Fracture of Femur1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeadaches1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures2
4RecruitingTreatmentHysterectomy2
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Knee Rheumatism1
4RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Trauma Injury / Traumas1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain / Pregnancy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain (Post Laparoscopic Hernia Repair)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Score1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain5
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal / TAP Blocks1
4RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Tract Diseases1
4SuspendedNot AvailableOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4TerminatedDiagnosticSI Joint Pain1
4TerminatedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction3
4TerminatedSupportive CareFoot Surgery / Fracture of Foot1
4TerminatedSupportive CareMammaplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentACL Repair / Bankart Repair / Meniscectomy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia / Aspiration / Pain / Tibial Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentAortic Valve Disorder / Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) / Diseases of Mitral Valve / Intracardiac Myxoma1
4TerminatedTreatmentCardiac Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Pain Control of Distal Radius Fractures With Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection1
4TerminatedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4TerminatedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
4TerminatedTreatmentLabour Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain3
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Shoulder Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostsurgical Analgesia1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnesthesia Conduction / Anesthetics, Local / Injuries, Hand1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPain1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareTonsillectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCesarean Section / Local Anaesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDuration of Pain Relief2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpidural Block / Labour / Pregnancy / Primigravida Labour1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Minimally Invasive Thorascopic Surgical Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4WithdrawnPreventionMigraine Disorders1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture Bone / Lower Limb Injuries1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia Duration1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBursitis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain2
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherTympanum; Perforation1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMotor Impairments / Neurological Conditions / Orthopaedic Injury1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdverse Effects / Anaesthesia therapy / Cesarean Section / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Inguinal Hernias / Spinal Anaesthesia / Umbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Maternal Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Pressures / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHip Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfiltration Facet Joint1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInterstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome / Myofascial Pelvic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Pain Arthritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Replacement Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLumbar Disc Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParesis1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBreast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCesarean Section; Shivering1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLiver Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain / Wisdom Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSecondary Hyperalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningKnee Surgery With Tourniquet1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Cataract Unilateral Pending Extraction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLaparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery / Paracervical Block / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-traumatic; Arthrosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUpper Extremity Trauma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Thyroid Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreastfeeding / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervial Disc Herniation / Cervical Disc Herniation / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentConditions Requiring Colorectal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiaphragm Paralysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stone Pancreatitis / Gallbladder Inflammation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGastric Adenoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Malignant Neoplasm of Abdomen1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGoiter, Nodular / Graves' Disease / Hyperparathyroidism / Neoplasms, Thyroid / Thyroid Nodules1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInjury of Shoulder Region1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInterscalene Block / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip / Osteoarthritis, Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Appendectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis: Joint Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain6
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGallstone formation / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPenile Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProximal Femur Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRadius Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThe Analgesic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUltrasound Therapy; Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLumbar epidural anesthesia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailablePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injury1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareFemoral Fractures / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCardiac Arrythmias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareRectus Sheath Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Cancers / Pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInterscalene Block / Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis of Knee Nos1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRegional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Epidural Analgesia, Fracture Ribs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnalgesia / Anesthetics / Pain Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBrachial Plexus Block / Pulmonary Ventilation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBilateral Superficial Cervical Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionElective Cesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionFracture of Proximal Femur1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLabour Pain / Postpartum Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Postoperative pain / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSwallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Wall Defects1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain / Postoperative pain / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthropathy / Closed Fracture Proximal Humerus, Four Part / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Caudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHealing Surgical Wounds1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Injuries1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKnee Arthropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentScoliosis / Spinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherAbdominal Wall Relaxation After Rectus Sheath Block / Hernia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBunions / Hallux Rigidus1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticAnesthesia, Spinal [E03.155.086.331] / Operating Tables [E07.325.662]1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchLocal Anesthesia / Satisfaction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBlock1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLumbar Plexus Nerve Block / Osteoarthritis of Hip / Other Acute Postoperative Pain / Parasacaral (Sciatic) Nerve Block / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Regional Anesthesia / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain3
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnHealth Services ResearchFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAbdominal Surgeries1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionVaginal Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareLumbar Laminectomy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain After Carpal Tunnel Release1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache / Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Hospira inc
  • International medicated systems ltd
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
Packagers
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionEpidural1.25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
SolutionIntraspinal7.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg
SolutionInfiltration2.5 mg
SolutionInfiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal2.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal7.5 mg
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Other
KitEpidural; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Topical
Spray, meteredTopical
InjectionRetrobulbar
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Injection, suspension, liposomalInfiltration13.3 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural
KitTopical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
Injection, solutionEpidural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar150 mg
SolutionInfiltration125 mg
SolutionInfiltration250 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg
LiquidInfiltration
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
LiquidEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg
LiquidIntraspinal7.5 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
SolutionIntraspinal15 mg
Injection, solutionInfiltration
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intravenous
Kit
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intrasynovial; Soft tissue; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue
KitEpidural; Infiltration
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Topical
InjectionInfiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionPerineural
Injection, solutionPerineural5 mg/1mL
SolutionInfiltration
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar
Injection, solutionSubarachnoid7.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Bupivacaine hcl powder18.36USD g
Sensorcaine-dextr 0.75% amp2.36USD ml
Marcaine spinal ampul0.93USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% on-q pump0.62USD ml
Marcaine 0.25% vial0.26USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.0625%0.25USD ml
Bupivacaine-ns 0.1% on-q pump0.25USD ml
Sensorcaine 0.25% vial0.2USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.1%0.17USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.2%0.15USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% vial0.11USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% ampul0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.125% bag0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.25%0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8182835No1998-09-182018-09-18Us
US8834921No1998-09-182018-09-18Us
US9205052No1998-09-182018-09-18Us
US9585838No2001-12-242021-12-24Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)107-108 °CPhysProp
water solubility2400 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.41HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0977 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.31ALOGPS
logP4.52ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9814
Blood Brain Barrier+0.936
Caco-2 permeable+0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7836
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7957
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8346
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7045
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6863
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6205
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6066
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8462
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8859
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.2574 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8283
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7851
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.44 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c1dbebb634be5e7e1140
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-ae34de204bcb9a9deb23
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-7ea7001506aae0c271a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-2900000000-ef819c5e235d6d524d8c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-7900000000-22d7491053c05d773e93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-9400000000-71357b8186126c5933ce

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Piperidinecarboxamides / Anilides / m-Xylenes / N-arylamides / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid amide / 2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / Anilide / M-xylene / Xylene / N-arylamide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Piperidine
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidinecarboxamide, tertiary amino compound, aromatic amide (CHEBI:77431)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Sheets MF, Fozzard HA, Lipkind GM, Hanck DA: Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2010.03.002. [PubMed:20685573]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May play a role as an importa...
Gene Name
PTGER1
Uniprot ID
P34995
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Molecular Weight
41800.655 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Beloeil H, Gentili M, Benhamou D, Mazoit JX: The effect of a peripheral block on inflammation-induced prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase expression in rats. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep;109(3):943-50. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181aff25e. [PubMed:19690271]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 21, 2018 00:21