Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Accession Number
DB00297  (APRD00247)
Small Molecule
Approved, Investigational

A widely used local anesthetic agent. [PubChem]

  • (±)-bupivacaine
  • (RS)-bupivacaine
  • 1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • 1-Butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Bupivacaina
  • Bupivacaine
  • Bupivacainum
  • dl-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • DL-Bupivacaine
  • racemic bupivacaine
External IDs
DUR-843 / LAC-43 / SKY-0402 / SKY0402
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Bupivacaine hydrochlorideAKA908P8J118010-40-7SIEYLFHKZGLBNX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Bupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate7TQO7W3VT873360-54-0HUCIWBPMHXGLFM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HClInjection, solution1.25 mg/1mLEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2011-08-012015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HClInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine Heavy Injection BPSolutionIntraspinalAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-08-092006-08-09Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalHospira, Inc.2010-05-192010-05-19Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BupivacaineInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLSubarachnoidHospira, Inc.2005-01-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEnteral; Epidural; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-072019-11-30Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalA-S Medication Solutions2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; IntracaudalRemedy Repack2016-06-152016-06-15Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLPerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-03-31Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-04-012015-04-01Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; IntracaudalAuroMedics Pharma LLC2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-062019-04-30Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; IntracaudalREMEDYREPACK INC.2019-10-10Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BlBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1)KitTopicalSa3, Llc2015-07-012017-12-01Us
BtBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1) + Triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/1mL)KitTopicalSa3, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HCl 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 InjectionBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg)SolutionInfiltrationNovocol Inc.2012-05-07Not applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2015-10-07Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionDental; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-04-252011-01-01Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionPerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-07-26Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health1988-06-162018-05-02Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionInfiltration; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-11-29Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2011-08-012015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivilog KitBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL) + Triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/1mL)KitTopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2014-02-04Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.09 g/30mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.03 g/30mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (50 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.3 g/100mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.1 g/100mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.09 g/30mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.03 g/30mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.45 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.5 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bupivan (Sun) / Carbostesin (AstraZeneca) / Marcain (AstraZeneca) / Marcaina (AstraZeneca) / Sensorcaine-MPF (Astra Zeneca)
CAS number
Average: 288.4277
Monoisotopic: 288.220163528
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Bupivacaine is a widely used local anesthetic agent. Bupivacaine is often administered by spinal injection prior to total hip arthroplasty. It is also commonly injected into surgical wound sites to reduce pain for up to 20 hours after surgery. In comparison to other local anesthetics it has a long duration of action. It is also the most toxic to the heart when administered in large doses. This problem has led to the use of other long-acting local anaesthetics:ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Levobupivacaine is a derivative, specifically an enantiomer, of bupivacaine. Systemic absorption of local anesthetics produces effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. At blood concentrations achieved with therapeutic doses, changes in cardiac conduction, excitability, refractoriness, contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance are minimal. However, toxic blood concentrations depress cardiac conduction and excitability, which may lead to atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias and to cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in fatalities. In addition, myocardial contractility is depressed and peripheral vasodilation occurs, leading to decreased cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. Following systemic absorption, local anesthetics can produce central nervous system stimulation, depression or both.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as bupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. Bupivacaine prevents depolarization by bindng to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocking sodium ion influx into neurons. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone. The analgesic effects of Bupivicaine are thought to potentially be due to its binding to the prostaglandin E2 receptors, subtype EP1 (PGE2EP1), which inhibits the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing fever, inflammation, and hyperalgesia.

ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
UProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more

Systemic absorption of local anesthetics is dose- and concentration-dependendent on the total drug administered. Other factors that affect the rate of systemic absorption include the route of administration, blood flow at the administration site, and the presence or absence of epinephrine in the anesthetic solution.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding



Amide-type local anesthetics such as bupivacaine are metabolized primarily in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid. The major metabolite of bupivacaine is 2,6-pipecoloxylidine, which is mainly catalyzed via cytochrome P450 3A4.

Route of elimination

Only 6% of bupivacaine is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Half life

2.7 hours in adults and 8.1 hours in neonates

Not Available

The mean seizure dosage of bupivacaine in rhesus monkeys was found to be 4.4 mg/kg with mean arterial plasma concentration of 4.5 mcg/mL. The intravenous and subcutaneous LD 50 in mice is 6 to 8 mg/kg and 38 to 54 mg/kg respectively. Recent clinical data from patients experiencing local anesthetic induced convulsions demonstrated rapid development of hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis with bupivacaine within a minute of the onset of convulsions. These observations suggest that oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are greatly increased during local anesthetic convulsions and emphasize the importance of immediate and effective ventilation with oxygen which may avoid cardiac arrest.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
Not Available


Synthesis Reference

Thuresson, B. and Egner, B.P.H.; U.S. Patent 2,792,399; May 14, 1957; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden. Thuresson, B. and Pettersson, B.G.; US. Patent 2,955.1 11; October 4,1960; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden.

General References
  1. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovich CJ, Eisenkraft JB: Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul;105(1):217-8. [PubMed:16810015]
  2. Picard J, Meek T: Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob. Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):107-9. [PubMed:16430560]
  3. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01BB01 — BupivacaineN01BB51 — Bupivacaine, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (147 KB)
Download (73.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
0CompletedNot AvailableTibial Plateau Fracture1
0CompletedOtherCaudal epidural block therapy1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes1
0CompletedTreatmentChronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain in ankle and foot1
0CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Cesarean Delivery Pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticVasoplegia1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchACL Injury1
0Not Yet RecruitingOtherMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Local Anesthesia / Mastectomy / Narcotic Use1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParathyroid Adenomas / Thyroid1
0RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
0RecruitingSupportive CareSoft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) / Soft Tissue Tumor / Soft Tissue Tumor and/or Sarcoma1
0RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
0RecruitingTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache1
0TerminatedOtherPain NOS1
0Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative pain1
0WithdrawnPreventionCancer, Breast / General Surgery / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
1Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareCancer of Pancreas / Cancer of the Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pancreas Neoplasms1
1CompletedNot AvailableSafety of Neosaxitoxin in Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain, Acute1
1CompletedDiagnosticCaudal Block1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoarctation of the Aorta1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Management1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentCerebral Vasospasm1
1CompletedTreatmentEffect Increased1
1CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease) / Pain Management1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Impairment / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentLower Abdominal Surgery1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBunions1
1RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Postoperative pain1
1TerminatedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Local Anesthesia1
1TerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
1TerminatedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CarePain Management / Phase 1: Pain Management / Phase 2: Pain Management1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPost-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Transverse Abdominal Plane Regional Blocks1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTransversus Abdominis Block1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Postoperative Pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers / Postoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMigraine1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentFoley Catheter Discomfort / Prostate Cancer / Robotic Prostatectomy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentLower Extremity Fractures1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Postoperative pain1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPosterior Fossa Tumors1
2CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
2CompletedDiagnosticPain NOS1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
2CompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
2CompletedPreventionCleft Palates1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionForearm Surgeries1
2CompletedPreventionLaparoscopic Orcheopexy1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedSupportive CareApplication Site Discomfort1
2CompletedSupportive CareCholesteatoma / Cochlear Implants / Mastoidectomy / Tympanomastoid Surgery1
2CompletedSupportive CareIncisional Hernias / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias / Ventral Hernias1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain3
2CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Post-thoracotomy Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia in Patients With Inguinal Herniorrhaphy1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Analgesia1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Hip Fractures1
2CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Hernia / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentGynecologic Laparoscopic Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentHernia / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHerniorrhaphy / Inguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Herniorrhaphy / Regional Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
2CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Tooth Extractions1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Local Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain12
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Block / General Surgery / Thoracic Injury1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCaudal Block1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
2RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMenopausal Hot Flushes / Vasomotor Symptoms2
2RecruitingTreatmentBlunt Chest Wall Trauma / Rib Fractures / Sternal Fracture1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy1
2RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
2RecruitingTreatmentDecrease Discharge Time Status Post Hemmoriodectomy / Return of Motor and Sensory Blockade / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2RecruitingTreatmentDupuytren's Contracture of the Hand (Viking's Disease)1
2RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
2RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus (Bunions)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Wounds Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain2
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPregnancy Related1
2SuspendedTreatmentLacrimation increased / Procidentia1
2TerminatedSupportive CareReferred Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentBenign Headache1
2TerminatedTreatmentInjuries, Ankle1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain and Discomfort During Scaling and Root Planning of Patients With / Periodontitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2Unknown StatusDiagnosticPersistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery1
2Unknown StatusPreventionArterial Hypotension / Pregnancy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Surgery1
2WithdrawnPreventionPost Operative Pain as Estimated by the Sue of the VAS Score1
2WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty / Knee / Replacement1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
2, 3CompletedPreventionRecovery After Cleft Palate Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain8
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Opioid Dependence / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Diseases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain Chronic1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBlepharoptosis / Esotropia / Exotropia / Graves Diseases / Nystagmus / Strabismus1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionShoulder Surgery1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCREST Syndrome / Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) / Raynaud's Disease1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis of Hip1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDegenerative Arthritis / Degenerative Joint Disease / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Osteoarthrosis Deformans1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain NOS1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUrethral Strictures1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hip Fractures1
3CompletedNot AvailableLabor Complications / Pain NOS1
3CompletedBasic ScienceProstate Cancer1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionEpidural; Anesthesia / Spinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedPreventionIntraoperative Complications1
3CompletedPreventionLabour Pain1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedSupportive CareHemorrhoids1
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Surgeries / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Pain NOS / Pregnant Women1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentBunions / Hallux Valgus1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
3CompletedTreatmentFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Migraine1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colecctomy1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPosterolateral Thoracotomy / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain8
3CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticCancer, Breast / Pain NOS / Pain, Neuropathic1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBunions / Forefoot Surgery / Hindfoot Fusion / Metatarsophalangeal Fusion / Midfoot Fusion / Total Ankle Arthroplasty1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Diseases1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Renal Stones1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Vascular Surgery1
3RecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle / Local Infiltration / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareBreast - Female1
3RecruitingSupportive CareDiseases of Liver / Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Disorder1
3RecruitingSupportive CareLaparoscopic TAP Block in TEP Inguinal Hernia Repair1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePancreatitis, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreech Presentation1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Coronary Artery Stenoses / Valve Regurgitation, Mitral / Valve Regurgitation, Tricuspid1
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Sternal Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
3RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Post Operative Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Lung Cancer Stage 11
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3TerminatedSupportive CarePain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentInjury of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
3TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSigmoidal Tumour1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
3WithdrawnPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareCesarean Delivery1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture of Lower Limb1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDisorder of Rotator Cuff / Disorder of Shoulder / Disorder of Tendon of Biceps / Injury of Shoulder Region / Shoulder Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
3WithdrawnTreatmentLabour Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic Disorder of Spine1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherTonsillectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareArthritis of Hip1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArthritis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune Suppression / Neoplasms, Lung / Pain NOS1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentJoint Disease / Pain NOS / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTonsillectomy1
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedNot AvailableHemorrhoids / Peri Anal Fistula1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
4CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4CompletedBasic SciencePeriarticular Block / Serum Bupivacaine Level / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedDiagnosticAbdominal Cancer1
4CompletedDiagnosticBlood Loss,Surgical1
4CompletedDiagnosticEpidural Block / Incidence / Unilateral1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain NOS1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchRetraction of Colostomy2
4CompletedOtherComplex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) / Shoulder Hand Syndrome1
4CompletedOtherPain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Bupivacaine / Hip Pain Chronic1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
4CompletedPreventionApplication Site Discomfort / Medical Device Discomfort1
4CompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
4CompletedPreventionArthritis / Joint Dysfunction1
4CompletedPreventionArthrosis, Unspecified, Ankle and Foot1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications2
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
4CompletedPreventionRetinal Detachment / Retinoschisis / Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative1
4CompletedSupportive CareArthroscopic Knee Surgery / Arthroscopic Knee Surgery and Pain / Dexmedetomidine / Dexmedetomidine and Femoral Nerve Block / Femoral Nerve Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m2 / General Surgery / Neuromuscular Inhibition / Pain NOS1
4CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCaudal Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Intra-articular Injection / Magnesium Sulfate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Post-Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CareLumbar Spine Disc Herniation1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Obstetric1
4CompletedSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4CompletedSupportive CareThe Duration of Motor Block for Sciatic Block Following TKR May Vary Between 12-36 Hrs Depending on the Amount of Local Anesthetic Given1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal/ Donor Site / DIEP or Free MS-TRAM Breast Reconstruction / Local Pain Management / Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block Catheter1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Early Ambulation / Pain Management / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAmputation Stumps / Neuroma1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy3
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia After ACL Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Anesthesia; Spinal / Epidural Analgesia / Intravenous Drug Delivery Systems / Morphine / Surgery, Colorectal1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postsurgical Pain / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthetics, Local / Caudal epidural block therapy / Erector Spinae Plane Block / Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkle Arthrodesis / Hindfoot Arthrodesis / Tibitalocalceal Arthrodesis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction / Regional Anesthesia, Saphenous Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cardiac Output / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee Joint / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Complications; Arthroplasty / Knee Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentAtypical Facial Pain / Typical Facial Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBrachial Plexus Blockade1
4CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Intractable1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Reconstruction / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical incompetence1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentClosed Fracture of Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDrugs / Health Care1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture of Shoulder and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Injuries / Orthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernia Repair (Not Urgent) / Knee Arthroscopy (for Diagnostic or Therapy)1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Pruritus / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInternal Derangement of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Post Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain2
4CompletedTreatmentLabour / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentMeniscus Lesion1
4CompletedTreatmentNasal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentObturator Nerve Block / Total Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip2
4CompletedTreatmentPain Following Thoracotomy Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS13
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain NOS / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute6
4CompletedTreatmentPercutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentPopliteal Plexus Block / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Urinary Retention1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Thoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain2
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain13
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Spine Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnant Women Who Requested Epidural Analgesia in the Early Stage of Labor / The Time to Achieve Effective Analgesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome / Shoulder Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentSequelae of Fracture of Forearm and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Remove of Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip and Knee Arthroplasty / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)2
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence,Stress1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain NOS1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Operative Pain / Tonsillectomy / Tonsillitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionLabour Pain / Pain, Obstetric1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionNasal Deformity, Acquired / Nasal Obstruction1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareTeeth, Impacted1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcromioclavicular Joint Resection / Acromioplasty / Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery / Intra-articular Debridement / Subacromial Decompression1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Opioids Use / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCardiothoracic Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anesthetic Toxicity1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentColectomy / Laparotomy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMaternal Hypotension After Spinal Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Prostate Cancer1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthognathic Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPertrochanteric Fracture1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back / Lumbar Disc Degeneration / Lumbosacral Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spinal Deformities / Spondylolisthesis / Spondylolysis / Stenosis1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceThoracic1
4RecruitingOtherAdverse Reaction to Spinal Anesthetic / Maternal Care for Cervical Incompetence1
4RecruitingOtherLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block1
4RecruitingOtherOpioids Use1
4RecruitingOtherSleep Apnea Syndromes1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Delivery1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia2
4RecruitingPreventionPain NOS1
4RecruitingPreventionPain in Pediatric Patients1
4RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingPreventionVaginal Hysterectomy1
4RecruitingScreeningObstetrical Anesthesia1
4RecruitingScreeningPhrenic Nerve Paralysis1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareIntranasal Bupivacaine / Intranasal Dexmedetomidine / Septoplasty Surgeries1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain Management1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain, Breast1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePost-Operative Pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePregnancy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRight Ventricular Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentACL Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentActivity, Sexual / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / Analgesics, Opioid / Patients Satisfaction / Peripheral Nervous System Agents / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Postoperative pain / Return to Work1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Breast Reconstruction / Transverse Abdominis Plane Block1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthetic complication neurological / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect, Spinal and Epidural1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia; Regional / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentArthropathy Shoulder1
4RecruitingTreatmentBupivacaine / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Delivery / Obesity, Morbid / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anesthetic Toxicity1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain Management / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentChest Injury Trauma / Drug Effect / Intercostal Rib / Local Anesthesia / Local Infiltration / Nerve Pain / Opioid Dependence / Pain; Catheter (Other) / Pneumonia / Rib Fractures / Rib Trauma / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Crohn's Disease (CD) / Digestive System Diseases / Gastrointestinal Cancers / Gastrointestinal Diseases / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Intestinal Diseases / Pain NOS / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section1
4RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Section / Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Hip Hemiarthroplasty / Intracapsular Fracture of Femur1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentHemodynamic Stability / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh BMI / Obesity, Morbid1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures / Intertrochanteric Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypospadias / Urethrocutaneous Fistula1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Knee Rheumatism1
4RecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Spondylolisthesis / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
4RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentMale Infertility1
4RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Pain Management / Post-Operative Pain / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Pregnancy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Trauma Injury / Traumas1
4RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain / Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation / Trigger Point Injection1
4RecruitingTreatmentPharmacokinetics / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain (Post Laparoscopic Hernia Repair)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain Control1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Score1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain9
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome / Shoulder Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Transplant; Failure, Kidney1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Urethral Strictures1
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentRobotic Lung Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal / TAP Blocks1
4RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Tract Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentVaginal Prolapse1
4SuspendedNot AvailableOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4SuspendedSupportive CareKnee Injuries / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4SuspendedTreatmentAortic Valve Disorder / Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) / Diseases of Mitral Valve / Intracardiac Myxoma1
4SuspendedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4SuspendedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4TerminatedDiagnosticSI Joint Pain1
4TerminatedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction3
4TerminatedSupportive CareColectomy / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4TerminatedSupportive CareFoot Surgery / Fracture of Foot1
4TerminatedSupportive CareMammaplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentACL Repair / Bankart Repair / Meniscectomy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia / Aspiration / Pain NOS / Tibial Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentCardiac Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Pain Control of Distal Radius Fractures With Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection1
4TerminatedTreatmentDuration of Pain Relief1
4TerminatedTreatmentExternal Cephalic Version1
4TerminatedTreatmentEye Enucleation / Eye Evisceration1
4TerminatedTreatmentFinger Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Wrist Injury1
4TerminatedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4TerminatedTreatmentGlenohumeral Arthritis / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentLabour Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS3
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Shoulder Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostsurgical Analgesia1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnesthesia Conduction / Anesthetics, Local / Injuries, Hand1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPain NOS1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareOnset and Duration of Sensory and Motor Block of Femoral Nerve / Time to First Request of Rescue Analgesics / Total Morphine Consumption in 24 Hours / Visual Analogue Pain Scores1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareTonsillectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCesarean Section / Local Anaesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpidural Block / Labour / Pregnancy / Primigravida Labour1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPainful Intercourse1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Minimally Invasive Thorascopic Surgical Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPregnancy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4WithdrawnPreventionMigraine Disorders1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture Bone / Lower Limb Injuries1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia Duration1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentClavicle Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS2
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionEmergence Agitation / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionLaparotomy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMotor Impairments / Neurological Conditions / Orthopaedic Injury1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdverse Effects / Anaesthesia therapy / Cesarean Section / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Inguinal Hernias / Spinal Anaesthesia / Umbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Maternal Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnxiety / Blood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFasting / Intraoperative Complications / Transient ischemia attacks1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHip Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfiltration Facet Joint1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInterstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome / Myofascial Pelvic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Pain Arthritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLabor; Prolonged, First Stage / Labor; Prolonged, Second Stage / Labour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMalignant Neoplasm of Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMilk Expression, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Anaesthesia / Success or Failure of Spinal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Replacement Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnesthetics, Local / Pharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceStrabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLumbar Disc Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParesis1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchElective Caesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchPeribulbar Block1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnesthetics, Local / Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBreast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCesarean Section; Shivering1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHip Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPostoperative Pain After Knee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherTympanum; Perforation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnalgesia / Spinal Anaesthesia / Transurethral Resection of Prostate / Tranurethral Resection of Prostate1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionElective Cesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLiver Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain4
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain / Wisdom Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSecondary Hyperalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningKnee Surgery With Tourniquet1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Cataract Unilateral Pending Extraction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLaparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery / Paracervical Block / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLower Extremities Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-traumatic; Arthrosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Rectus Sheath Block / Ultrasound Guided Rectus Sheath Block1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRetinal Detachment1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUpper Extremity Trauma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Thyroid Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Hip / Arthropathy of Knee1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreastfeeding / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervial Disc Herniation / Cervical Disc Herniation / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentConditions Requiring Colorectal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiaphragm Paralysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpidural Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stone Pancreatitis / Gallbladder Inflammation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGastric Adenoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Malignant Neoplasm of Abdomen1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGoiter, Nodular / Graves' Disease / Hyperparathyroidism / Neoplasms, Thyroid / Thyroid Nodules1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHealing Surgical Wounds1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Hip Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInjury of Shoulder Region1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInterscalene Block / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Appendectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpen Heart Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis: Joint Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS7
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGallstone formation / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPenile Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Surgical Pain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain11
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy associated hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProximal Femur Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRadius Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentScoliosis / Spinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSecond Trimester Medical Abortion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty in Geriatric Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Bupivacaine/Morphine in Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThe Analgesic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUltrasound Therapy; Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableEhlers-Danlos Syndrome / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailablePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injury1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareFemoral Fractures / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticDiabetic Foot1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherFracture; Rib, Multiple1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension / Hip Fractures1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCardiac Arrythmias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis) / Nasal Septum Deviation / Polyps, Nasal / Postoperative Agitation: Impaired Awareness, Abnormal Cognitive Function, Confusion, and Verbal and Physical Agitation During Recovery From General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCesarean Section / Hypotension Drug-Induced / Postoperative Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Malignancies / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics / Bupivacaine / Lidocaine / Mohs Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInterscalene Block / Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis of Knee Nos1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRegional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Epidural Analgesia, Fracture Ribs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnalgesia / Anesthetics / Pain Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBradycardia / Cesarean Section Complications / Hypotension Drug-Induced / Spinal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceKnee Arthroscopic Surgery / Surgery of Knee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBrachial Plexus Block / Pulmonary Ventilation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBupivacaine / Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia / Pain NOS / Prilocaine1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia and Analgesia / Pediatrics / Urologic Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthetics, Local / Postoperative pain / Surgical Site Infections / Wound Infections1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBilateral Superficial Cervical Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCesarean Section2
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionFracture of Proximal Femur1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLabour Pain / Postpartum Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLower Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPregnancy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSpine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSwallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareCervical incompetence1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareSurgery to the Distal One Third of the Upper Limb1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Wall Defects1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain NOS / Postoperative pain / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthropathy / Closed Fracture Proximal Humerus, Four Part / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Caudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBradycardia foetal / Hypertonic Uterine1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia / Spinal Ultrasound1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChest Trauma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases / Lung Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentClavicle Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDysplasia, Congenital Hip1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis of Uterus / Uterine Leiomyomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHepatectomy / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKnee Arthropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLeg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNasal Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentOld Age1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chest1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSleep Deprivation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentUterine Leiomyomas1
Not AvailableSuspendedPreventionEpisiotomy; Complications / Local Anesthesia / Second Degree Perineal Tear During Delivery - Delivered1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableComplications; Cesarean Section / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Hemodynamics Instability / Personal Satisfaction1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherAbdominal Wall Relaxation After Rectus Sheath Block / Hernia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBunions / Hallux Rigidus1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDuration of Pain Relief1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHip Injuries1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain2
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableBreastfeeding Outcomes / Neonatal Neurobehavior1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticAnesthesia, Spinal [E03.155.086.331] / Operating Tables [E07.325.662]1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchLocal Anesthesia / Satisfaction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBlock1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLumbar Plexus Nerve Block / Osteoarthritis of Hip / Other Acute Postoperative Pain / Parasacaral (Sciatic) Nerve Block / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Regional Anesthesia / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS3
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnHealth Services ResearchFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAbdominal Surgeries1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionVaginal Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareLumbar Laminectomy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain After Carpal Tunnel Release1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache / Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPrimigravida in Labour Pains1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentUpper Eyelid Surgery1


  • Hospira inc
  • International medicated systems ltd
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionEpidural1.25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEnteral; Epidural; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Other5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionPerineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionPerineural
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
InjectionSubarachnoid7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Other
Spray, meteredTopical
KitInfiltration; Subcutaneous
Injection, suspension, liposomalInfiltration13.3 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural
Injection, solutionEpidural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar150 mg
SolutionInfiltration125 mg
SolutionInfiltration250 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
LiquidEpidural; Retrobulbar
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
SolutionIntraspinal15 mg
Injection, solutionInfiltration
KitEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural
KitIntra-articular; Intramuscular
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitIntramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionInfiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral5 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar
Injection, solutionSubarachnoid7.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Bupivacaine hcl powder18.36USD g
Sensorcaine-dextr 0.75% amp2.36USD ml
Marcaine spinal ampul0.93USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% on-q pump0.62USD ml
Marcaine 0.25% vial0.26USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.0625%0.25USD ml
Bupivacaine-ns 0.1% on-q pump0.25USD ml
Sensorcaine 0.25% vial0.2USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.1%0.17USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.2%0.15USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% vial0.11USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% ampul0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.125% bag0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.25%0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)107-108 °CPhysProp
water solubility2400 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.41HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0977 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9814
Blood Brain Barrier+0.936
Caco-2 permeable+0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7836
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7957
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8346
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7045
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6863
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6205
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6066
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8462
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.2574 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8283
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7851
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.44 KB)
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c1dbebb634be5e7e1140
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-ae34de204bcb9a9deb23
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-7ea7001506aae0c271a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-2900000000-ef819c5e235d6d524d8c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-7900000000-22d7491053c05d773e93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-9400000000-71357b8186126c5933ce


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Piperidinecarboxamides / Anilides / m-Xylenes / N-arylamides / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Alpha-amino acid amide / 2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / Anilide / M-xylene / Xylene / N-arylamide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Piperidine
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidinecarboxamide, tertiary amino compound, aromatic amide (CHEBI:77431)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Sheets MF, Fozzard HA, Lipkind GM, Hanck DA: Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2010.03.002. [PubMed:20685573]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May play a role as an importa...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Molecular Weight
41800.655 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Beloeil H, Gentili M, Benhamou D, Mazoit JX: The effect of a peripheral block on inflammation-induced prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase expression in rats. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep;109(3):943-50. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181aff25e. [PubMed:19690271]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
  2. Prescriber's digital reference, Marcaine with Epinephrine-bipuvacaine-hydrochloride [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2019 20:44