Accession Number
DB00297  (APRD00247)
Small Molecule
Approved, Investigational

Bupivacaine is a widely used local anesthetic agent.

  • (±)-bupivacaine
  • (RS)-bupivacaine
  • 1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • 1-Butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Bupivacaina
  • Bupivacaine
  • Bupivacainum
  • dl-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • DL-Bupivacaine
  • Racemic bupivacaine
External IDs
DUR-843 / LAC-43 / SKY-0402 / SKY0402
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Bupivacaine hydrochloride7TQO7W3VT873360-54-0HUCIWBPMHXGLFM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Bupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrousAKA908P8J118010-40-7SIEYLFHKZGLBNX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HClInjection, solution1.25 mg/1mLEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2011-08-012015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HClInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine Heavy Injection BPSolution15 mgIntraspinalAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-05-232006-05-23Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-05-232006-05-23Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution7.5 mg/1mLEpidural; RetrobulbarHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2007-03-312007-05-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralREMEDYREPACK INC.2019-04-26Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-04-012015-04-01Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalAuroMedics Pharma LLC2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-06Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLPerineuralSagent Pharmaceuticals2015-04-012015-04-01Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLPerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-10-16Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEpidural; IntracaudalREMEDYREPACK INC.2019-10-10Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLEnteral; Epidural; IntracaudalCardinal Health2010-01-072019-11-30Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution2.5 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2016-05-13Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideInjection, solution5 mg/1mLPerineuralA-S Medication Solutions2016-05-13Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BlBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1)KitTopicalSa3, Llc2015-07-012017-12-01Us
BtBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1) + Povidone-iodine (0.10 g/1) + Triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/1mL)KitTopicalSa3, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hci and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.005 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionPerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-09Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HCl 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 InjectionBupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (5 mg) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg)SolutionInfiltrationNovocol Inc.2012-05-07Not applicableCanada
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (0.0091 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionDental; InfiltrationHospira, Inc.2006-04-252011-01-01Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health1988-06-162018-04-18Us
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2015-10-07Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralHospira, Inc.2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and EpinephrineBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine bitartrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; IntracaudalCardinal Health1988-06-162018-05-02Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HClBupivacaine hydrochloride (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2011-08-012015-01-14Us
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (2.5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (2.5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivacaine HydrochlorideBupivacaine hydrochloride anhydrous (5 mg/1mL)InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; PerineuralAreva Pharmaceuticals2019-07-12Not applicableUs
Bupivilog KitBupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL) + Triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/1mL)KitTopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2014-02-04Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.1 g/100mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.03 g/30mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (50 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalBupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Chitosan low molecular weight (20-200 mpa.s) (0.1 g/100mL) + Ketorolac tromethamine (1.5 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bupivan (Sun) / Carbostesin (AstraZeneca) / Marcain (AstraZeneca) / Marcaina (AstraZeneca) / Sensorcaine-MPF (Astra Zeneca)
CAS number
Average: 288.4277
Monoisotopic: 288.220163528
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Bupivacaine is a widely used local anesthetic agent. Bupivacaine is often administered by spinal injection prior to total hip arthroplasty. It is also commonly injected into surgical wound sites to reduce pain for up to 20 hours after surgery. In comparison to other local anesthetics it has a long duration of action. It is also the most toxic to the heart when administered in large doses. This problem has led to the use of other long-acting local anaesthetics:ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Levobupivacaine is a derivative, specifically an enantiomer, of bupivacaine. Systemic absorption of local anesthetics produces effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. At blood concentrations achieved with therapeutic doses, changes in cardiac conduction, excitability, refractoriness, contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance are minimal. However, toxic blood concentrations depress cardiac conduction and excitability, which may lead to atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias and to cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in fatalities. In addition, myocardial contractility is depressed and peripheral vasodilation occurs, leading to decreased cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. Following systemic absorption, local anesthetics can produce central nervous system stimulation, depression or both.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as bupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. Bupivacaine prevents depolarization by bindng to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocking sodium ion influx into neurons. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone. The analgesic effects of Bupivicaine are thought to potentially be due to its binding to the prostaglandin E2 receptors, subtype EP1 (PGE2EP1), which inhibits the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing fever, inflammation, and hyperalgesia.

ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
UProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Systemic absorption of local anesthetics is dose- and concentration-dependendent on the total drug administered. Other factors that affect the rate of systemic absorption include the route of administration, blood flow at the administration site, and the presence or absence of epinephrine in the anesthetic solution.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding



Amide-type local anesthetics such as bupivacaine are metabolized primarily in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid. The major metabolite of bupivacaine is 2,6-pipecoloxylidine, which is mainly catalyzed via cytochrome P450 3A4.

Route of elimination

Only 6% of bupivacaine is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Half life

2.7 hours in adults and 8.1 hours in neonates

Not Available

The mean seizure dosage of bupivacaine in rhesus monkeys was found to be 4.4 mg/kg with mean arterial plasma concentration of 4.5 mcg/mL. The intravenous and subcutaneous LD 50 in mice is 6 to 8 mg/kg and 38 to 54 mg/kg respectively. Recent clinical data from patients experiencing local anesthetic induced convulsions demonstrated rapid development of hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis with bupivacaine within a minute of the onset of convulsions. These observations suggest that oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are greatly increased during local anesthetic convulsions and emphasize the importance of immediate and effective ventilation with oxygen which may avoid cardiac arrest.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
7-NitroindazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Bupivacaine.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bupivacaine.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Acebutolol.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Bupivacaine.
AcetazolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetazolamide can be decreased when used in combination with Bupivacaine.
Additional Data Available
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    Extended Description

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


Synthesis Reference

Thuresson, B. and Egner, B.P.H.; U.S. Patent 2,792,399; May 14, 1957; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden. Thuresson, B. and Pettersson, B.G.; US. Patent 2,955.1 11; October 4,1960; assigned to AB Bofors, Sweden.

General References
  1. Rosenblatt MA, Abel M, Fischer GW, Itzkovich CJ, Eisenkraft JB: Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul;105(1):217-8. [PubMed:16810015]
  2. Picard J, Meek T: Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob. Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):107-9. [PubMed:16430560]
  3. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01BB01 — BupivacaineN01BB51 — Bupivacaine, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (147 KB)
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain1
0CompletedNot AvailableTibial Plateau Fracture1
0CompletedOtherCaudal epidural block therapy1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareHot Flushes1
0CompletedTreatmentChronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain in ankle and foot1
0CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Cesarean Delivery Pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticVasoplegia1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchACL Injury1
0Not Yet RecruitingOtherMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionBreast Cancer / Local Anesthesia / Mastectomy / Narcotic Use1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParathyroid Adenomas / Thyroid1
0RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
0RecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis of Uterus / Uterine Leiomyomas1
0RecruitingTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache1
0SuspendedSupportive CareSoft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) / Soft Tissue Tumor / Soft Tissue Tumor and/or Sarcoma1
0Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative pain1
0WithdrawnPreventionBreast Cancer / General Surgery / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedNot AvailableSafety of Neosaxitoxin in Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain, Acute1
1CompletedDiagnosticCaudal Block1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section Pain1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoarctation of the Aorta1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedSupportive CareCancer of Pancreas / Cancer of the Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pancreas Neoplasms1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Management1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentBreast Augmentation1
1CompletedTreatmentCerebral Vasospasm1
1CompletedTreatmentEffect Increased1
1CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease) / Pain Management1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Impairment / Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentLower Abdominal Surgery1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Labor1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherPain, Labor1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Postoperative Pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingHealth Services ResearchSurgery, Hand / Upper Limb Surgery1
1RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Postoperative pain1
1TerminatedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Local Anesthesia1
1TerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
1TerminatedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CarePain Management / Phase 1: Pain Management / Phase 2: Pain Management1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPost-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Transverse Abdominal Plane Regional Blocks1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTransversus Abdominis Block1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Postoperative Pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers / Postoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMigraine1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentFoley Catheter Discomfort / Prostate Cancer / Robotic Prostatectomy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentLower Extremity Fractures1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Cancer of the Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHallux Valgus1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Postoperative pain1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPosterior Fossa Tumors1
2CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionForearm Surgeries1
2CompletedPreventionLaparoscopic Orcheopexy1
2CompletedPreventionPalate, Cleft1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedSupportive CareApplication Site Discomfort1
2CompletedSupportive CareCholesteatoma / Implants, Cochlear / Mastoidectomy / Tympanomastoid Surgery1
2CompletedSupportive CareIncisional Hernias / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias / Ventral Hernias1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain3
2CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Post-thoracotomy Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia in Patients With Inguinal Herniorrhaphy1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Analgesia1
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Hip Fracture1
2CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Hernia / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentGynecologic Laparoscopic Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentHernia / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHerniorrhaphies / Inguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Herniorrhaphies / Regional Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
2CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Tooth Extractions1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Local Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain12
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Block / General Surgery / Thoracic Injury1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCaudal Block1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareRetroperitoneal Sarcoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
2RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Cancer1
2RecruitingSupportive CareHot Flushes1
2RecruitingSupportive CareHot Flushes / Vasomotor Symptoms2
2RecruitingTreatmentBlunt Chest Wall Trauma / Rib Fractures / Sternal Fracture1
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Mastectomy1
2RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
2RecruitingTreatmentDecrease Discharge Time Status Post Hemmoriodectomy / Return of Motor and Sensory Blockade / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2RecruitingTreatmentDupuytren's Contracture of the Hand (Viking's Disease)1
2RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
2RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus (Bunions)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Wounds Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain2
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPregnancy Related1
2SuspendedTreatmentLacrimation increased / Ptosis1
2TerminatedSupportive CareReferred Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentBenign Headache1
2TerminatedTreatmentInjuries, Ankle1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain and Discomfort During Scaling and Root Planning of Patients With / Periodontitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2Unknown StatusDiagnosticPersistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHypotension / Pregnancy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Surgery1
2WithdrawnPreventionPost Operative Pain as Estimated by the Sue of the VAS Score1
2WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty / Knee / Replacement1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPost Surgical Pain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
2, 3CompletedPreventionRecovery After Cleft Palate Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain9
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Opioid Dependence / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Diseases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain Chronic1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain / Vomiting, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Post-thoracotomy Pain / Chronic Pain Post-Procedural / Local Anesthesia / Thoracic Neoplasms1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBlepharoptosis / Esotropia / Exotropia / Graves Diseases / Nystagmus / Strabismus1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionShoulder Surgery1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCREST Syndrome / Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis / Peripheral Vascular Disease Patient / Raynaud's Phenomenon1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis of Hip1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDegenerative Arthritis / Degenerative Joint Disease / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Osteoarthrosis Deformans1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUrethral Strictures1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hip Fracture1
3CompletedNot AvailableLabor Complications / Pain1
3CompletedBasic ScienceProstate Cancer1
3CompletedDiagnosticNeuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionEpidural; Anesthesia / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedPreventionIntraoperative Complications1
3CompletedPreventionPain, Labor1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedSupportive CareHemorrhoids1
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Surgeries / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentBunions / Hallux Valgus1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
3CompletedTreatmentFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadache / Migraine1
3CompletedTreatmentHypotension / Pain / Pregnant Women1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colecctomy1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPosterolateral Thoracotomy / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain8
3CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticBreast Cancer / Pain / Pain, Neuropathic1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / General Surgery1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBunions / Forefoot Surgery / Hindfoot Fusion / Metatarsophalangeal Fusion / Midfoot Fusion / Total Ankle Arthroplasty1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKidney Stones / Postoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Control1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Vascular Surgery1
3RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle / Local Infiltration / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareBreast - Female1
3RecruitingSupportive CareDiseases of Liver / Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Disorder1
3RecruitingSupportive CareLaparoscopic TAP Block in TEP Inguinal Hernia Repair1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePancreatitis, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreech Presentation1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Coronary Artery Stenoses / Valve Regurgitation, Mitral / Valve Regurgitation, Tricuspid1
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Sternal Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
3RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers / Post Operative Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain / Umbilical Hernias1
3RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Lung Cancer Stage 11
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Diseases1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3TerminatedSupportive CarePain1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentInjury of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSigmoidal Tumour1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
3WithdrawnPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareCesarean Delivery1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture of Lower Limb1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDisorder of Rotator Cuff / Disorder of Shoulder / Disorder of Tendon of Biceps / Injury of Shoulder Region / Shoulder Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic Disorder of Spine1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Labor1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherTonsillectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareArthritis of Hip1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareTeeth, Impacted1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentACL Surgery1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentActivity, Sexual / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / Analgesics, Opioid / Patients Satisfaction / Peripheral Nervous System Agents / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Postoperative pain / Return to Work1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArthritis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArthropathy Shoulder1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Crohn's Disease (CD) / Digestive System Diseases / Gastrointestinal Cancers / Gastrointestinal Diseases / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Intestinal Diseases / Pain / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmunosuppression / Neoplasms, Lung / Pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentJoint Disease / Pain / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTonsillectomy1
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedNot AvailableHemorrhoids / Peri Anal Fistula1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain1
4CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePeriarticular Block / Serum Bupivacaine Level / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedDiagnosticAbdominal Cancer1
4CompletedDiagnosticBlood Loss,Surgical1
4CompletedDiagnosticEpidural Block / Incidence / Unilateral1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchRetraction of Colostomy2
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Anorectal Disorders / Drug Effect / General Surgery / Outpatients1
4CompletedOtherComplex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) / Shoulder Hand Syndrome1
4CompletedOtherOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4CompletedOtherSleep Apnea Syndromes1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Bupivacaine / Hip Pain Chronic1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
4CompletedPreventionApplication Site Discomfort / Medical Device Discomfort1
4CompletedPreventionArthritis / Joint Dysfunction1
4CompletedPreventionArthrosis, Unspecified, Ankle and Foot1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications2
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
4CompletedPreventionRetinal Detachment / Retinoschisis / Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative1
4CompletedSupportive CareArthroscopic Knee Surgery / Arthroscopic Knee Surgery and Pain / Dexmedetomidine / Dexmedetomidine and Femoral Nerve Block / Femoral Nerve Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m2 / General Surgery / Neuromuscular Inhibition / Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareBreast Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCaudal Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Intra-articular Injection / Magnesium Sulfate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Post Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CareLumbar Spine Disc Herniation1
4CompletedSupportive CareObstetrical Anesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Obstetric1
4CompletedSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4CompletedSupportive CareThe Duration of Motor Block for Sciatic Block Following TKR May Vary Between 12-36 Hrs Depending on the Amount of Local Anesthetic Given1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal/ Donor Site / DIEP or Free MS-TRAM Breast Reconstruction / Local Pain Management / Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block Catheter1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Early Ambulation / Pain Management / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAmputation Stumps / Neuroma1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy3
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia After ACL Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Anesthesia; Spinal / Epidural Analgesia / Intravenous Drug Delivery Systems / Morphine / Spinal Anaesthesia / Surgery, Colorectal1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postsurgical Pain / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthesia, Conduction / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia and Analgesia / Anesthetics, Local / Caudal epidural block therapy / Erector Spinae Plane Block / Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia; Regional / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkle Arthrodesis / Hindfoot Arthrodesis / Tibitalocalceal Arthrodesis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction / Regional Anesthesia, Saphenous Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture1
4CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee Joint / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Complications; Arthroplasty / Knee Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentAtypical Facial Pain / Typical Facial Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBrachial Plexus Blockade1
4CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Intractable1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Reconstruction / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Pain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Output / Hypotension / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical incompetence1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Hypotension / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentClosed Fracture of Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDrugs / Health Care1
4CompletedTreatmentElective Cesarean Section / Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentFoot and Ankle Surgery / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Popliteal Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture of Shoulder and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Fracture1
4CompletedTreatmentHip Injuries / Orthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernia Repair (Not Urgent) / Knee Arthroscopy (for Diagnostic or Therapy)1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Pruritus / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInternal Derangement of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Knee Rheumatism1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Post Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement, Total / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLabour / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentMammaplasty / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentMen Infertility1
4CompletedTreatmentMeniscus Lesion1
4CompletedTreatmentNasal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentObturator Nerve Block / Total Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip3
4CompletedTreatmentPain Following Thoracotomy Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute6
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Labor2
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPercutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentPopliteal Plexus Block / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain3
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Urinary Retention / Postoperative Urinary Retention1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Thoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain15
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Spine Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnant Women Who Requested Epidural Analgesia in the Early Stage of Labor / The Time to Achieve Effective Analgesia1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
4CompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome / Shoulder Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentSequelae of Fracture of Forearm and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Remove of Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip and Knee Arthroplasty / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)2
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence,Stress1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentCardiothoracic Surgery1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost Operative Pain / Tonsillectomy / Tonsillitis1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentShoulder Arthroplasty / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionNasal Deformity, Acquired / Nasal Obstruction1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareRotator Cuff Arthropathy of Left Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Arthropathy of Right Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Injuries / Rotator Cuff Repair / Rotator Cuff Tears / Shoulder Arthritis / Shoulder Disease / Shoulder Injury / Shoulder Pain / Shoulder Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcromioclavicular Joint Resection / Acromioplasty / Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery / Intra-articular Debridement / Subacromial Decompression1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Opioids Use / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anesthetic Toxicity1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemoro Acetabular Impingement1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFibroid Uterus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthognathic Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back / Lumbar Disc Degeneration / Lumbosacral Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spinal Deformities / Spondylolisthesis / Spondylolysis / Stenosis1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceThoracic1
4RecruitingOtherAdverse Reaction to Spinal Anesthetic / Maternal Care for Cervical Incompetence1
4RecruitingOtherLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block1
4RecruitingOtherOpioids Use1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fracture1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Delivery1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia2
4RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy, Vaginal1
4RecruitingPreventionOsteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Postoperative pain / Shoulder Pain1
4RecruitingPreventionPain in Pediatric Patients1
4RecruitingPreventionPain, Labor / Pain, Obstetric1
4RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingScreeningObstetrical Anesthesia1
4RecruitingScreeningPhrenic Nerve Paralysis1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareIntranasal Bupivacaine / Intranasal Dexmedetomidine / Septoplasty Surgeries1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain Management1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePregnancy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRight Ventricular Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Breast Reconstruction / Transverse Abdominis Plane Block1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthetic complication neurological / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect, Spinal and Epidural1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentBupivacaine / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Delivery / Obesity, Morbid / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anesthetic Toxicity1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain Management / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentChest Injury Trauma / Drug Effect / Intercostal Rib / Local Anesthesia / Local Infiltration / Opioid Dependence / Pain, Nerve / Pain; Catheter (Other) / Pneumonia / Rib Fractures / Rib Trauma / Surgical Procedure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentColectomy / Laparotomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section1
4RecruitingTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Hip Hemiarthroplasty / Intracapsular Fracture of Femur1
4RecruitingTreatmentFull Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentHemodynamic Stability / Hip Fracture1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh BMI / Obesity, Morbid1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Fracture1
4RecruitingTreatmentHot Flushes / Prostate Cancer1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypospadias / Urethrocutaneous Fistula1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Spondylolisthesis / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
4RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4RecruitingTreatmentMaternal Hypotension After Spinal Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
4RecruitingTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Pain Management / Post Operative Pain / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Trauma Injury / Traumas1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Labor1
4RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain / Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation / Trigger Point Injection1
4RecruitingTreatmentPertrochanteric Fracture1
4RecruitingTreatmentPharmacokinetics / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain (Post Laparoscopic Hernia Repair)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain Control1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Score1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain10
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome / Shoulder Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Transplant; Failure, Kidney1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Urethral Strictures1
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentRobotic Lung Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal / TAP Blocks1
4RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Tract Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentVaginal Prolapse1
4SuspendedSupportive CareKnee Injuries / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4SuspendedTreatmentAortic Valve Disorder / Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) / Diseases of Mitral Valve / Intracardiac Myxoma1
4SuspendedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4SuspendedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4TerminatedDiagnosticSI Joint Pain1
4TerminatedHealth Services ResearchIntestinal Obstruction3
4TerminatedSupportive CareColectomy / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4TerminatedSupportive CareFoot Surgery / Fracture of Foot1
4TerminatedSupportive CareMammaplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentACL Repair / Bankart Repair / Meniscectomy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia / Aspiration / Pain / Tibial Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentCardiac Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Pain Control of Distal Radius Fractures With Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection1
4TerminatedTreatmentDuration of Pain Relief1
4TerminatedTreatmentExternal Cephalic Version1
4TerminatedTreatmentEye Enucleation / Eye Evisceration1
4TerminatedTreatmentFinger Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Wrist Injury1
4TerminatedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4TerminatedTreatmentGlenohumeral Arthritis / Total Shoulder Arthroplasty1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain, Labor1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Shoulder Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostsurgical Analgesia1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnesthesia Conduction / Anesthetics, Local / Injuries, Hand1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPain1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareOnset and Duration of Sensory and Motor Block of Femoral Nerve / Time to First Request of Rescue Analgesics / Total Morphine Consumption in 24 Hours / Visual Analogue Pain Scores1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareTonsillectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCesarean Section / Local Anaesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpidural Block / Labour / Pregnancy / Primigravida Labour1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPainful Intercourse1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Minimally Invasive Thorascopic Surgical Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPregnancy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4WithdrawnPreventionMigraine Disorders1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareFracture Bone / Lower Limb Injuries1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia Duration1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentClavicle Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fracture1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fracture / Intertrochanteric Fractures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionEmergence Agitation / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMotor Impairments / Neurological Conditions / Orthopaedic Injury1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdverse Effects / Anaesthesia therapy / Cesarean Section / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Inguinal Hernias / Spinal Anaesthesia / Umbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Maternal Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnxiety / Blood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArthritis / Gouty Arthritis / Headache / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFasting / Intraoperative Complications / Ischaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHip Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfiltration Facet Joint1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInterstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome / Myofascial Pelvic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Pain Arthritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLabor; Prolonged, First Stage / Labor; Prolonged, Second Stage / Pain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMalignant Neoplasm of Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMilk Expression, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Anaesthesia / Success or Failure of Spinal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Replacement Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnesthetics, Local / Pharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceStrabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLumbar Disc Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParesis1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchElective Caesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchPeribulbar Block1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnesthetics, Local / Brachial Plexus Block1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBreast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCesarean Section; Shivering1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHip Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPostoperative Pain After Knee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherTympanum; Perforation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnalgesia / Spinal Anaesthesia / Transurethral Resection of Prostate / Tranurethral Resection of Prostate1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionElective Cesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLiver Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLower Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain, Labor / Postpartum Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain4
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain / Wisdom Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSecondary Hyperalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSwallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningKnee Surgery With Tourniquet1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Cataract Unilateral Pending Extraction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLaparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery / Paracervical Block / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLower Extremities Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-traumatic; Arthrosis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Rectus Sheath Block / Ultrasound Guided Rectus Sheath Block1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome2
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRetinal Detachment1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSurgery to the Distal One Third of the Upper Limb1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUpper Extremity Trauma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Thyroid Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Hip / Arthropathy of Knee1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthropathy / Closed Fracture Proximal Humerus, Four Part / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Knee Surgery / Dexmedetomidine / Intra-articular / Lidocaine 5% Patch1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreastfeeding / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervial Disc Herniation / Cervical Disc Herniation / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChest Pain / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentConditions Requiring Colorectal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDevelopmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiaphragm Paralysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpidural Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stone Pancreatitis / Gallbladder Inflammation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGall Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGastric Adenoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Malignant Neoplasm of Abdomen1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGoiter, Nodular / Graves' Disease / Hyperparathyroidism / Neoplasms, Thyroid / Thyroid Nodules1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHealing Surgical Wounds1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Hip Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInjury of Shoulder Region1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInterscalene Block / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Appendectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpen Heart Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis: Joint Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain6
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Labor4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGallstone formation / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPenile Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Surgical Pain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain12
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProximal Femur Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRadius Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentScoliosis / Spinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSecond Trimester Medical Abortion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Total Knee Arthroplasty in Geriatric Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Ultrasonography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Bupivacaine/Morphine in Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThe Analgesic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTransversus Abdominis Plane Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUltrasound Therapy; Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUmbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVentral Hernias1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBreast Cancer / Pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableEhlers-Danlos Syndrome / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailablePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injuries1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareFemoral Fractures / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Malignancies / Pain1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentBreast Cancer Related Lymphedema / Lymphedema of Upper Limb1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAkinesia / Anesthesia Recovery Period / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect / Cataract Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Patients Satisfaction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Bupivacaine Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCardiac Arrythmias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionChest Pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis) / Nasal Septum Deviation / Polyps, Nasal / Postoperative Agitation: Impaired Awareness, Abnormal Cognitive Function, Confusion, and Verbal and Physical Agitation During Recovery From General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionHip Fracture / Hypotension1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCesarean Section / Hypotension Drug-Induced / Postoperative Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics Agent / Bupivacaine / Lidocaine / Mohs Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / General Surgery / Obesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Pediatric1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInterscalene Block / Regional Anesthesia / Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Osteoarthritis of Knee Nos1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRegional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Epidural Analgesia, Fracture Ribs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnalgesia / Anesthetics Agent / Pain Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBradycardia / Cesarean Section Complications / Hypotension Drug-Induced / Spinal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceKnee Arthroscopic Surgery / Surgery of Knee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticDiabetic Foot1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBrachial Plexus Block / Pulmonary Ventilation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherBupivacaine / Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia / Pain / Prilocaine1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherFracture; Rib, Multiple1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Pain Management / Pediatrics1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia and Analgesia / Pediatrics / Urologic Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthetics, Local / Postoperative pain / Surgical Site Infections / Wound Infections1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBilateral Superficial Cervical Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCesarean Section2
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionFracture of Proximal Femur1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntraoperative Bleeding / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPain / Postoperative1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPregnancy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSpine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Inhalation; Gas1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningLocal Anesthesia2
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareCervical incompetence1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Wall Defects1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Head and Neck Carcinoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain / Postoperative pain / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Caudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBradycardia foetal / Hypertonic Uterine1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia / Spinal Ultrasound1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChest Trauma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases / Lung Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentClavicle Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDiscogenic Low Back Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDysplasia, Congenital Hip2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis of Uterus / Uterine Leiomyomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentForearm Injuries / Hand Injuries and Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHepatectomy / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKnee Arthropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLeg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNasal Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentOld Age1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Labor1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain / Urinary System Stones1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSleep Deprivation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThoracic Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentUterine Leiomyomas1
Not AvailableSuspendedPreventionEpisiotomy; Complications / Local Anesthesia / Second Degree Perineal Tear During Delivery - Delivered1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableComplications; Cesarean Section / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Hemodynamics Instability / Personal Satisfaction1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherAbdominal Wall Relaxation After Rectus Sheath Block / Hernia / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareBunions / Hallux Rigidus1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDuration of Pain Relief1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHip Injuries1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPost Operative Pain2
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableBreastfeeding Outcomes / Neonatal Neurobehavior1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticAnesthesia, Spinal [E03.155.086.331] / Operating Tables [E07.325.662]1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchLocal Anesthesia / Satisfaction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBlock1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLumbar Plexus Nerve Block / Osteoarthritis of Hip / Other Acute Postoperative Pain / Parasacaral (Sciatic) Nerve Block / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Regional Anesthesia / Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain3
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnHealth Services ResearchFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAbdominal Surgeries1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionVaginal Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareLumbar Laminectomy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain After Carpal Tunnel Release1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostdural Puncture Headache / Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPrimigravida in Labour Pains1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentUpper Eyelid Surgery1


  • Hospira inc
  • International medicated systems ltd
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionEpidural1.25 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural5 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEnteral; Epidural; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionPerineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
SolutionIntraspinal7.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg
SolutionInfiltration2.5 mg
SolutionInfiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal2.5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal5 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal7.5 mg
InjectionSubarachnoid7.5 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredTopical
KitInfiltration; Subcutaneous
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Injection, suspension, liposomalInfiltration13.3 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
Injection, solutionEpidural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration2.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
SolutionEpidural; Retrobulbar150 mg
SolutionInfiltration125 mg
SolutionInfiltration250 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration2.5 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration5 mg
LiquidEpidural; Retrobulbar7.5 mg
LiquidIntraspinal7.5 mg
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
SolutionIntraspinal15 mg
Injection, solutionInfiltration
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitIntramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionInfiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionPerineural
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Parenteral2.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar7.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Retrobulbar
Injection, solutionSubarachnoid7.5 mg/1mL
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral
InjectionEpidural; Parenteral; Retrobulbar
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Bupivacaine hcl powder18.36USD g
Sensorcaine-dextr 0.75% amp2.36USD ml
Marcaine spinal ampul0.93USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl 0.5% on-q pump0.63USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% on-q pump0.62USD ml
Marcaine 0.25% vial0.26USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.0625%0.25USD ml
Bupivacaine-ns 0.1% on-q pump0.25USD ml
Sensorcaine 0.25% vial0.2USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.1%0.17USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.2%0.15USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% vial0.11USD ml
Bupivacaine 0.25% ampul0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.125% bag0.1USD ml
Bupivacaine hcl-ns 0.25%0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)107-108 °CPhysProp
water solubility2400 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.41HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0977 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.2 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9814
Blood Brain Barrier+0.936
Caco-2 permeable+0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7836
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7957
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8346
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7045
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6863
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6205
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6066
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8462
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.2574 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8283
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7851
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.44 KB)
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c1dbebb634be5e7e1140
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-ae34de204bcb9a9deb23
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-7ea7001506aae0c271a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-2900000000-ef819c5e235d6d524d8c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-7900000000-22d7491053c05d773e93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-9400000000-71357b8186126c5933ce


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Piperidinecarboxamides / Anilides / m-Xylenes / N-arylamides / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Alpha-amino acid amide / 2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / Anilide / M-xylene / Xylene / N-arylamide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Piperidine
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidinecarboxamide, tertiary amino compound, aromatic amide (CHEBI:77431)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Sheets MF, Fozzard HA, Lipkind GM, Hanck DA: Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2010.03.002. [PubMed:20685573]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin e receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May play a role as an importa...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype
Molecular Weight
41800.655 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Beloeil H, Gentili M, Benhamou D, Mazoit JX: The effect of a peripheral block on inflammation-induced prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase expression in rats. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep;109(3):943-50. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181aff25e. [PubMed:19690271]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
  1. Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B, Villard PH, Puyoou F, Durand A, Lacarelle B, Hardwigsen J, Le-Treut YP: Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Apr;28(4):383-5. [PubMed:10725304]
  2. Prescriber's digital reference, Marcaine with Epinephrine-bipuvacaine-hydrochloride [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 07, 2020 20:19

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