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Identification
NameSomatropin recombinant
Accession NumberDB00052  (BTD00086, BIOD00086)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionRecombinant human growth hormone (somatotropin) 191 residues, MW 22.1 kD, synthesized in E. coli
Protein structureDb00052
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC990H1532N262O300S7
Protein average weight22129.0 Da
Sequences
>DB00052 sequence
FPTIPLSRLFDNAMLRAHRLHQLAFDTYQEFEEAYIPKEQKYSFLQNPQTSLCFSESIPT
PSNREETQQKSNLELLRISLLLIQSWLEPVQFLRSVFANSLVYGASDSNVYDLLKDLEEG
IQTLMGRLEDGSPRTGQIFKQTYSKFDTNSHNDDALLKNYGLLYCFRKDMDKVETFLRIV
QCRSVEGSCGF
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
GH
GH-N
Growth hormone
Growth hormone 1
Pituitary growth hormone
Somatotropin precursor
Somatropin
Somatropin [rDNA origin]
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.6 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution5.3 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.2 mgSubcutaneousPfizerNot applicableNot applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.0 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.8 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution12 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.4 mgSubcutaneousPfizerNot applicableNot applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.2 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution2.0 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.6 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution1.4 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinKitPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1995-12-20Not applicableUs
GenotropinPowder, for solution0.8 mgSubcutaneousPfizer2013-09-18Not applicableCanada
GenotropinPowder, for solution5 mgSubcutaneousPfizerNot applicableNot applicableCanada
HumatropeKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2006-01-27Not applicableUs
HumatropeKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2006-01-27Not applicableUs
HumatropeKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1987-04-01Not applicableUs
HumatropeKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2006-01-27Not applicableUs
Humatrope Inj 1mg/mlPowder, for solution1 mgIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
NorditropinInjection, solution5 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2005-01-03Not applicableUs
NorditropinInjection, solution10 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2006-01-02Not applicableUs
NorditropinInjection, solution15 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2005-01-03Not applicableUs
NorditropinInjection, solution5 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-08-10Not applicableUs
NorditropinInjection, solution30 mg/3mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2009-03-30Not applicableUs
Norditropin NordiflexSolution10 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2014-08-15Not applicableCanada
Norditropin NordiflexSolution5 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2014-08-15Not applicableCanada
Norditropin NordiflexSolution15 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2014-08-15Not applicableCanada
Norditropin SimplexxSolution15 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2010-05-042015-06-19Canada
Norditropin SimplexxSolution10 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2010-05-042015-06-19Canada
Norditropin SimplexxSolution5 mgSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2010-05-042015-06-19Canada
NutropinKitGenentech, Inc.1993-11-172015-12-29Us
NutropinKitGenentech, Inc.1993-11-172015-12-29Us
Nutropin AQ - Sc 5mg/mlLiquid5 mgSubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche1997-10-142013-04-16Canada
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 10Injection, solution10 mg/2mLSubcutaneousGenentech, Inc.1995-12-29Not applicableUs
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 10Solution10 mgSubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche2012-05-18Not applicableCanada
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 20Solution20 mgSubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche2013-09-09Not applicableCanada
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 20Injection, solution20 mg/2mLSubcutaneousGenentech, Inc.1995-12-29Not applicableUs
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 5Injection, solution5 mg/2mLSubcutaneousGenentech, Inc.1995-12-29Not applicableUs
Nutropin AQ Nuspin 5Solution5 mgSubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche2013-09-09Not applicableCanada
Nutropin AQ Pen 10Injection, solution10 mg/2mLSubcutaneousGenentech, Inc.1995-12-292017-02-01Us
Nutropin AQ Pen 20Injection, solution20 mg/2mLSubcutaneousGenentech, Inc.1995-12-292017-02-01Us
Nutropin AQ Pen CartridgeSolution10 mgSubcutaneousHoffmann La Roche2004-08-09Not applicableCanada
NutropinaqInjection, solution10 mg/2mlSubcutaneousIpsen Pharma2001-02-16Not applicableEu
NutropinaqInjection, solution10 mg/2mlSubcutaneousIpsen Pharma2001-02-16Not applicableEu
NutropinaqInjection, solution10 mg/2mlSubcutaneousIpsen Pharma2001-02-16Not applicableEu
OmnitropeInjection, powder, for solution1.3 mg/mlSubcutaneousSandoz2006-04-12Not applicableEu
OmnitropeSolution15 mgSubcutaneousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
OmnitropeInjection, powder, for solution5 mg/mlSubcutaneousSandoz2006-04-12Not applicableEu
OmnitropeInjection, solution5 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousSandoz2006-05-30Not applicableUs
OmnitropeInjection, powder, for solution5 mg/mlSubcutaneousSandoz2006-04-12Not applicableEu
OmnitropeSolution5 mgSubcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-04-20Not applicableCanada
OmnitropeInjection, solution10 mg/1.5mLSubcutaneousSandoz2006-05-30Not applicableUs
OmnitropeSolution10 mgSubcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-04-20Not applicableCanada
OmnitropeKitSandoz2006-05-30Not applicableUs
SaizenSolution8 mgSubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada2010-12-02Not applicableCanada
SaizenKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono2000-08-29Not applicableUs
SaizenPowder, for solution5 mgIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada1999-10-26Not applicableCanada
SaizenSolution5.83 mgSubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada2010-12-02Not applicableCanada
SaizenKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono1996-10-08Not applicableUs
SaizenSolution8 mgSubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada2010-12-02Not applicableCanada
Saizen 8.8mg (5.83mg/ml)Powder, for solution8.8 mgSubcutaneousEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada2006-01-23Not applicableCanada
Saizen ClickeasyKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono2004-07-09Not applicableUs
SaizenprepKitIntramuscular; SubcutaneousEmd Serono2017-01-17Not applicableUs
SerostimKitSubcutaneousEmd Serono1996-08-23Not applicableUs
SerostimKitSubcutaneousEmd Serono1996-08-23Not applicableUs
SerostimKitSubcutaneousEmd Serono1997-07-25Not applicableUs
ZomactonKitFerring Pharmaceuticals1995-05-25Not applicableUs
ZomactonKitSubcutaneousFerring Pharmaceuticals2015-03-01Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ValtropinInjection, powder, for solution15 mg/1.5mlSubcutaneousBio Partners Gmb H2006-04-24Not applicableEu
International Brands
NameCompany
BioTropinBiotech General
NutropinAQGenentech Inc.
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Bio-tropinNovopharm Limited
Nutropin - Kit Pws(10mg) & Liq(10ml) Im ScHoffmann La Roche
Nutropin - Kit Pws(5mg) & Liq(10ml) Im ScHoffmann La Roche
OmnitropeSandoz Canada Incorporated
Saizen 10iu - KitEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada
SerostimEmd Serono, A Division Of Emd Inc., Canada
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIINQX9KB6PCL
CAS number12629-01-5
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of dwarfism, acromegaly and prevention of HIV-induced weight loss
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsUsed in the treatment of dwarfism and growth failure, growth hormone (hGH) stimulates skeletal growth in pediatric patients with growth failure due to a lack of adequate secretion of endogenous GH. Skeletal growth is accomplished at the epiphyseal plates at the ends of a growing bone. Growth and metabolism of epiphyseal plate cells are directly stimulated by GH and one of its mediators, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor).
Mechanism of actionhGH binds to the human growth hormone receptor (GHR). Upon binding, hGH causes dimerization of GHR, activation of the GHR-associated JAK2 tyrosine kinase, and tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. These events recruit and/or activate a variety of signaling molecules, including MAP kinases, insulin receptor substrates, phosphatidylinositol 3' phosphate kinase, diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, intracellular calcium, and Stat transcription factors. These signaling molecules contribute to the GH-induced changes in enzymatic activity, transport function, and gene expression that ultimately culminate in changes in growth and metabolism.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Growth hormone receptorProteinyes
binder
HumanP10912 details
Prolactin receptorProteinyesNot AvailableHumanP16471 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationAlthough calcium excretion in the urine is increased, there is a simultaneous increase in calcium absorption from the intestine. Somatropin stimulates the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate and collagen, and increases the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline.
Half lifeNot Available
Clearance
  • 2.3 +/- 1.8 mL/min/kg [GHD patients (IV 33 ng/kg/min)]
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
BazedoxifeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Bazedoxifene.Approved, Investigational
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorotrianisene.Withdrawn
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cortisone acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Somatropin recombinant.Approved
DienestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Dienestrol.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Diethylstilbestrol.Approved
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstriolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
GenisteinThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Genistein.Investigational
HexestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Hexestrol.Withdrawn
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.Approved
MethallenestrilThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Methallenestril.Experimental
Polyestradiol phosphateThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Polyestradiol phosphate.Approved
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Prednisone can be decreased when used in combination with Somatropin recombinant.Approved, Vet Approved
PromestrieneThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Promestriene.Investigational
QuinestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved
S EquolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with S Equol.Investigational
SecoisolariciresinolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Secoisolariciresinol.Investigational
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B.Approved
TiboloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Tibolone.Approved
ZeranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Zeranol.Vet Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Mandayam J. Narasimhan, John A. Anderson, “Process for the large scale production of human growth hormone by serial secondary suspension culture.” U.S. Patent US4124448, issued January, 1963.

US4124448
General References
  1. Seltzer V, Tonge SR: Proceedings: Methylamphetamine withdrawal as a model for the depressive state: antagonism of post-amphetamine depression by imipramine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1975 Dec;27 Suppl?-2:16P. [PubMed:2688 ]
  2. Alba-Roth J, Muller OA, Schopohl J, von Werder K: Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Dec;67(6):1186-9. [PubMed:2903866 ]
  3. Scarth JP: Modulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis by pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and environmental xenobiotics: an emerging role for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and the transcription factors regulating their expression. A review. Xenobiotica. 2006 Feb-Mar;36(2-3):119-218. [PubMed:16702112 ]
  4. Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH: Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest. 1968 Sep;47(9):2079-90. [PubMed:5675428 ]
External Links
ATC CodesH01AC01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (241 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAging / Immune System and Related Disorders1
0CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
1Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Diseases1
1CompletedBasic ScienceGrowth Failure / Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Growth Disorders / Healthy Volunteers / Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS) / Prader-Willi Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentGrowth Disorders / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
1CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Disorders / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedNot AvailableAllogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation1
1TerminatedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentGH Deficiency (GHD) / Growth Retardation1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentGrowth Disorders / Hypophosphatemic Rickets / Somatropin Therapy1
1WithdrawnTreatmentGrowth Disorders / Healthy Volunteers1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentFemale Infertility Due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHypochondroplasia1
2CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentDwarfism / Turner's Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentFractures, Bone / Tibia Fractures1
2CompletedTreatmentGonadal Dysgenesis / Turner's Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)2
2CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Heart Failure (HF) / Ischemic Heart Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Therapy / Very Low Birth Weight Infant1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
2CompletedTreatmentInfertilities / Poor Ovarian Reserve1
2CompletedTreatmentPediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency1
2CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceTendinopathy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGrowth Hormone Treatment / Infant, Premature, Diseases / Infant, Small for Gestational Age1
2SuspendedTreatmentComplications; Artificial Fertilization, Introduction of Embryo in Embryo Transfer1
2TerminatedTreatmentGrowth Hormone-Deficiency1
2TerminatedTreatmentHormone Deficiency1
2TerminatedTreatmentInsulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Deficiency1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Adipose Redistribution Syndrome (HARS)2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentShort Stature1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAlbright Hereditary Osteodystrophy / Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBurns1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBurns / Growth Hormone Treatment1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentArthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid / Crohn's Disease (CD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentInfertilities1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentMucopolysaccharidosis II / Mucopolysaccharidosis VI / Type 1 Mucopolysaccharidosis1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Noonan Syndrome1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteogenesis Imperfecta1
3CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes1
3CompletedNot AvailableFoetal Growth Problem / Small for Gestational Age1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders5
3CompletedTreatmentChildhood-onset Growth Hormone Deficiency / Pituitary Dwarfism1
3CompletedTreatmentChildren Born With Serious Intra-uterine Growth Retardation1
3CompletedTreatmentDwarfism / Pituitary Diseases / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic / Turner's Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentEndocrine System Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentFailure to Thrive1
3CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
3CompletedTreatmentFoetal Growth Problem / Small for Gestational Age4
3CompletedTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Turner's Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Noonan Syndrome2
3CompletedTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Turner's Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Disorders / Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)5
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Growth Retardation1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Disorders / Pituitary Dwarfism1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Adipose Redistribution Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS)4
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Small for Gestational Age1
3CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) / Still Disease, Juvenile-Onset1
3CompletedTreatmentKidney Failure,Chronic / Renal Dialysis1
3CompletedTreatmentRetardation, Fetal Growth2
3CompletedTreatmentSmall For Gestational Age (SGA)1
3CompletedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome3
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency1
3RecruitingTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentEndocrine System Diseases / Growth Hormone Deficiency, Pediatric / HGH (Human Growth Hormone) / Hormones / Pituitary Diseases1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfant, Small for Gestational Age1
3RecruitingTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentEndocrine System Diseases2
3TerminatedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)3
3TerminatedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Therapy / Infant, Small for Gestational Age1
3TerminatedTreatmentInfant, Small for Gestational Age1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSmall for Gestational Age1
4CompletedNot AvailableGrowth Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Renal Insufficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentDwarfism / Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentFemale Infertility Due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve2
4CompletedTreatmentFoetal Growth Problem / Small for Gestational Age3
4CompletedTreatmentGenetic Disorders / Turner's Syndrome2
4CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedTreatmentHypopituitarism1
4CompletedTreatmentHypothyroidism1
4CompletedTreatmentPituitary Dwarfism1
4CompletedTreatmentShort Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
4CompletedTreatmentShort Stature Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA)1
4CompletedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Short Stature, Idiopathic / Turner's Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS) / Self Image1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
4TerminatedNot AvailableIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS) / Turner's Syndrome1
4TerminatedTreatmentAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentBrain Injury / Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableRetardation, Fetal Growth1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticAtaxia Telangiectasia (AT) / Growth Failure1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4WithdrawnDiagnosticIdiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableFoetal Growth Problem / Small for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableGrowth Disorders / Small for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableSmall For Gestational Age (SGA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAchondroplasia / Genetic Disorders2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Renal Insufficiency / Foetal Growth Problem / Genetic Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Noonan Syndrome / Small for Gestational Age / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) / Growth Hormone Disorders4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Renal Insufficiency / Delivery Systems / Foetal Growth Problem / Genetic Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Small for Gestational Age / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFoetal Growth Problem / Genetic Disorders / Growth Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS) / Small for Gestational Age / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGenetic Disorders / Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children / Growth Hormone Disorders / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGenetic Disorders / Prader-Willi Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency Dwarfism1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency Dwarfism / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / SHOX Protein, Human / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency, Adult / Hypopituitarism / Pituitary Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Growth Hormone Deficiency / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfant, Small for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSmall for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAcromegaly / Metabolic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus Type I / Ketoacidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFatty Liver / Metabolism1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAids / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Disorders / Hypopituitarism / Pituitary Dwarfism1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNAFLD1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m2 / Osteopenia1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceGrowth Hormone Treatment / Metabolic Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Turner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceInteraction Between the GH/IGF-I System and the Immune-system1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceTurner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableGrowth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Genentech inc
  • Serono laboratories inc
  • Cangene corp
  • Ferring pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Novo nordisk inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Emd serono inc
  • Lg life sciences ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquid; powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.2 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.4 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.6 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous0.8 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.0 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.2 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.4 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.6 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.8 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous12 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous2.0 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5 mg
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5.3 mg
KitIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous1 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 mg/1.5mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous15 mg/1.5mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous30 mg/3mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous5 mg/1.5mL
SolutionSubcutaneous15 mg
Kit
Kit; powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
LiquidSubcutaneous5 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous20 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous5 mg/2mL
SolutionSubcutaneous5 mg
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous20 mg/2mL
SolutionSubcutaneous10 mg
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous1.3 mg/ml
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous5 mg/ml
Kit; powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous5 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous5.83 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous8 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous8.8 mg
KitSubcutaneous
Powder, for solutionSubcutaneous
Injection, powder, for solutionSubcutaneous15 mg/1.5ml
Kit
KitSubcutaneous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Humatrope 24 mg cartridge1822.9USD cartridge
Norditropin flexpro 15 mg/1.51179.54USD ml
Norditropin 15 mg/1.5ml Solution 1.5ml Cartridge1168.32USD cartridge
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 15 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml1168.32USD pen
Norditropin 15 mg/1.5 ml cartridge1123.38USD ml
Norditropin nordiflx 15 mg/1.51123.38USD ml
Genotropin 12 mg Solution928.36USD each
Humatrope 12 mg cartridge911.45USD cartridge
Nutropin 10 mg vial784.7USD vial
Nutropin aq 20 mg/2ml pen cart759.55USD ml
Nutropin aq nuspin 20 pen cart759.55USD ml
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 10 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml753.86USD pen
Norditropin nordiflex 30 mg/3748.92USD ml
Saizen 8.8 mg Solution Vial626.1USD vial
Saizen Click.Easy 8.8 mg Solution Vial626.1USD vial
Saizen 8.8 mg vial602.02USD vial
Protropin 10 mg Solution Vial549.9USD vial
Humatrope 6 mg cartridge455.72USD cartridge
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.8 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)433.56USD box
Serostim 8.8 mg vial418.66USD vial
Nutropin 5 mg vial392.35USD vial
Saizen 5 mg Solution Vial391.31USD vial
Genotropin 5.8 mg Cartridge391.21USD cartridge
Norditropin 5 mg/1.5ml Solution 1.5ml Cartridge389.44USD cartridge
Norditropin NordiFlex Pen 5 mg/1.5ml Solution 1 Syringe = 1.5ml389.44USD pen
Saizen 5 mg vial376.26USD vial
Serostim 6 mg vial332.86USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.6 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)326.67USD box
Omnitrope 5.8 mg Solution Vial283.38USD vial
Serostim 5 mg vial277.38USD vial
Protropin 5 mg Solution Vial274.95USD vial
Tev-Tropin 5 mg Solution Vial259.45USD vial
Tev-tropin 5 mg vial239.51USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.4 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)228.45USD box
Serostim 4 mg vial221.9USD vial
Genotropin MiniQuick 2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)154.72USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 2 mg150.46USD each
Genotropin miniquick 1.8 mg135.41USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.6 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)123.78USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.6 mg120.37USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 0.2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)110.52USD box
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.4 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)108.78USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.4 mg105.32USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1.2 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)92.83USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1.2 mg90.28USD each
Genotropin MiniQuick 1 mg (7 Cartridges Per Box)77.36USD cartridge
Genotropin miniquick 1 mg75.23USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.8 mg60.19USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.6 mg45.14USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.4 mg30.09USD each
Genotropin miniquick 0.2 mg15.05USD each
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1326439 No1994-01-252011-01-25Canada
CA2252535 No2009-06-232017-04-24Canada
US5288703 No1994-10-072011-10-07Us
US5849700 No1995-12-152015-12-15Us
US5849704 No1995-12-152015-12-15Us
US5898030 No1996-04-272016-04-27Us
US6004297 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
US6152897 No1998-11-202018-11-20Us
US6235004 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
US6899699 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US7686786 No2006-08-032026-08-03Us
US8672898 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US8684969 No2005-10-202025-10-20Us
US8841252 No1997-12-262017-12-26Us
US8920383 No2006-07-172026-07-17Us
US9108002 No2006-01-202026-01-20Us
US9132239 No2012-02-012032-02-01Us
USRE41956 No2001-01-212021-01-21Us
USRE43834 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point76 °C at pH 3.5Gomez-Orellana, I. et al., Protein Sci. 7:1352-1358 (1998)
hydrophobicity-0.411Not Available
isoelectric point5.27Not Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for pituitary gland growth hormone involved in regulating postnatal body growth. On ligand binding, couples to the JAK2/STAT5 pathway (By similarity).The soluble form (GHBP) acts as a reservoir of growth hormone in plasma and may be a modulator/inhibitor of GH signaling.Isoform 2 up-regulates the production of GHBP and acts as a negative inhibitor of GH signaling.
Gene Name:
GHR
Uniprot ID:
P10912
Molecular Weight:
71498.885 Da
References
  1. Walenkamp MJ, Wit JM: Genetic disorders in the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor-I axis. Horm Res. 2006;66(5):221-30. [PubMed:16917171 ]
  2. Wu XY, Xu Z, Chen C, Liu FK, Li JS: [Correlation of growth hormone receptor expression to preoperative radiosensitivity of rectal cancer patients]. Ai Zheng. 2006 Sep;25(9):1162-7. [PubMed:16965663 ]
  3. Adriani M, Garbi C, Amodio G, Russo I, Giovannini M, Amorosi S, Matrecano E, Cosentini E, Candotti F, Pignata C: Functional interaction of common gamma-chain and growth hormone receptor signaling apparatus. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15;177(10):6889-95. [PubMed:17082603 ]
  4. Choi JH, Kim HS, Kim SH, Yang YR, Bae YS, Chang JS, Kwon HM, Ryu SH, Suh PG: Phospholipase Cgamma1 negatively regulates growth hormone signalling by forming a ternary complex with Jak2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;8(12):1389-97. Epub 2006 Nov 26. [PubMed:17128263 ]
  5. Bernstein RM, Leigh SR, Donovan SM, Monaco MH: Hormones and body size evolution in papionin primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Feb;132(2):247-60. [PubMed:17133434 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT. Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling.
Gene Name:
PRLR
Uniprot ID:
P16471
Molecular Weight:
69505.045 Da
References
  1. Keeler C, Jablonski EM, Albert YB, Taylor BD, Myszka DG, Clevenger CV, Hodsdon ME: The kinetics of binding human prolactin, but not growth hormone, to the prolactin receptor vary over a physiologic pH range. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 6;46(9):2398-410. Epub 2007 Feb 6. [PubMed:17279774 ]
  2. Ahmed TA, Buzzelli MD, Lang CH, Capen JB, Shumate ML, Navaratnarajah M, Nagarajan M, Cooney RN: Interleukin-6 inhibits growth hormone-mediated gene expression in hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):G1793-803. Epub 2007 Mar 29. [PubMed:17395896 ]
  3. Moderscheim TA, Gorba T, Pathipati P, Kokay IC, Grattan DR, Williams CE, Scheepens A: Prolactin is involved in glial responses following a focal injury to the juvenile rat brain. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 30;145(3):963-73. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17317019 ]
  4. Cunningham BC, Bass S, Fuh G, Wells JA: Zinc mediation of the binding of human growth hormone to the human prolactin receptor. Science. 1990 Dec 21;250(4988):1709-12. [PubMed:2270485 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 29, 2017 02:26