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Identification
NameLevobupivacaine
Accession NumberDB01002  (APRD00110)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionLevobupivacaine is an amino-amide local anaesthetic drug belonging to the family of n-alkylsubstituted pipecoloxylidide. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Chirocaine. Compared to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. It is approximately 13 per cent less potent (by molarity) than racemic bupivacaine.Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. [Wikipedia]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Bupivacaine
(S)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
(S)-Bupivacaine
L-(-)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
L-(-)-Bupivacaine
Levobupivacaine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ChirocaineAbbott Laboratories
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Levobupivacaine hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: SIEYLFHKZGLBNX-NTISSMGPSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 324.196841267
  • Average Mass: 324.889
DBSALT000834
Categories
UNIIA5H73K9U3W
CAS number27262-47-1
WeightAverage: 288.4277
Monoisotopic: 288.220163528
Chemical FormulaC18H28N2O
InChI KeyLEBVLXFERQHONN-INIZCTEOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H28N2O/c1-4-5-12-20-13-7-6-11-16(20)18(21)19-17-14(2)9-8-10-15(17)3/h8-10,16H,4-7,11-13H2,1-3H3,(H,19,21)/t16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
SMILES
CCCCN1CCCC[[email protected]]1C(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsLevobupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.
Mechanism of actionLocal anesthetics such as Levobupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Specifically, the drug binds to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocks sodium influx into nerve cells, which prevents depolarization.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9Y5Y9 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe plasma concentration of levobupivacaine following therapeutic administration depends on dose and also on route of administration, because absorption from the site of administration is affected by the vascularity of the tissue. Peak levels in blood were reached approximately 30 minutes after epidural administration, and doses up to 150 mg resulted in mean Cmax levels of up to 1.2 µg/mL.
Volume of distribution

66.91 ±18.23 L [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]

Protein binding>97%
Metabolism

Levobupivacaine is extensively metabolized with no unchanged levobupivacaine detected in urine or feces. In vitro studies using [14 C] levobupivacaine showed that CYP3A4 isoform and CYP1A2 isoform mediate the metabolism of levobupivacaine to desbutyl levobupivacaine and 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine, respectively. In vivo, the 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine appears to undergo further transformation to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Metabolic inversion of levobupivacaine to R(+)-bupivacaine was not evident both in vitro and in vivo.

Route of eliminationFollowing intravenous administration, recovery of the radiolabelled dose of levobupivacaine was essentially quantitative with a mean total of about 95% being recovered in urine and feces in 48 hours. Of this 95%, about 71% was in urine while 24% was in feces.
Half life3.3 hours
Clearance

39.06 ±13.29 L/h [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]

ToxicityLD50: 5.1mg/kg in rabbit, intravenous; 18mg/kg in rabbit, oral; 207mg/kg in rabbit, parenteral; 63mg/kg in rat, subcutaneous (Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 200, Pg. 359, 1972.) Levobupivacaine appears to cause less myocardial depression than both bupivacaine and ropivacaine, despite being in higher concentrations.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00397
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aliskiren is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amyl Nitrite is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Asenapine.Approved
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Azelastine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobupivacaine.Experimental
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bretylium is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canagliflozin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clevidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapagliflozin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dezocine.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dinutuximab is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipyridamole is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineLevobupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Empagliflozin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Estazolam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EthanolLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felodipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HyaluronidaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hyaluronidase is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydralazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxsuprine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lacidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lercanidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaLevobupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lithium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lu AA21004.Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MethotrimeprazineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineLevobupivacaine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MirtazapineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Moxonidine.Approved
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nebivolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nesiritide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifedipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nilvadipine.Approved
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Paliperidone.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ParaldehydeLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleLevobupivacaine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Promethazine.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Riociguat is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
RisperidoneLevobupivacaine may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleLevobupivacaine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
RotigotineLevobupivacaine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.Experimental
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Streptokinase.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
SuvorexantLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levobupivacaine.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m tilmanoceptLevobupivacaine may decrease effectiveness of Technetium Tc-99m tilmanocept as a diagnostic agent.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TenofovirThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zopiclone.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hooshang Shahriari Zavareh, Graham Anthony Charles Frampton, “Process for preparing levobupivacaine and analogues thereof.” U.S. Patent US5777124, issued February, 1985.

US5777124
General References
  1. Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ: Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):381-92. [PubMed:18728849 ]
  2. Leone S, Di Cianni S, Casati A, Fanelli G: Pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical use of new long acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Acta Biomed. 2008 Aug;79(2):92-105. [PubMed:18788503 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN01BB10
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (2.72 MB)
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9814
Blood Brain Barrier+0.936
Caco-2 permeable+0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7836
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7957
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8346
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7045
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6863
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6205
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6066
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8462
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8859
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.2574 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8283
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7851
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Purdue pharma lp
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5708011 No1994-10-132014-10-13Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.6Not Available
pKa8.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0977 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.31ALOGPS
logP4.52ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • N-arylamide
  • Piperidinecarboxylic acid
  • Piperidinecarboxamide
  • 2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Benzenoid
  • Piperidine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • 1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide (CHEBI:6149 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ueta K, Sugimoto M, Suzuki T, Uchida I, Mashimo T: In vitro antagonism of recombinant ligand-gated ion-channel receptors by stereospecific enantiomers of bupivacaine. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):19-25. [PubMed:16418020 ]
  4. Vladimirov M, Nau C, Mok WM, Strichartz G: Potency of bupivacaine stereoisomers tested in vitro and in vivo: biochemical, electrophysiological, and neurobehavioral studies. Anesthesiology. 2000 Sep;93(3):744-55. [PubMed:10969308 ]
  5. Brau ME, Branitzki P, Olschewski A, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Block of neuronal tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents by stereoisomers of piperidine local anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2000 Dec;91(6):1499-505. [PubMed:11094008 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23