Identification

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Name
Levobupivacaine
Accession Number
DB01002  (APRD00110)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Levobupivacaine is an amino-amide local anaesthetic drug belonging to the family of n-alkylsubstituted pipecoloxylidide. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Chirocaine. In particular, the specific levobupivacaine enantiomer is a worthwhile pursuit because it demonstrates less vasodilation and possesses a greater length of action in comparison to bupivacaine. It is approximately 13 per cent less potent (by molarity) than racemic bupivacaine.Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children. When administered appropriately, the occurrence of adverse effects is not anticipated much if at all. In general, the majority of potential adverse effects are predominantly associated with inappropriate administration methods that may cause systemic exposure and/or toxicity associated with overexposure to an anesthetic. Regardless, allergic reactions may also occur - although only rarely.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (-)-bupivacaine
  • (S)-1-butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • (S)-bupivacaine
  • L-(-)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
  • L-(−)-bupivacaine
  • Levobupivacaína
  • Levobupivacaine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Levobupivacaine hydrochlorideJ998RDZ51I27262-48-2SIEYLFHKZGLBNX-NTISSMGPSA-N
International/Other Brands
Chirocaine (Abbott Laboratories) / Novabupi
Categories
UNII
A5H73K9U3W
CAS number
27262-47-1
Weight
Average: 288.4277
Monoisotopic: 288.220163528
Chemical Formula
C18H28N2O
InChI Key
LEBVLXFERQHONN-INIZCTEOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H28N2O/c1-4-5-12-20-13-7-6-11-16(20)18(21)19-17-14(2)9-8-10-15(17)3/h8-10,16H,4-7,11-13H2,1-3H3,(H,19,21)/t16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
SMILES
CCCCN1CCCC[C@H]1C(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C

Pharmacology

Indication

For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management

Pharmacodynamics

Levobupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.

Mechanism of action

Local anesthetics such as Levobupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Specifically, the drug binds to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocks sodium influx into nerve cells, which prevents depolarization.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
Absorption

The plasma concentration of levobupivacaine following therapeutic administration depends on dose and also on route of administration, because absorption from the site of administration is affected by the vascularity of the tissue. Peak levels in blood were reached approximately 30 minutes after epidural administration, and doses up to 150 mg resulted in mean Cmax levels of up to 1.2 µg/mL.

Volume of distribution

66.91 ±18.23 L [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]

Protein binding

>97%

Metabolism

Levobupivacaine is extensively metabolized with no unchanged levobupivacaine detected in urine or feces. In vitro studies using [14 C] levobupivacaine showed that CYP3A4 isoform and CYP1A2 isoform mediate the metabolism of levobupivacaine to desbutyl levobupivacaine and 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine, respectively. In vivo, the 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine appears to undergo further transformation to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Metabolic inversion of levobupivacaine to R(+)-bupivacaine was not evident both in vitro and in vivo.

Route of elimination

Following intravenous administration, recovery of the radiolabelled dose of levobupivacaine was essentially quantitative with a mean total of about 95% being recovered in urine and feces in 48 hours. Of this 95%, about 71% was in urine while 24% was in feces.

Half life

3.3 hours

Clearance

39.06 ±13.29 L/h [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]

Toxicity

LD50: 5.1mg/kg in rabbit, intravenous; 18mg/kg in rabbit, oral; 207mg/kg in rabbit, parenteral; 63mg/kg in rat, subcutaneous (Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 200, Pg. 359, 1972.) Levobupivacaine appears to cause less myocardial depression than both bupivacaine and ropivacaine, despite being in higher concentrations.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levobupivacaine.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
9-MethylguanineThe metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Levobupivacaine.
AbacavirLevobupivacaine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Levobupivacaine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Hooshang Shahriari Zavareh, Graham Anthony Charles Frampton, "Process for preparing levobupivacaine and analogues thereof." U.S. Patent US5777124, issued February, 1985.

US5777124
General References
  1. Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ: Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):381-92. [PubMed:18728849]
  2. Leone S, Di Cianni S, Casati A, Fanelli G: Pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical use of new long acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Acta Biomed. 2008 Aug;79(2):92-105. [PubMed:18788503]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015137
KEGG Drug
D08116
KEGG Compound
C07887
PubChem Compound
92253
PubChem Substance
46505295
ChemSpider
83289
BindingDB
50350791
ChEBI
6149
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201193
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001233
PharmGKB
PA164754741
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levobupivacaine
ATC Codes
N01BB10 — Levobupivacaine
FDA label
Download (2.72 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLevobupivacaine / Post-tonsillectomy Analgesia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLabour1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
2CompletedPreventionEffects of; Anesthesia, in Labor and Delivery1
2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFirst Child Delivery With Epidural1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentEpisiotomy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionRecovery After Cleft Palate Surgery1
2, 3CompletedPreventionTransversus Abdominis Plane Block / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block, Pediatric Laparoscopy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative Ambulation / Postoperative Bowel Function / Postoperative pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentIntractable Abdominal Pain Secondary to Inoperable Malignancy1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
3CompletedPreventionNormal Pregnancies1
3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentPain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPregnant Women1
3CompletedTreatmentLumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia / Vascular Surgery1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia / Back Pain, Unspecified / Caudal epidural block therapy / Fusion of Spine (Disease) / General Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentFirst Pregnancy1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3TerminatedPreventionPain2
3WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic Disorder of Spine1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBradycardia / Hypotension / Tumors, Breast1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Orthopaedic Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableGeneral Surgery / Hallux Valgus1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain1
4CompletedBasic SciencePostoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionHypotension1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative/Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedSupportive CareCognitive Function Abnormal / Intraoperative Monitoring / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePreeclampsia1
4CompletedSupportive CareTransversus Abdominis Plane Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Disorder of Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Heart Surgery Via Sternotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain / Systemic Inflammatory Stress Response1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasties, Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentCholecystolithiasis / Pain / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4CompletedTreatmentCholecystolithiasis / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentDrugs / Health Care1
4CompletedTreatmentEpisiotomy / Post-partum Perineal Pain / Vaginal Tear1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentLower Limb Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentOther Peripheral Nerve Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPain4
4CompletedTreatmentGallstone formation / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPatients to Benefit a Planned Femoropopliteal Bypass Through PAOD (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) Stage II or III / Peripheral Obliterative Arteriopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-operative Pain After Laparoscopic One-day Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Postoperative Pain Following Cesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4CompletedTreatmentRegional Anesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentThis Study Was Focused on Selective Spinal Anesthesia for Lower Extremity Surgery in Order to Achieve Early Mobilization and to Shorten Hospital Stay1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePhrenic Nerve Palsy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Analgesia, Patient-Controlled / Anesthetics, Local / Fascia / Femoral Fractures / Humans / Local Anesthesia / Medicine, Emergency / Morphine / Pain / Pain Management / Ultrasonography1
4RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Orthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHemodynamic Stability / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentMastectomy / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Wound Infusion1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4SuspendedTreatmentPain1
4TerminatedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Modified Radical Mastectomy1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Reaction; Anesthesia1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableFracture of Neck of Femur1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament With Instability of the Knee Joint1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDisease (or Disorder); Gynecological / Observation of Neuromuscular Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain Insensitivity, Congenital1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Spinal Anesthetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Robotic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCognition Disorders / Cortisol; Hypersecretion / Femoral Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture of Neck of Femur / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMedical; Abortion, Fetus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain After Knee Arthroscop1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Post-Operative Pain / Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentReconstruction Breast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUltrasound Therapy; Complications1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Radical Mastectomy Surgery1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentArthropathy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentHip Fractures1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain / Ureter Stone1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Surgery / Post-Operative Pain / Serratus Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareTracheal Reconstruction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBradycardia / Cesarean Section Complications / Hypotension Drug-Induced / Spinal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) / Diabetic Polyneuropathy / Peripheral neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCord Kyst / Hydrocele / Inguinal or Ovarian Hernia / Local Analgesia Block / One to Five Years1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchPregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Purdue pharma lp
Packagers
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Purdue Pharma LP
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5708011No1998-01-132014-10-13Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.6Not Available
pKa8.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0977 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.31ALOGPS
logP4.52ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9814
Blood Brain Barrier+0.936
Caco-2 permeable+0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8435
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8582
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7836
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7957
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8346
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7045
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6863
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9099
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6205
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6066
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8462
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8859
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.2574 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8283
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7851
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as piperidinecarboxamides. These are compounds containing a piperidine ring substituted with a carboxamide functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Piperidines
Sub Class
Piperidinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Piperidinecarboxamides
Alternative Parents
m-Xylenes / Trialkylamines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
2-piperidinecarboxamide / Piperidinecarboxamide / M-xylene / Xylene / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide (CHEBI:6149)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ueta K, Sugimoto M, Suzuki T, Uchida I, Mashimo T: In vitro antagonism of recombinant ligand-gated ion-channel receptors by stereospecific enantiomers of bupivacaine. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):19-25. [PubMed:16418020]
  4. Vladimirov M, Nau C, Mok WM, Strichartz G: Potency of bupivacaine stereoisomers tested in vitro and in vivo: biochemical, electrophysiological, and neurobehavioral studies. Anesthesiology. 2000 Sep;93(3):744-55. [PubMed:10969308]
  5. Brau ME, Branitzki P, Olschewski A, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Block of neuronal tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents by stereoisomers of piperidine local anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2000 Dec;91(6):1499-505. [PubMed:11094008]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Bajwa SJ, Kaur J: Clinical profile of levobupivacaine in regional anesthesia: A systematic review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;29(4):530-9. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.119172. [PubMed:24249993]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Gurbuzel M, Karaca U, Karayilan N: Genotoxic evaluation of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cytotechnology. 2016 Aug;68(4):979-86. doi: 10.1007/s10616-015-9852-2. Epub 2015 Feb 19. [PubMed:25693764]
  2. Chalkiadis GA, Anderson BJ, Tay M, Bjorksten A, Kelly JJ: Pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine after caudal epidural administration in infants less than 3 months of age. Br J Anaesth. 2005 Oct;95(4):524-9. doi: 10.1093/bja/aei218. Epub 2005 Aug 12. [PubMed:16100236]
  3. Bajwa SJ, Kaur J: Clinical profile of levobupivacaine in regional anesthesia: A systematic review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;29(4):530-9. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.119172. [PubMed:24249993]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2019 04:18