Primary Dysmenorrhoea

Also known as: Dysmenorrhea Primary / Primary Dysmenorrhea / Dysmenorrhea / Menorrhalgia / Menstrual cramps / Cramps menstrual / Menstrual cramp / Dysmenorrhoea / Dysmenorrhea, unspecified / Period pains / Menses painful / Pain menstrual / Painful periods

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00482CelecoxibCelecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is known for its decreased risk of causing gastrointestinal bleeding compared to other NSAIDS.[A181544] It is used to manage symptoms of various types of arthritis pain and in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)[L7586] to reduce precancerous polyps in the colon.[A181532] It is marketed by Pfizer under the brand name Celebrex, and was initially granted FDA approval in 1998.[L7604] Interestingly, selective COX-2 inhibitors (especially celecoxib), have been evaluated as potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic drugs in clinical trials for a variety of malignancies.[A34124]
DB00586DiclofenacDiclofenac is a phenylacetic acid derivative and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).[label] NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and-2 which are the enzyme responsible for producing prostaglandins (PGs). PGs contribute to inflammation and pain signalling. Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, is often used as first line therapy for acute and chronic pain and inflammation from a variety of causes. Diclofenac was the product of rational drug design based on the structures of [phenylbutazone], [mefenamic acid], and [indomethacin].[A180796] The addition of two chlorine groups in the ortho position of the phenyl ring locks the ring in maximal torsion which appears to be related to increased potency. It is often used in combination with [misoprostol] to prevent NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. Diclofenac was first approved by the FDA in July 1988 under the trade name Voltaren, marketed by Novartis (previously Ciba-Geigy).[L7360]
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. In particular, it is generally proposed that the S-enantiomer is capable of eliciting stronger pharmacological activity than the R-enantiomer.[A39194]
DB01009KetoprofenKetoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with analgesic and antipyretic properties.
DB00939Meclofenamic acidA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
DB00784Mefenamic acidA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.
DB00788NaproxenNaproxen is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory dug (NSAID) and was initially approved for prescription use in 1976 and then for over-the-counter (OTC) use in 1994.[A178975] It can effectively manage acute pain as well as pain related to rheumatic diseases, and has a well studied adverse effect profile.[A179098] Given it's overall tolerability and effectiveness, naproxen can be considered a first line treatment for a variety of clinical situations requiring analgesia.[A179098] Naproxen is available in both immediate and delayed release formulations, in combination with sumatriptan to treat migraines, and in combination with esomeprazole to lower the risk of developing gastric ulcers.[L6582][L6583][L7309][L7312]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00482CelecoxibProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00482Celecoxib3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1target
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00482CelecoxibCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00482CelecoxibCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00482CelecoxibBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00482CelecoxibCadherin-11target
DB00482CelecoxibMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00482CelecoxibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00586DiclofenacTransthyretincarrier
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSerum albumincarrier
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatransporter
DB00586DiclofenacAcid-sensing ion channel 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPhospholipase A2, membrane associatedenzyme
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB01009KetoprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01009KetoprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01009KetoprofenC-X-C chemokine receptor type 1target
DB01009KetoprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01009KetoprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01009KetoprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01009KetoprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01009KetoprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01009KetoprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01009KetoprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB01009KetoprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01009KetoprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01009KetoprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00939Meclofenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidArachidonate 5-lipoxygenasetarget
DB00939Meclofenamic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00939Meclofenamic acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00939Meclofenamic acidPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
DB00939Meclofenamic acidThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00784Mefenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00784Mefenamic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00784Mefenamic acidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00784Mefenamic acidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00784Mefenamic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00784Mefenamic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00788NaproxenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00788NaproxenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00788NaproxenSerum albumincarrier
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00788NaproxenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00788NaproxenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00788NaproxenPeptostreptococcal albumin-binding proteintarget
DB00788NaproxenBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00788NaproxenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00788NaproxenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter