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Identification
NameEthinyl Estradiol
Accession NumberDB00977  (APRD00691)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA semisynthetic alkylated estradiol with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally and is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives [PubChem]. Ethinyl estradiol is marketed mostly as a combination oral contraceptive under several brand names such as Alesse, Tri-Cyclen, Triphasil, and Yasmin. The FDA label includes a black box warning that states that combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women over 35 years old who smoke due to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular side effects.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
17 alpha-Ethinylestradiol
17 alpha-Ethynylestradiol
17 alpha-Ethynyloestradiol
17-ethinyl-3,17-estradiol
17-ethinyl-3,17-oestradiol
17-ethinylestradiol
17alpha-Ethinyl estradiol
17α-ethynylestradiol
Ethinyl-Oestranol
Ethinylestradiol
Ethinylestradiolum
Ethinylestriol
Ethinyloestradiol
Ethynyl estradiol
Ethynylestradiol
Ethynyloestradiol
Etinilestradiol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Estinyl Tab 0.05mgTablet.05 mgOralSchering Plough Canada Inc1951-12-312000-07-11Canada
Estinyl Tab 0.5mgTablet.5 mgOralSchering Plough Canada Inc1951-12-312000-07-11Canada
Estinyl Tablets 0.02 Mg.Tablet.02 mgOralSchering Plough Canada Inc1951-12-311998-11-17Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EstinylSchering
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Alesse 21Pfizer Canada Inc
Alesse 28Pfizer Canada Inc
AltaveraSandoz Inc
Alyacen 1/35Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa
Alyacen 7/7/7Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa
Alysena 21Apotex Inc
Alysena 28Apotex Inc
AmethiaMayne Pharma Inc
AmethystWatson Pharma, Inc.
ApriBarr Laboratories Inc.
Apri 21Teva Canada Limited
Apri 28Teva Canada Limited
AranelleBarr Laboratories Inc.
AubraAfaxys Inc.
AvianePhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Aviane 21Teva Canada Limited
Aviane 28Teva Canada Limited
Aviane 28 DayRebel Distributors Corp
AyunaAurobindo Pharma Limited
BalzivaBarr Laboratories Inc.
Blisovi 24 FeLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Blisovi Fe 1.5/30Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Blisovi Fe 1/20Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
BreviconActavis Pharma, Inc.
Brevicon 0.5/35 21 TabSyntex Inc.
Brevicon 0.5/35 28 TabSyntex Inc.
Brevicon 0.5/35 Tablets (21-day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Brevicon 0.5/35 Tablets (28-day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Brevicon 1/35 21 TabSyntex Inc.
Brevicon 1/35 28 TabSyntex Inc.
Brevicon 1/35 Tablets (21-day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Brevicon 1/35 Tablets (28-day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
BriellynGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa
CamreseTeva Pharmaceuticals Usa ,Inc.
Camrese LoTeva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.
CaziantWatson Pharma, Inc.
Caziant Triphasic RegimenMayne Pharma Inc.
Centrisa 21Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
Centrisa 28Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
Centrisa Lo 21Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
Centrisa Lo 28Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
ChatealAfaxys Inc.
Cléo -35Aspri Pharma Canada Inc
CrysellePhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Cyclafem 1/35Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
Cyclafem 7/7/7Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
Cyclen Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Cyclen Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
CyclessaOrganon USA Inc.
Cyestra-35Paladin Labs Inc
CyonanzAurobindo Pharma Limited
CyredAfaxys Inc.
Dasetta 1/35Northstar Rx LLC
Dasetta 7/7/7Northstar Rx LLC
DayseeLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
DelylaOhm Laboratories Inc.
Demulen 30 (21 Day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Demulen 30 (28 Day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Demulen 50 (21 Day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
Demulen 50 (28 Day Pack)Pfizer Canada Inc
DesogenOrganon USA Inc.
Desogestrel and Ethinyl EstradiolNorthstar Rx LLC
Diane-35Bayer Inc
Drospirenone and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets USP (21-day Regimen)Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.
Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets USP (28-day Regimen)Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.
ElinestNorthstar Rx LLC
EmoquetteQualitest Pharmaceuticals
EnpresseBarr Laboratories Inc.
EnskyceLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Esme 21Mylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
Esme 28Mylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
EstaryllaSandoz Inc
Ethynodiol Diacetate and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Evra -(6/0.60)Janssen Inc
Evra -(6/0.75)Janssen Inc
FalessaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
FalminaNorthstar Rx LLC
Femcon FeWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
FemhrtWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
FemynorAmneal Pharmaceuticals Llc
Freya 21Mylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
Freya 28Mylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
FyavolvLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
GeneressActavis Specialty Pharmaceuticals Co
GianviPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
GildagiaQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Gildess 1.5/30Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
Gildess 1/20Qualitest Pharmaceuticals
IndayoMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
IntrovaleSandoz Inc
Jevantique LoActavis Pharma, Inc.
JinteliPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
JolessaPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
JuleberNorthstar Rx LLC
Junel 1.5/30Barr Laboratories Inc.
Junel 1/20Barr Laboratories Inc.
Junel Fe 1.5/30Barr Laboratories Inc.
Junel Fe 1/20Barr Laboratories Inc.
Junel Fe 24Teva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.
Kaitlib FeLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Kelnor 1/35Physicians Total Care, Inc.
KimidessQualitest Pharmaceuticals
KurveloLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
LarissiaAmneal Pharmaceuticals Llc
LeenaActavis Pharma, Inc.
LessinaBarr Laboratories Inc.
LevonestNorthstar Rx LLC
Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol and Ethinyl EstradiolLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, 0.1 Mg/0.02 mgLUPIN LIMITED
LevoraRebel Distributors Corp
LillowAmneal Pharmaceuticals Llc
Linessa 21Aspen Pharma Trading Limited
Linessa 28Aspen Pharma Trading Limited
Lo Loestrin FeWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
Lo Minastrin FeWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
Lo-femenal 21 TabletsPfizer Canada Inc
Lo/ovral-28A S Medication Solutions Llc
Loestrin 1.5/30Warner Chilcott Canada Co
Loestrin 1.5/30 21 DayTeva Women's Health, Inc.
Loestrin 1/20 21 DayTeva Women's Health, Inc.
Loestrin 21 1.5/30 21 DayTeva Women's Health, Inc.
Loestrin 21 1/20 21 DayTeva Women's Health, Inc.
Loestrin 24 FePhysicians Total Care, Inc.
LoloWarner Chilcott Canada Co
Lomedia 24 FeAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC
LorynaSandoz Inc
Low-ogestrelWatson Pharma, Inc.
LuteraWatson Pharma, Inc.
Lutera 21Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Company
Lutera 28Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Company
Marfem 21Novopharm Limited
Marfem 28Novopharm Limited
MarlissaGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa
Marvelon 21Merck Canada Inc
Marvelon 28Merck Canada Inc
MicrogestinActavis Pharma, Inc.
Microgestin 1.5/30Mayne Pharma Inc.
Microgestin 1/20Mayne Pharma Inc.
MiliAurobindo Pharma Limited
Min-ovral 21Pfizer Canada Inc
Min-ovral 21 TabWyeth Ltd.
Min-ovral 28Pfizer Canada Inc
Min-ovral 28 TabWyeth Ltd.
Minastrin 24 FeWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
Minestrin 1/20Warner Chilcott Canada Co
Mirvala 21Apotex Inc
Mirvala 28Apotex Inc
ModiconJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Mono-linyahNorthstar Rx LLC
MononessaActavis Pharma, Inc
MyaApotex Inc
MyzilraQualitest Pharmaceuticals
NeconRebel Distributors Corp
Necon (28 Day Regimen)Mayne Pharma Inc.
Necon 1/35Watson Pharma, Inc.
Necon 1/35 (28 Day Regimen)Teva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.
Necon 777Watson Pharma Inc
Necon 777 777Dispensing Solutions, Inc.
NikkiLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol and Ferrous FumarateWarner Chilcott (US), LLC
Norethindrone and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol and Ferrous FumarateLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Norgestimate and Ethinyl EstradiolMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
NorinylActavis Pharma, Inc.
Nortrel (21 Day Regimen)Barr Laboratories Inc.
Nortrel (28 Day Regimen)Barr Laboratories Inc.
Nortrel 7/7/7 (28 Day Regimen)Physicians Total Care, Inc.
Novo-cyproterone/ethinyl EstradiolTeva Canada Limited
NuvaringPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Nylia 1/35Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Nylia 7/7/7Aurobindo Pharma Limited
OcellaBarr Laboratories, Inc.
OrsythiaQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Ortho 0.5/35 Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 0.5/35 Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 1/35 Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 1/35 Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 10/11 Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 10/11 Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 7/7/7 Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho 7/7/7 Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho CeptJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Ortho CyclenJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Ortho EvraJanssen Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Ortho Novum 135Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Ortho Tri CyclenPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Ortho Tri Cyclen LoPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Ortho-cept Tablets (21 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho-cept Tablets (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Ortho-novum 777A S Medication Solutions Llc
Ovcon 35Warner Chilcott (US), LLC
Ovima 21Apotex Inc
Ovima 28Apotex Inc
Ovral 21Pfizer Canada Inc
Ovral 21 TabWyeth Ltd.
Ovral 28 TabletsWyeth Canada
Ovral 28tabWyeth Ltd.
Pirmella 1/35Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Pirmella 7/7/7Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
PortiaBarr Laboratories Inc.
Portia 21Teva Canada Limited
Portia 28Teva Canada Limited
Preven Emergency ContraceptiveGynÉtics Ltd/LtÉe
Preven TabletsShire Pharma Canada Ulc
PrevifemQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Previfem (21day)Novopharm Limited
Previfem (28day)Novopharm Limited
Qismette 21LUPIN LIMITED
Qismette 28LUPIN LIMITED
QuasenseWatson Pharma, Inc.
RajaniActavis Pharma, Inc.
Ran-cyproterone/ethinyl EstradiolRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.
ReclipsenWatson Pharma, Inc.
Reclipsen 21Actavis Pharma Company
Reclipsen 28Actavis Pharma Company
Sarensis 21Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
Sarensis 28Patriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
SeasonaleTeva Women's Health Inc
SeasoniqueTeva Women's Health Inc
Select 1/35 (21-day)Pfizer Canada Inc
Select 1/35 (28-day)Pfizer Canada Inc
SetlakinNorthstar Rx LLC
SprintecRebel Distributors Corp
SronyxWatson Pharma, Inc.
SyedaSandoz Inc
Synphasic 21 TabletsPfizer Canada Inc
Synphasic 28 TabletsPfizer Canada Inc
Synphasic-28 TabletsSyntex Inc.
Tarina Fe 1/20Afaxys Inc.
TaytullaAllergan, Inc.
Tilia FeRebel Distributors Corp
Tri-cyclen Lo (-21 Day)Janssen Inc
Tri-cyclen Lo (28 Day)Janssen Inc
Tri-cyclen Tablets - 21-dayJanssen Inc
Tri-cyclen Tablets - 28-dayJanssen Inc
Tri-estaryllaSandoz Inc
Tri-legest Fe 28 DayTeva Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.
Tri-lena 21Actavis Pharma Company
Tri-lena 28Actavis Pharma Company
Tri-lena Lo 21Actavis Pharma Company
Tri-lena Lo 28Actavis Pharma Company
Tri-linyahNorthstar Rx LLC
Tri-LO- EstaryllaSandoz Inc
Tri-LO-marziaLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Tri-LO-miliAurobindo Pharma Limited
Tri-LO-sprintecTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Tri-miliAurobindo Pharma Limited
Tri-norinylActavis Pharma, Inc.
Tri-previfemQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Tri-previfem (21 Day)Novopharm Limited
Tri-previfem (28 Day)Novopharm Limited
Tri-sprintecRebel Distributors Corp
Tricira LoApotex Inc
TrinessaRebel Distributors Corp
Trinessa LoActavis Pharma, Inc.
Triphasil 21Wyeth Canada
Triphasil 21 TabWyeth Ltd.
Triphasil 28Wyeth Canada
Triphasil 28 TabWyeth Ltd.
Triquilar 21Bayer Inc
Triquilar 28Bayer Inc
TrivoraMayne Pharma Inc.
Velivet Triphasic RegimenPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
VesturaWatson Pharma, Inc.
Vienva TmSandoz Inc
VyfemlaLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
WeraNorthstar Rx LLC
Wymzya FeLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
XulaneMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
YasminBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Yasmin 21Bayer Inc
Yasmin 28Bayer Inc
Yasmin PlusBayer Inc
YazBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Yaz PlusBayer Inc
Zamine 21Apotex Inc
Zamine 28Apotex Inc
ZarahWatson Pharma, Inc.
Zarah 21Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Company
Zarah 28Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Company
ZenchentWatson Pharma, Inc.
Zenchent FeWatson Pharma, Inc.
ZeosaTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Zovia 1/35Mayne Pharma Inc.
Zovia 1/35e-28Actavis Pharma, Inc.
Zovia 1/50e-28Actavis Pharma, Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIINot Available
CAS number57-63-6
WeightAverage: 296.4034
Monoisotopic: 296.177630012
Chemical FormulaC20H24O2
InChI KeyBFPYWIDHMRZLRN-RHKZOZTBNA-N
InChI
InChI=1/C20H24O2/c1-3-20(22)11-9-18-17-6-4-13-12-14(21)5-7-15(13)16(17)8-10-19(18,20)2/h1,5,7,12,16-18,21-22H,4,6,8-11H2,2H3/t16-,17-,18+,19+,20+/s2
IUPAC Name
(1S,10R,11S,14R,15S)-14-ethynyl-15-methyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-triene-5,14-diol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C#C)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@]1([H])C3=C(CC[C@@]21[H])C=C(O)C=C3
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the menopause, female hypogonadism, prostatic carcinoma-palliative therapy of advanced disease, breast cancer, as an oral contraceptive, and as emergency contraceptive.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsEthinyl estradiol is a synthetic derivative of the natural estrogen estradiol. It is one of two estrogens currently used in oral contraceptive pills. The other, mestranol, is converted to ethinyl estradiol before it is biologically active. Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone are used together as an oral contraceptive agent.
Mechanism of actionEstrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. This cascade is initiated by initially binding to the estrogen receptors. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Estrogen receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP03372 details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Proteinunknown
agonist
HumanO75469 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapid and complete absorption follows oral intake of ethinyl estradiol (bioavailability 43%).
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Quantitatively, the major metabolic pathway for ethinyl estradiol, both in rats and in humans, is aromatic hydroxylation, as it is for the natural estrogens.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ethinyl Estradiol
2β-OH-17β-ethinylestradiolDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life36 +/- 13 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse LD50: 1737 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females. The FDA label includes a black box warning that states that combination oral contraceptives with ethinyl estradiol should not be used in women over 35 years old who smoke due to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular side effects.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-DichloroisocoumarinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin.Experimental
4-(2-AMINOETHYL)BENZENESULFONYL FLUORIDEThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 4-(2-AMINOETHYL)BENZENESULFONYL FLUORIDE.Experimental
4-AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 4-Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
AcenocoumarolEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.Approved
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Withdrawn
AcitretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Acitretin.Approved
AdapaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.Approved
AicarThe therapeutic efficacy of Aicar can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Alclometasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlitretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Alitretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Alogliptin.Approved
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
AncrodEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
Anthrax immune globulin humanEthinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin human.Approved
Antithrombin III humanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Apixaban.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArdeparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Artemether.Approved
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Asunaprevir.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
BarbexacloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Barbital.Illicit
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Batimastat.Experimental
BecaplerminEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BeclomethasoneThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BenzamidineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Benzamidine.Experimental
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
Bi201335The serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bi201335.Investigational
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BivalirudinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Withdrawn
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human)Ethinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human).Approved
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant)Ethinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant).Approved
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CandoxatrilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CandoxatrilatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatrilat.Experimental
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CertoparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
CholestyramineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cholestyramine.Approved
Cholic AcidEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
ChymostatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Chymostatin.Experimental
CiclesonideThe serum concentration of Ciclesonide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
CilastatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cilastatin.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.Approved
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.Approved
ColestipolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colestipol.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.Approved
DalteparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarunavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateThe serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesirudinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Vet Approved
DextranEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Ethinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Ethinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Ethinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Digoxin.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
EcabetThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ecabet.Approved, Investigational
Edetic AcidEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Edoxaban.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElafinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Elafin.Investigational
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
ElvitegravirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Elvitegravir.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnalkirenThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalkiren.Experimental
EnoxaparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ExenatideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Exenatide.Approved, Investigational
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.Approved
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
FluindioneEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe serum concentration of Fluorometholone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone Propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabexateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Gabexate.Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.Approved, Investigational
GeldanamycinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Geldanamycin.Experimental
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
GM6001The serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with GM6001.Experimental
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.Withdrawn
GriseofulvinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Griseofulvin.Approved, Vet Approved
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
HeparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.Approved
HirulogThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Hirulog.Experimental
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
idraparinuxThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with idraparinux.Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Withdrawn
IsotretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Isotretinoin.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.Approved, Vet Approved
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ixazomib.Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideEthinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.Approved
LepirudinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
MethohexitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Methohexital.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetreleptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Metreleptin.Approved
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MometasoneThe serum concentration of Mometasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
MorphineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mycophenolic acid.Approved
N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-ProlineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline.Experimental
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
NadroparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nafamostat.Investigational
NafcillinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NateglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nateglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
NCX 4016The serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with NCX 4016.Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
NitroaspirinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
OlaparibThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
Oleoyl estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl estrone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
OmapatrilatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethinyl Estradiol is combined with Ospemifene.Approved
OtamixabanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Oxcarbazepine.Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Withdrawn
PhenindioneEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenprocoumonEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PhosphoramidonThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Phosphoramidon.Experimental
PimozideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Nutraceutical
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Experimental
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrinomastatThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Prinomastat.Investigational
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
Protein CEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Prucalopride.Approved
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
RacecadotrilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Racecadotril.Investigational
RamiprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
RemikirenThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Remikiren.Approved
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
ReviparinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
RufinamideThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Saxagliptin.Approved
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Selegiline can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Sitagliptin.Approved, Investigational
Somatropin recombinantThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.Experimental
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
ThalidomideEthinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
ThiamylalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational
ThiopentalThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiorphanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Thiorphan.Experimental
Thyroid, porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirEthinyl Estradiol may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.Approved
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrandolaprilThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Tranexamic AcidEthinyl Estradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Tranexamic Acid.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Withdrawn
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
UbenimexThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ubenimex.Experimental
UlinastatinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ulinastatin.Investigational
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Ethinyl Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VildagliptinThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Vildagliptin.Approved, Investigational
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Nutraceutical
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Ym150The serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ym150.Investigational
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Andreas Sachse, “Method of female hormonal contraception using a fixed extended cycle hormonal preparation containing dienogest and ethinyl estradiol.” U.S. Patent US20060079491, issued April 13, 2006.

US20060079491
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesG03AA04G03AA03G03AB07G03AA10G03AA08G03AA11G03AA09G03AB01G03AB05G03AB02L02AA03G03CA01G03AB03G03AA01G03AA02G03AA05G03AA12G03AA07G03AA15G03AA06G03AA16G03AA13G03AB06G03AB04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (470 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9965
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8546
Caco-2 permeable+0.8638
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9006
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9449
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.84
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7178
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.715
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8941
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9186
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9506
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6641
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5224
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6776
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9155
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8519
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9879
Rat acute toxicity2.4584 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8805
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5788
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Organon usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
TabletOral.05 mg
TabletOral.5 mg
TabletOral.02 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, chewableOral
TabletOral
Insert, extended releaseVaginal
RingVaginal
KitOral
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal
PatchTransdermal
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ethinyl estradiol powder140.0USD g
Ortho-Cyclen (28) 28 0.25-35 mg-mcg tablet Disp Pack38.99USD disp
Ortho tri-cyclen lo tablet2.68USD tablet
Ortho-cyclen 28 tablet1.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5798338 No1995-07-102015-07-10Us
US5876746 No1995-11-202015-11-20Us
US5898032 No1997-06-232017-06-23Us
US5989581 No1998-04-082018-04-08Us
US6156742 No2000-12-052020-12-05Us
US6214815 Yes1999-12-092019-12-09Us
US6441168 No2002-07-302022-07-30Us
US6500814 No1998-09-032018-09-03Us
US6652880 No2000-03-292020-03-29Us
US6667050 No1999-04-062019-04-06Us
US6787531 No2000-08-312020-08-31Us
US6933395 No1997-08-112017-08-11Us
US6958326 No2001-12-202021-12-20Us
US6987101 No1997-12-222017-12-22Us
US7163931 No2001-12-202021-12-20Us
US7320969 No2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US7615545 No2003-06-152023-06-15Us
US7704984 No2009-02-022029-02-02Us
US7855190 No2008-12-052028-12-05Us
US7858605 No2003-06-232023-06-23Us
US8415332 No2009-03-112029-03-11Us
US8450299 No2005-10-072025-10-07Us
US8617597 No2010-02-082030-02-08Us
USRE39861 No1997-06-232017-06-23Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point142-144Inhoffen, H.H. and Hohlweg, W.; U.S. Patent 2,265,976; December 9, 1941; assigned to Schering Corp.
water solubility11.3 mg/L (at 27 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.67HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.3ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00677 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.63ALOGPS
logP3.9ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity87.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.53 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.42 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000b-0290000000-0ef72fb5e00440b9ff50View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0960000000-945d82a0ab94f246ac88View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-056s-2910000000-0d38daebb87a39304e91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-03di-0890000000-7a166e952207cf7bc1d3View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03dj-2980000000-831c8190c59f98fc8623View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as estrogens and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure containing a 3-hydroxylated estrane.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassEstrane steroids
Direct ParentEstrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Estrogen-skeleton
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Benzenoid
  • Ynone
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Micevych PE, Chaban V, Ogi J, Dewing P, Lu JK, Sinchak K: Estradiol stimulates progesterone synthesis in hypothalamic astrocyte cultures. Endocrinology. 2007 Feb;148(2):782-9. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [PubMed:17095591 ]
  2. Garcia-Segura LM, Sanz A, Mendez P: Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(4):275-9. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124377 ]
  3. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913 ]
  4. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652 ]
  5. Mukai H, Tsurugizawa T, Ogiue-Ikeda M, Murakami G, Hojo Y, Ishii H, Kimoto T, Kawato S: Local neurosteroid production in the hippocampus: influence on synaptic plasticity of memory. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(4):255-63. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [PubMed:17142999 ]
  6. Notch EG, Mayer GD: 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol hinders nucleotide excision repair in zebrafish liver cells. Aquat Toxicol. 2009 Dec 13;95(4):273-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.01.001. Epub 2009 Jan 23. [PubMed:19237207 ]
  7. Bennink HJ: Reprint of Are all estrogens the same? Maturitas. 2008 Sep-Oct;61(1-2):195-201. [PubMed:19434891 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and is...
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Xue Y, Moore LB, Orans J, Peng L, Bencharit S, Kliewer SA, Redinbo MR: Crystal structure of the pregnane X receptor-estradiol complex provides insights into endobiotic recognition. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 May;21(5):1028-38. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327420 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Sanchez RI, Franklin RB, Evans DC, Huskey SE: The involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 in the metabolism of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1209-12. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [PubMed:15304426 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Lee JM, Trauner M, Soroka CJ, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Boyer JL: Expression of the bile salt export pump is maintained after chronic cholestasis in the rat. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jan;118(1):163-72. [PubMed:10611165 ]
  2. Huang L, Smit JW, Meijer DK, Vore M: Mrp2 is essential for estradiol-17beta(beta-D-glucuronide)-induced cholestasis in rats. Hepatology. 2000 Jul;32(1):66-72. [PubMed:10869290 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Lee JM, Trauner M, Soroka CJ, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Boyer JL: Expression of the bile salt export pump is maintained after chronic cholestasis in the rat. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jan;118(1):163-72. [PubMed:10611165 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Kauffmann HM, Schrenk D: Sequence analysis and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the rat multidrug resistance protein 2 (mrp2) gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Apr 17;245(2):325-31. [PubMed:9571149 ]
  2. Trauner M, Arrese M, Soroka CJ, Ananthanarayanan M, Koeppel TA, Schlosser SF, Suchy FJ, Keppler D, Boyer JL: The rat canalicular conjugate export pump (Mrp2) is down-regulated in intrahepatic and obstructive cholestasis. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jul;113(1):255-64. [PubMed:9207286 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Kim WY, Benet LZ: P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-mediated efflux of sex-steroid hormones and modulation of P-gp expression in vitro. Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1284-93. [PubMed:15290871 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 07, 2016 03:54