Identification

Name
Estradiol valerate
Accession Number
DB13956  (DBSALT000068)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Estradiol Valerate (also known as E2V) is a pro-drug ester of Estradiol, a naturally occurring hormone that circulates endogenously within the human body. Estradiol is the most potent form of all mammalian estrogenic steroids and acts as the major female sex hormone. As a pro-drug of estradiol, estradiol acetate therefore has the same downstream effects within the body through binding to the Estrogen Receptor (ER) including ERα and ERβ subtypes, which are located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain.

Estradiol is commonly produced with an ester side-chain as endogenous estradiol has very low oral bioavailability on its own (2-10%). First-pass metabolism by the gut and the liver quickly degrades the estradiol molecule before it gets a chance to enter systemic circulation and exert its estrogenic effects [9]. Esterification of estradiol aims to improves absorption and bioavailability after oral administration (such as with Estradiol valerate) or to sustain release from depot intramuscular injections (such as with Estradiol Cypionate) through improved lipophilicity. Following absorption, the esters are cleaved, resulting in the release of endogenous estradiol, or 17β-estradiol. Ester pro-drugs of estradiol are therefore considered to be bioidentical forms of estrogen [12].

Estradiol valerate is commercially available as an intramuscular injection as the product Delestrogen and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause, for the treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and for the treatment of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate (for palliation only). Estradiol valerate is also available in combination with Dienogest as the commercially available product Natazia used for the prevention of pregnancy and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, after menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone by peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women [Label]. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol at the receptor level. Because of the difference in potency between estradiol and estrone, menopause (and a change in primary hormone from estradiol to estrone) is associated with a number of symptoms associated with this reduction in potency and in estrogenic effects. These include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood changes, irregular menses, chills, and sleeping problems. Administration of synthetic and bioidentical forms of estrogen, such as estradiol valerate, has shown to improve these menopausal symptoms.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Estradiolprodrug4TI98Z838E50-28-2VOXZDWNPVJITMN-ZBRFXRBCSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DelestrogenInjection20 mg/1mLIntramuscularMonarch Pharmaceuticals,Inc.1954-07-152007-10-01Us
DelestrogenInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
DelestrogenInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscularMonarch Pharmaceuticals,Inc.1954-07-152007-10-01Us
DelestrogenInjection40 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
DelestrogenInjection40 mg/1mLIntramuscularMonarch Pharmaceuticals,Inc.1954-07-152007-10-01Us
DelestrogenInjection20 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-11-01Not applicableUs
Delestrogen Inj 10mg/mlLiquid10 mgIntramuscularTheramed Corporation1955-12-312008-03-03Canada
Neo-diol Inj 20mg/mlLiquid20 mgIntramuscularNeolab Inc1982-12-312003-07-29Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Estradiol ValerateInjection40 mg/1mLIntramuscularSandoz2007-10-042011-08-31Us
Estradiol ValerateInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntramuscularPerrigo International2010-03-31Not applicableUs
Estradiol ValerateInjection20 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012017-03-31Us
Estradiol ValerateInjection20 mg/1mLIntramuscularSandoz2007-10-042011-12-31Us
Estradiol ValerateInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntramuscularPerrigo International2010-03-31Not applicableUs
Estradiol ValerateInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012016-02-28Us
Estradiol ValerateInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscularSandoz2007-10-042010-01-31Us
Estradiol ValerateInjection40 mg/1mLIntramuscularPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012017-03-31Us
PMS-estradiol Valerate Inj 10mg/mlLiquid10 mgIntramuscularPharmascience Inc1989-12-312016-10-28Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Estradiol Valerate and Estradiol Valerate/DienogestEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitSandoz2015-08-05Not applicableUs
Estradiol Valerate and Estradiol Valerate/DienogestEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitSandoz2015-08-05Not applicableUs
Estradiol Valerate and Estradiol Valerate/DienogestEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitSandoz2015-08-05Not applicableUs
Estradiol Valerate and Estradiol Valerate/DienogestEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitSandoz2015-08-05Not applicableUs
NataziaEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitBayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs50419 0409 01 nlmimage10 b219590a
NataziaEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-09-29Not applicableUs54868 618320180113 27003 1ygc4or
NataziaEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitBayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs50419 0409 01 nlmimage10 b219590a
NataziaEstradiol valerate (1 mg) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg) + Estradiol valerate (3 mg) + Dienogest (2 mg) + Dienogest (3 mg)TabletOralBayerNot applicableNot applicableCanada
NataziaEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-09-29Not applicableUs54868 618320180113 27003 1ygc4or
NataziaEstradiol valerate (3 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (2 mg/1) + Estradiol valerate (1 mg/1) + Dienogest (2 mg/1) + Dienogest (3 mg/1)KitBayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs50419 0409 01 nlmimage10 b219590a
Categories
UNII
OKG364O896
CAS number
979-32-8
Weight
Average: 356.4984
Monoisotopic: 356.23514489
Chemical Formula
C23H32O3
InChI Key
RSEPBGGWRJCQGY-RBRWEJTLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H32O3/c1-3-4-5-22(25)26-21-11-10-20-19-8-6-15-14-16(24)7-9-17(15)18(19)12-13-23(20,21)2/h7,9,14,18-21,24H,3-6,8,10-13H2,1-2H3/t18-,19-,20+,21+,23+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3aS,3bR,9bS,11aS)-7-hydroxy-11a-methyl-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-1-yl pentanoate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](OC(=O)CCCC)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@]1([H])C3=C(CC[C@@]21[H])C=C(O)C=C3

Pharmacology

Indication

Estradiol valerate is commercially available as an intramuscular injection as the product Delestrogen and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause, for the treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and for the treatment of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate (for palliation only).

Estradiol valerate is also available in combination with Dienogest as the commercially available product Natazia used for the prevention of pregnancy and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Estrogen mediates its effects across the body through potent agonism of the Estrogen Receptor (ER), which is located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain. Estradiol binds to both subtypes of the Estrogen Receptor: Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol also acts as a potent agonist of G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER), which has recently been recognized as a major mediator of estradiol's rapid cellular effects [11].

Mechanism of action

Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.

Increases in the down-stream effects of ER binding reverses some of the symptoms of menopause, which are primarily caused by a loss of estrogenic activity.

TargetActionsOrganism
AEstrogen receptor alpha
agonist
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
AEstrogen receptor beta
agonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor coactivator 2Not AvailableHuman
UG-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UATP synthase subunit aNot AvailableHuman
UBeclin-1Not AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UEstrogen-related receptor gamma
ligand
Human
Absorption

IM Injection: When conjugated with aryl and alkyl groups for parenteral administration, the rate of absorption of oily preparations is slowed with a prolonged duration of action, such that a single intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate or estradiol cypionate is absorbed over several weeks [Label].

Natazia: After oral administration of estradiol valerate, cleavage to 17β-estradiol and valeric acid takes place during absorption by the intestinal mucosa or in the course of the first liver passage. This gives rise to estradiol and its metabolites, estrone and other metabolites. Maximum serum estradiol concentrations of 73.3 pg/mL are reached at a median of approximately 6 hours (range: 1.5–12 hours) and the area under the estradiol concentration curve [AUC(0–24h)] was 1301 pg·h/mL after single ingestion of a tablet containing 3 mg estradiol valerate under fasted condition on Day 1 of the 28-day sequential regimen.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized using the same mechanism as endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are partially metabolized by cytochrome P450.

Route of elimination

Estradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinEstradiol valerate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinEstradiol valerate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol valerate.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Estradiol valerate.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Estradiol valerate.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Estradiol valerate.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Estradiol valerate can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol valerate.
7-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 7-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol valerate.
7,9-DimethylguanineThe serum concentration of 7,9-Dimethylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol valerate.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Pentikainen V, Erkkila K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L: Estradiol acts as a germ cell survival factor in the human testis in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):2057-67. [PubMed:10843196]
  2. Sharpe RM, Skakkebaek NE: Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet. 1993 May 29;341(8857):1392-5. [PubMed:8098802]
  3. Raman JD, Schlegel PN: Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility. J Urol. 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):624-9. [PubMed:11792932]
  4. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER: Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 10;337(2):91-5. [PubMed:9211678]
  5. Behl C, Widmann M, Trapp T, Holsboer F: 17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Nov 13;216(2):473-82. [PubMed:7488136]
  6. Schmidt JW, Wollner D, Curcio J, Riedlinger J, Kim LS: Hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women: Past problems and future possibilities. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;22(10):564-77. [PubMed:17135036]
  7. Foresta C, Zuccarello D, Biagioli A, De Toni L, Prana E, Nicoletti V, Ambrosini G, Ferlin A: Oestrogen stimulates endothelial progenitor cells via oestrogen receptor-alpha. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Oct;67(4):520-5. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [PubMed:17573901]
  8. Garcia-Segura LM, Sanz A, Mendez P: Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(4):275-9. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124377]
  9. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
  10. Dusterberg B, Nishino Y: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacological features of oestradiol valerate. Maturitas. 1982 Dec;4(4):315-24. [PubMed:7169965]
  11. Prossnitz ER, Barton M: Estrogen biology: new insights into GPER function and clinical opportunities. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 May 25;389(1-2):71-83. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Feb 12. [PubMed:24530924]
  12. W. KuhnzH. BlodeH. Zimmermann (1993). Pharmacokinetics of Exogenous Natural and Synthetic Estrogens and Antiestrogens. In: Estrogens and Antiestrogens II.. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. [ISBN:978-3-642-60107-1]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C12859
PubChem Compound
13791
ChemSpider
13194
ChEBI
31561
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1511
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Estradiol_valerate
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.04 — Estrogens
FDA label
Download (317 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionAsherman's Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmbryo Transfer1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular20 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular40 mg/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular10 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular40 mg/1mL
Kit
TabletOral
SolutionIntramuscular
LiquidIntramuscular20 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6133251No2000-10-172016-10-25Us
US8071577No2011-12-062026-05-13Us
US8153616No2012-04-102028-01-30Us
US6884793No2005-04-262016-10-25Us

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000617 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.28ALOGPS
logP5.78ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity102.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroid esters. These are compounds containing a steroid moiety which bears a carboxylic acid ester group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Steroid esters
Direct Parent
Steroid esters
Alternative Parents
Estrogens and derivatives / 3-hydroxysteroids / Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Carboxylic acid esters / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Steroid ester / Estrogen-skeleton / 3-hydroxysteroid / Estrane-skeleton / Hydroxysteroid / Phenanthrene / Tetralin / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Benzenoid / Carboxylic acid ester
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
steroid ester (CHEBI:31561) / C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives (C12859) / C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives (LMST02010039)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913]
  2. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652]
  3. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Xue Y, Moore LB, Orans J, Peng L, Bencharit S, Kliewer SA, Redinbo MR: Crystal structure of the pregnane X receptor-estradiol complex provides insights into endobiotic recognition. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 May;21(5):1028-38. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327420]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent m...
Gene Name
ESR2
Uniprot ID
Q92731
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor beta
Molecular Weight
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Vijayanathan V, Greenfield NJ, Thomas TJ, Ivanova MM, Tyulmenkov VV, Klinge CM, Gallo MA, Thomas T: Effects of estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the conformation, thermal stability, and DNA recognition of estrogen receptor beta. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;85(1):1-10. [PubMed:17464340]
  2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Paradiso K, Zhang J, Steinbach JH: The C terminus of the human nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor forms a binding site required for potentiation by an estrogenic steroid. J Neurosci. 2001 Sep 1;21(17):6561-8. [PubMed:11517245]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function
Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to ...
Gene Name
NCOA2
Uniprot ID
Q15596
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Molecular Weight
159155.645 Da
References
  1. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor that binds to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity, leading to rapid and transient activation of numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Stimulates cAMP ...
Gene Name
GPER1
Uniprot ID
Q99527
Uniprot Name
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1
Molecular Weight
42247.12 Da
References
  1. Thomas P, Dong J: Binding and activation of the seven-transmembrane estrogen receptor GPR30 by environmental estrogens: a potential novel mechanism of endocrine disruption. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):175-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17088055]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Key component of the proton channel; it may play a direct role in the translocation of protons across the membrane.
Specific Function
Hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
MT-ATP6
Uniprot ID
P00846
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit a
Molecular Weight
24816.865 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a central role in autophagy (PubMed:23184933). Acts as core subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; different complex forms are believed to play a role in multiple membrane trafficking pathways: PI3KC3-C1 is involved in initiation of autophagosomes and PI3KC3-C2 in maturation of autophagosomes and endocytosis. Involved in regulation of degradative endocytic trafficking and required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, probably in the context of PI3KC3-C2 (PubMed:20643123, PubMed:20208530). Essential for the formation of PI3KC3-C2 but not PI3KC3-C1 PI3K complex forms. Involved in endocytosis (PubMed:25275521). Protects against infection by a neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (PubMed:9765397). May play a role in antiviral host defense.
Specific Function
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding
Gene Name
BECN1
Uniprot ID
Q14457
Uniprot Name
Beclin-1
Molecular Weight
51895.945 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID
P37059
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
42784.75 Da
References
  1. Wetzel M, Marchais-Oberwinkler S, Perspicace E, Moller G, Adamski J, Hartmann RW: Introduction of an electron withdrawing group on the hydroxyphenylnaphthol scaffold improves the potency of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2) inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2011 Nov 10;54(21):7547-57. doi: 10.1021/jm2008453. Epub 2011 Oct 19. [PubMed:21972996]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response ...
Gene Name
ESRRG
Uniprot ID
P62508
Uniprot Name
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Babu S, Vellore NA, Kasibotla AV, Dwayne HJ, Stubblefield MA, Uppu RM: Molecular docking of bisphenol A and its nitrated and chlorinated metabolites onto human estrogen-related receptor-gamma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Sep 21;426(2):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.065. Epub 2012 Aug 23. [PubMed:22935422]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Hong CC, Tang BK, Hammond GL, Tritchler D, Yaffe M, Boyd NF: Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity and risk factors for breast cancer: a cross-sectional study. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(4):R352-65. doi: 10.1186/bcr798. Epub 2004 May 7. [PubMed:15217502]
  4. CYP1A2 cancer.gov CTEP [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Hanioka N, Tanabe N, Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Nagaoka K, Naito S, Koeda A, Narimatsu S: Functional characterization of human and cynomolgus monkey UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 enzymes. Life Sci. 2010 Aug 14;87(7-8):261-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20620155]
  2. Guillemette C, Belanger A, Lepine J: Metabolic inactivation of estrogens in breast tissue by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes: an overview. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(6):246-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. [PubMed:15535854]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Campusano M C, Brusco G F, Campino J C, Rodriguez P L, Arteaga U E: [Assessment of androgenic decline in the elderly]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1123-8. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17171213]
  2. Kuba R, Pohanka M, Zakopcan J, Novotna I, Rektor I: Sexual dysfunctions and blood hormonal profile in men with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Dec;47(12):2135-40. [PubMed:17201714]
  3. Bendlova B, Zavadilova J, Vankova M, Vejrazkova D, Lukasova P, Vcelak J, Hill M, Cibula D, Vondra K, Starka L, Vrbikova J: Role of D327N sex hormone-binding globulin gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;104(1-2):68-74. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17258903]
  4. Sablik Z, Samborska-Sablik A, Bolinska-Soltysiak H, Goch JH, Kula K: [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2006 Feb;115(2):118-24. [PubMed:17274467]
  5. Mohamad MJ, Mohammad MA, Karayyem M, Hairi A, Hader AA: Serum levels of sex hormones in men with acute myocardial infarction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Apr;28(2):182-6. [PubMed:17435665]
  6. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
  7. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters. FABP2 is probably involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis. Binds satu...
Gene Name
FABP2
Uniprot ID
P12104
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Molecular Weight
15207.165 Da
References
  1. Rowland A, Knights KM, Mackenzie PI, Miners JO: Characterization of the binding of drugs to human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP): potential role of IFABP as an alternative to albumin for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug kinetic parameters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jul;37(7):1395-403. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.027656. Epub 2009 Apr 27. [PubMed:19398502]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197]
  2. Imai Y, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Estrone and 17beta-estradiol reverse breast cancer resistance protein-mediated multidrug resistance. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002 Mar;93(3):231-5. [PubMed:11927002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405]
  2. Kim WY, Benet LZ: P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-mediated efflux of sex-steroid hormones and modulation of P-gp expression in vitro. Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1284-93. [PubMed:15290871]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-gluc...
Gene Name
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID
Q96BD0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1
Molecular Weight
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 24;273(1):251-60. [PubMed:10873595]

Drug created on January 12, 2018 15:33 / Updated on November 20, 2018 13:19