Identification

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Name
Diclofenac
Accession Number
DB00586  (APRD00527)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Diclofenac is a phenylacetic acid derivative and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).Label NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and-2 which are the enzyme responsible for producing prostaglandins (PGs). PGs contribute to inflammation and pain signalling. Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, is often used as first line therapy for acute and chronic pain and inflammation from a variety of causes. Diclofenac was the product of rational drug design based on the structures of phenylbutazone, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin.12 The addition of two chlorine groups in the ortho position of the phenyl ring locks the ring in maximal torsion which appears to be related to increased potency. It is often used in combination with misoprostol to prevent NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. Diclofenac was first approved by the FDA in July 1988 under the trade name Voltaren, marketed by Novartis (previously Ciba-Geigy).18

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • [2-(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl]acetic acid
  • 2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)benzeneacetic acid
  • Diclofenac
  • Diclofenac acid
  • Diclofenaco
  • Diclofenacum
External IDs
ISV-205
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Diclofenac diethylamine6TGQ35Z71K78213-16-8ZQVZPANTCLRASL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Diclofenac epolamineX5F8EKL9ZG119623-66-4DCERVXIINVUMKU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Diclofenac potassiumL4D5UA6CB415307-81-0KXZOIWWTXOCYKR-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Diclofenac sodiumQTG126297Q15307-79-6KPHWPUGNDIVLNH-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ambator Diclofenac PatchPatch1 g/10mLTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
CambiaPowder, for solution1 mg/1mgOralNautilus Neurosciences, Inc.2010-04-202010-04-23Us
CambiaPowder, for solution50 mg/1OralAssertio Therapeutics, Inc.2016-03-10Not applicableUs
CambiaPowder, for solution1 mg/1mgOralNautilus Neurosciences, Inc.2010-04-20Not applicableUs
CambiaPowder, for solution50 mg/1OralDepomed2010-04-20Not applicableUs
CambiaPowder, for solution50 mgOralAralez Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2012-06-02Not applicableCanada
CataflamTablet, sugar coated50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-11-242010-06-30Us
CataflamTablet, sugar coated50 mg/1OralNovartis1993-11-242017-01-01Us
Diclo Gel 1% with Xrylix SheetsKit10 mg/1gShoreline Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-09-22Not applicableUs
DiclofenacSolution0.1 %OphthalmicPharma Stulln Inc.2019-03-29Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-dicloTablet, delayed releaseOralApotex Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-dicloTablet, delayed releaseOralApotex Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-diclo Rapide 50 Mg TabletsTabletOralApotex Corporation2001-05-25Not applicableCanada
Apo-diclo SRTablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-diclo SRTablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-diclofenacSolutionTopicalApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-diclofenac OphthalmicSolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2015-09-01Not applicableCanada
Ava-diclofenacTablet, delayed releaseOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Ava-diclofenacTablet, delayed releaseOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-182014-08-21Canada
Ava-diclofenac SRTablet, extended releaseOralAvanstra Inc2011-09-272014-08-21Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Voltaren EmulgelGelTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2008-09-02Not applicableCanada
Voltaren Emulgel Back & Muscle PainGelTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2018-03-15Not applicableCanada
Voltaren Emulgel Extra StrengthGelTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2014-10-06Not applicableCanada
Voltaren Emulgel Joint Pain Extra StrengthGelTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2018-06-27Not applicableCanada
Voltaren Emulgel Joint Pain Regular StrengthGelTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2010-06-21Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Diclo-misoDiclofenac sodium (50 mg) + Misoprostol (200 mcg)Tablet, delayed releaseOralActavis Pharma Company2013-03-272019-08-08Canada
Act Diclo-misoDiclofenac sodium (75 mg) + Misoprostol (200 mcg)Tablet, delayed releaseOralActavis Pharma Company2013-03-272019-08-08Canada
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-12-28Not applicableUs54868 416520180907 15195 1jambru
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralbryant ranch prepack1997-12-242018-05-29Us63629 335920180907 15195 1t8mfmf
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (50 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-07Not applicableUs54868 416420180907 15195 1cnmwv3
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1997-12-24Not applicableUs00025 1421 60 nlmimage10 ca12e557
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-23Not applicableUs
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralRebel Distributors1997-12-24Not applicableUs
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (50 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1997-12-24Not applicableUs00025 1411 60 nlmimage10 c812e407
ArthrotecDiclofenac sodium (75 mg/1) + Misoprostol (200 ug/1)Tablet, film coatedOralA-S Medication Solutions1997-12-24Not applicableUs54569 457920180907 15195 1f77log
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ambator Diclofenac PatchDiclofenac sodium (1 g/10mL)PatchTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
Calcipotriene 0.005% / Diclofenac Sodium 3% / Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt 2% / Niacinamide 2%Diclofenac sodium (3 g/100g) + Calcipotriol (0.005 g/100g) + Sodium hyaluronate (2 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g)CreamTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-07Not applicableUs
Diclofenac SodiumDiclofenac sodium (30 mg/1mL)Aerosol, meteredTopicalShoreline Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-01-07Not applicableUs
Diclofenac SodiumDiclofenac sodium (3 g/100g)GelTopicalTwo Hip Consulting, Llc2016-03-25Not applicableUs
Diclofenac Sodium 3 PercentDiclofenac sodium (300 mg/1g)CreamTopicalHumco Holding Group, Inc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Diclofenac Sodium 3% / Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt 2% / Niacinamide 4%Diclofenac sodium (3 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-07Not applicableUs
Dipentocaine Topical Cream Compounding KitDiclofenac sodium (5.7 g/5.7g) + Gabapentin (5.7 g/5.7g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2014-11-062018-03-08Us
DS Prep PAKDiclofenac sodium (10 mg/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2015-11-20Not applicableUs
Dsg PakDiclofenac sodium (10 mg/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2015-10-072015-10-29Us
FluoracDiclofenac sodium (1 g/100g) + Fluorouracil (5 g/100g)CreamTopicalBurke Therapeutics, LLC2015-01-222015-09-14Us
International/Other Brands
Aclonac / Allvoran / Ecofenac / Effekton / Nu-Diclo / Primofenac / Prophenatin / Rhumalgan / Voltarol
Categories
UNII
144O8QL0L1
CAS number
15307-86-5
Weight
Average: 296.149
Monoisotopic: 295.016684015
Chemical Formula
C14H11Cl2NO2
InChI Key
DCOPUUMXTXDBNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H11Cl2NO2/c15-10-5-3-6-11(16)14(10)17-12-7-2-1-4-9(12)8-13(18)19/h1-7,17H,8H2,(H,18,19)
IUPAC Name
2-{2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]phenyl}acetic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CC1=CC=CC=C1NC1=C(Cl)C=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

Diclofenac is indicated for use in the treatment of pain and inflammation from varying sources including inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and akylosing spondylitis, as well as injury-related inflammation due to surgery and physical trauma. It is often used in combination with misoprostol as a gastro-protective agent in patients with high risk of developing NSAID-induced ulcers.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Diclofenac reduces inflammation and by extension reduces nociceptive pain and combats fever.Label,17 It also increases the risk of developing a gastrointestinal ulcer by inhibiting the production of protective mucus in the stomach.

Mechanism of action

Diclofenac inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, the enzymes responsible for production of prostaglandin (PG) G2 which is the precursor to other PGs.Label,17 These molecules have broad activity in pain and inflammation and the inhibition of their production is the common mechanism linking each effect of diclofenac.

PGE2 is the primary PG involved in modulation of nociception.10 It mediates peripheral sensitization through a variety of effects.17,10 PGE2 activates the Gq-coupled EP1 receptor leading to increased activity of the inositol trisphosphate/phospholipase C pathway. Activation of this pathway releases intracellular stores of calcium which directly reduces action potential threshold and activates protein kinase C (PKC) which contributes to several indirect mechanisms. PGE2 also activates the EP4 receptor, coupled to Gs, which activates the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A (AC/PKA) signaling pathway. PKA and PKC both contribute to the potentiation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) potentiation, which increases sensitivity to heat stimuli. They also activate tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels and inhibit inward potassium currents. PKA further contributes to the activation of the P2X3 purine receptor and sensitization of T-type calcium channels. The activation and sensitization of depolarizing ion channels and inhibition of inward potassium currents serve to reduce the intensity of stimulus necessary to generate action potentials in nociceptive sensory afferents. PGE2 act via EP3 to increase sensitivity to bradykinin and via EP2 to further increase heat sensitivity. Central sensitization occurs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and is mediated by the EP2 receptor which couples to Gs. Pre-synaptically, this receptor increases the release of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters glutamate, CGRP, and substance P. Post-synaptically it increases the activity of AMPA and NMDA receptors and produces inhibition of inhibitory glycinergic neurons. Together these lead to a reduced threshold of activating, allowing low intensity stimuli to generate pain signals. PGI2 is known to play a role via its Gs-coupled IP receptor although the magnitude of its contribution varies. It has been proposed to be of greater importance in painful inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. By limiting sensitization, both peripheral and central, via these pathways NSAIDs can effectively reduce inflammatory pain.

PGI2 and PGE2 contribute to acute inflammation via their IP and EP2 receptors.17,11 Similarly to β adrenergic receptors these are Gs-coupled and mediate vasodilation through the AC/PKA pathway. PGE2 also contributes by increasing leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and attracts the cells to the site of injury.17 PGD2 plays a role in the activation of endothelial cell release of cytokines through its DP1 receptor.11 PGI2 and PGE2 modulate T-helper cell activation and differentiation through IP, EP2, and EP4 receptors which is believed to be an important activity in the pathology of arthritic conditions. By limiting the production of these PGs at the site of injury, NSAIDs can reduce inflammation.

PGE2 can cross the blood-brain barrier and act on excitatory Gq EP3 receptors on thermoregulatory neurons in the hypothalamus.17 This activation triggers an increase in heat-generation and a reduction in heat-loss to produce a fever. NSAIDs prevent the generation of PGE2 thereby reducing the activity of these neurons.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Humans
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Humans
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Absorption

Diclofenac is completely absorbed from the GI tract but likely undergoes significant first pass metabolism with only 60% of the drug reaching systemic circulation unchanged Label,7,8. Many topical formulations are absorbed percutaneous and produce clinically significant plasma concentrations. Absorption is dose proportional over the range of 25-150 mg.7 Tmax varies between formulations with the oral solution reaching peak plasma concentrations in 10-40min, the enteric coated tablet in 1.5-2h, and the sustained- and extended-release formulations prolonging Tmax even further. Administration with food has no significant effects on AUC but does delay Tmax to 2.5-12h.7,8

Volume of distribution

Diclofenac has a total volume of distribution of 5-10 L or 0.1-0.2 L/kg.7 The volume of the central compartment is 0.04 L/kg.8 Diclofenac distributes to the synovial fluid reaching peak concentration 2-4h after administration.7 There is limited crossing of the blood brain barrier and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations only reach 8.22% of plasma concentrations. Doses of 50 mg delivered via intramuscular injection produced no detectable diclofenac concentrations in breast milk, however metabolite concentrations were not investigated. Diclofenac has been shown to cross the placenta in mice and rats but human data is unavailable.8

Protein binding

Diclofenac is over 99.7% bound to serum proteins, primarily albumin.7 It is undergoes limited binding to lipoproteins as well with 1.1% bound to HDL, 0.3% to LDL, and 0.15% to VLDL.

Metabolism

Diclofenac undergoes oxidative metabolism to hydroxy metabolites as well as conjugation to glucuronic acid, sulfate, and taurine.Label,7 The primary metabolite is 4'-hydroxy diclofenac which is generated by CYP2C9. This metabolite is very weakly active with one thirtieth the activity of diclofenac. Other metabolites include 3'-hydroxy diclofenac, 3'-hydroxy-4'methoxy diclofenac, 4',5-dihydroxy diclofenac, an acylglucuronide conjugate, and other conjugate metabolites.

Route of elimination

Diclofenac is mainly eliminated via metabolism.7,8 Of the total dose, 60-70% is eliminated in the urine and 30% is eliminated in the feces. No significant enterohepatic recycling occurs.

Half life

The terminal half-life of diclofenac is approximately 2 h, however the apparent half-life including all metabolites is 25.8-33 h.Label,8

Clearance

Diclofenac has a plasma clearance 16 L/h.8

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding.Label Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma occur rarely. In case of overdose, provide supportive care and consider inducing emesis and administering activated charcoal if overdose occurred less than 4 hours prior.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Diclofenac Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Diclofenac.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Takuzo Kamishita, "Gel preparations for topical application of diclofenac sodium." U.S. Patent US4670254, issued October, 1983.

US4670254
General References
  1. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C: Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2006 Jun 3;332(7553):1302-8. [PubMed:16740558]
  2. Solomon DH, Avorn J, Sturmer T, Glynn RJ, Mogun H, Schneeweiss S: Cardiovascular outcomes in new users of coxibs and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: high-risk subgroups and time course of risk. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 May;54(5):1378-89. [PubMed:16645966]
  3. FitzGerald GA, Patrono C: The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 9;345(6):433-42. [PubMed:11496855]
  4. Graham DJ: COX-2 inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and cardiovascular risk: the seduction of common sense. JAMA. 2006 Oct 4;296(13):1653-6. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [PubMed:16968830]
  5. Brater DC: Renal effects of cyclooxygyenase-2-selective inhibitors. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002 Apr;23(4 Suppl):S15-20; discussion S21-3. [PubMed:11992745]
  6. Gan TJ: Diclofenac: an update on its mechanism of action and safety profile. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Jul;26(7):1715-31. doi: 10.1185/03007995.2010.486301. [PubMed:20470236]
  7. Davies NM, Anderson KE: Clinical pharmacokinetics of diclofenac. Therapeutic insights and pitfalls. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Sep;33(3):184-213. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199733030-00003. [PubMed:9314611]
  8. Todd PA, Sorkin EM: Diclofenac sodium. A reappraisal of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1988 Mar;35(3):244-85. doi: 10.2165/00003495-198835030-00004. [PubMed:3286213]
  9. Kuehl GE, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Bigler J: Glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: identifying the enzymes responsible in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jul;33(7):1027-35. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.002527. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843492]
  10. Chen L, Yang G, Grosser T: Prostanoids and inflammatory pain. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013 Jul-Aug;104-105:58-66. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2012.08.006. Epub 2012 Sep 3. [PubMed:22981510]
  11. Hirata T, Narumiya S: Prostanoids as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Adv Immunol. 2012;116:143-74. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394300-2.00005-3. [PubMed:23063076]
  12. Sallmann AR: The history of diclofenac. Am. J. Med. 1986 Apr 28;80(4):29-33.
  13. Bort R, Mace K, Boobis A, Gomez-Lechon MJ, Pfeifer A, Castell J: Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):787-96. [PubMed:10449188]
  14. Yan Z, Li J, Huebert N, Caldwell GW, Du Y, Zhong H: Detection of a novel reactive metabolite of diclofenac: evidence for CYP2C9-mediated bioactivation via arene oxides. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jun;33(6):706-13. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.003095. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [PubMed:15764717]
  15. Boerma JS, Vermeulen NP, Commandeur JN: One-electron oxidation of diclofenac by human cytochrome P450s as a potential bioactivation mechanism for formation of 2'-(glutathion-S-yl)-deschloro-diclofenac. Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Jan 25;207:32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2013.11.001. Epub 2013 Nov 15. [PubMed:24246759]
  16. Kamimura H, Ito S, Nozawa K, Nakamura S, Chijiwa H, Nagatsuka S, Kuronuma M, Ohnishi Y, Suemizu H, Ninomiya S: Formation of the accumulative human metabolite and human-specific glutathione conjugate of diclofenac in TK-NOG chimeric mice with humanized livers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2015 Mar;43(3):309-16. doi: 10.1124/dmd.114.061689. Epub 2014 Dec 11. [PubMed:25504502]
  17. Brunton LL, Hilal-Dandan R, Knollmann BC. eds (2018). Goodman & Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. [ISBN:978-1-25-958473-2]
  18. Drugs@FDA: Voltaren Delayed Release [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014724
KEGG Drug
D07816
KEGG Compound
C01690
PubChem Compound
3033
PubChem Substance
46504644
ChemSpider
2925
BindingDB
13066
ChEBI
47381
ChEMBL
CHEMBL139
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000620
PharmGKB
PA449293
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
DIF
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Diclofenac
ATC Codes
S01CC01 — Diclofenac and antiinfectivesS01BC03 — DiclofenacM01AB55 — Diclofenac, combinationsM02AA15 — DiclofenacM01AB05 — DiclofenacD11AX18 — Diclofenac
AHFS Codes
  • 52:02.00 — Antiallergic Agents
  • 28:32.92 — Antimigraine Agents, Miscellaneous
  • 28:08.04.08 — Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors
  • 52:08.20 — Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
  • 28:08.04.92 — Other Nonsteroidal Antiimflammatory Agents
PDB Entries
1dvx / 1nr6 / 1pxx / 1sv9 / 2b17 / 2wek / 3cfq / 3ib0 / 3n8y / 4oj4
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FDA label
Download (610 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherBioavailability1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Hepatic Insufficiency / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
1CompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
1CompletedNot AvailableVentricular Repolarization1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAging1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain NOS1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedOtherPain NOS4
1CompletedPreventionPost-ERCP Acute Pancreatitis1
1CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors, Excluding Breast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction3
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain) / Pain, Chronic1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentDiffuse Diabetic Macular Edema1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentSuicidal Depression1
2CompletedHealth Services ResearchOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2CompletedPreventionNon-Melanomatous Skin Cancer1
2CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
2CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
2CompletedTreatmentBasal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)1
2CompletedTreatmentCutaneous Neurofibromas / Neurofibromatosis 11
2CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHematuria / Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain NOS / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)3
2CompletedTreatmentNon-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Wobenzym1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
2CompletedTreatmentPerineal Laceration (Obstetric) / Perineal Tears1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNon-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis2
2RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2TerminatedTreatmentArthralgia/joint pain / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
2TerminatedTreatmentOtitis Externa1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Oculopathy1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2, 3CompletedPreventionEndoscopy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionLocal Anesthesia / Pulpitis - Irreversible1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPulpitis - Irreversible1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBicipital Tendonitis / DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist / Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow / Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow / Rotator Cuff Tendonitis / Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder / Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCommon Bile Duct Diseases1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentBreast Pain / Non-cyclical Mastalgia / Surgical Scar-Related Breast Pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE)1
3CompletedOtherActinic Keratosis (AK)1
3CompletedPreventionPain Relief With HSG1
3CompletedSupportive CareCoagulation Disorders / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedSupportive CareMyopes Who Have Undergone PRK1
3CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)3
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Ankle Sprain1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Blunt Soft Tissue Injuries/Contusions2
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Musculoskeletal Spasm Due to Low Back Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains2
3CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains / Pain, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS)2
3CompletedTreatmentArthroplasties Hip Replacement / Osteoarthritis, Hip / Perioperative Blood Loss1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain2
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentGrade I/II Ankle Sprain1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)6
3CompletedTreatmentMuscle Soreness1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteearthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)12
3CompletedTreatmentOther Acute Postoperative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute3
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Soft Tissue Injury1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Dental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis,Osteoarthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentSprain of Ankle1
3CompletedTreatmentSunburn1
3CompletedTreatmentVertebrogenic Radiculopathy L5, S11
3CompletedTreatmentOcular inflammatory conditions1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain, Procedure1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMechanical Low Back Pain / Postural Low Back Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
3RecruitingPreventionHysteroscopy / Pain NOS1
3RecruitingPreventionPain NOS1
3RecruitingPreventionPain, Post Procedural / Procedural Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis Knee Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentColic1
3TerminatedTreatmentGastric Ulcer (GU)1
3TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBladder Cancers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentKnee Injuries / Knee Pain Chronic1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedBasic ScienceActinic Keratosis (AK)1
4CompletedPreventionDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedPreventionFamily Planning1
4CompletedPreventionGraves´ Disease1
4CompletedPreventionRecurrence of Febrile Seizure1
4CompletedScreeningDrug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Quality of Life1
4CompletedTreatmentAchilles Tendinopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)3
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Back Strain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
4CompletedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS)2
4CompletedTreatmentAthletic Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back2
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentFissure;Anal / Fistula;Rectal / Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
4CompletedTreatmentInadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentIntraoperative Analgesic Use / Postcraniotomy Headache / Postoperative Analgesic Use / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine1
4CompletedTreatmentOrofacial Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Sprains / Sprains and Strains1
4CompletedTreatmentParesthesia / Thoracic Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPericardial Effusion1
4CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPhotosensitivity Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPrimary Dysmenorrhoea1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic / Urinary Calculi1
4CompletedTreatmentSuperficial Thrombophlebitis of the Upper Limb1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Colic1
4RecruitingDiagnosticFemale Infertility of Tubal Origin1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Delivery1
4RecruitingPreventionGlaucoma1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Bladder Cancers / Hematuria / Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Adverse Reaction / Cruciate Ligament Rupture / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS) / Spondyloarthritis, Axial1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Back Pain Without Radiation1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Osteoarthritis of Multiple Joints of Ankle or Foot1
4RecruitingTreatmentLimb injury / Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain Control After Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery and Septoplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
4TerminatedPreventionPancreatitis1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS) / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentFevers1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS3
4TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHallux Valgus / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSprains1
4WithdrawnTreatmentUpper Respiratory Tract Infections1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentOrthodontic Anchorage Procedures1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRhizarthrosis1
Not AvailableApproved for MarketingNot AvailableOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableActinic Keratosis (AK)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Inflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I / Neurocostal neuralgia / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Iridocyclitis / Iritis / Macular Edema (ME) / Uveitis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePhysiological Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceRetinal Hypoxia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDermatitis, Photocontact1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticRespiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCataracts / Macular Edema (ME) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy, Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCataracts / Glaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCrown Lengthening Procedure With Ostectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea / Electromagnetic Field1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFevers / Reduction in Temperature1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFlail Chest / General Surgery / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain, Mechanical1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOedema / Pain NOS / Trismus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Knee Joint1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain and Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Cesarean Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSoft Tissue Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Degenerative Joint Disease1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDisorders, Blood Coagulation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Trismus1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableInflamation Management / Pain Management / Post Surgical Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNon-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNulliparity1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentTemporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableDegeneration / Ectasia / Keratoconus2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceSupersaturation and Precipitation in the Stomach1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPost ERCP Pancreatitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAbnormal Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Menstrual Cycle1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain Relief1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentSciatica Due to Intervertebral Disc Disorder1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAnkle Sprains / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Institut biochemique sa
  • Xanodyne pharmaceutics inc
  • Nautilus neurosciences inc
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Apotex inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Nycomed us inc
  • Novartis consumer health inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • Bausch and lomb inc
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Nexus pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Nostrum laboratories inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Unique pharmaceutical laboratories
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Dexcel ltd
Packagers
  • 4uOrtho LLC
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Advantage Dose LLC
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Almirall Hermal GmbH
  • Alpharma Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Altergon Italia SRL
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Bioglan Pharmaceuticals Co.
  • Biovail Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlsbad Technology Inc.
  • Ciba Vision Canada Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Dexcel Ltd.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Indoco Remedies Limited
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • J.B. Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nautilus Neurosciences Inc.
  • Nexus Pharmaceuticals
  • Novartis AG
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pack Pharmaceuticals
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmaderm
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescription Dispensing Service Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Teikoku Seiyaku Co. Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Yung Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTopical1 g/10mL
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
SolutionOphthalmic
Tablet, film coatedOral
Powder, for solutionOral1 mg/1mg
Powder, for solutionOral50 mg
Powder, for solutionOral50 mg/1
Tablet, sugar coatedOral50 mg/1
KitTopical
Kit10 mg/1g
SolutionOphthalmic0.1 %
TabletOral50 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral50 mg/1
Aerosol, meteredTopical30 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 mg/1
GelTopical3 g/100g
GelTopical30 mg/1g
SolutionTopical16.05 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic3.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsTransdermal16.05 mg/1mL
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral75 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral25 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral50 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral75 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
CreamTopical300 mg/1g
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral100 mg/1
GelTopical1 g/1
KitTopical10 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntravenous37.5 mg/1mL
KitSublingual
PatchTopical0.013 mg/1
PatchTopical13 mg/1
PatchTopical180 mg/1
PatchTopical180 mg/14g
CreamTopical
KitOral
Kit16.05 mg/1mL
KitOral; Topical
LiquidTopical16.05 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical1.5 %
SolutionTopical15 mg/1g
SolutionTopical20 mg/1g
SolutionTopical
SuppositoryRectal
TabletOral
Kit
LiquidOphthalmic
GelTopical10 mg/1g
SolutionOphthalmic1 mg/1mL
SuppositoryRectal100 mg
SuppositoryRectal50 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral50 mg
GelTopical
TabletOral
KitTopical16.05 mg/1mL
Capsule, liquid filledOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral18 mg/1
CapsuleOral35 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Voltaren Ophtha 0.1 % Solution2.73USD ml
Voltaren 100 mg Suppository1.88USD suppository
Voltaren Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.86USD tablet
Voltaren 50 mg Suppository1.4USD suppository
Voltaren Sr 75 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.31USD tablet
Voltaren 50 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.93USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac 100 mg Suppository0.88USD suppository
Sandoz Diclofenac 100 mg Suppository0.88USD suppository
Novo-Difenac Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.8USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac-Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.8USD tablet
Sandoz Diclofenac Sr 100 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.8USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac 50 mg Suppository0.65USD suppository
Sandoz Diclofenac 50 mg Suppository0.65USD suppository
Novo-Difenac Sr 75 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.6USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac-Sr 75 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.6USD tablet
Sandoz Diclofenac Sr 75 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Diclo 50 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.4USD tablet
Novo-Difenac 50 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.4USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac 50 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.4USD tablet
Sandoz Diclofenac 50 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.4USD tablet
Apo-Diclo 25 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.2USD tablet
Novo-Difenac 25 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.2USD tablet
Nu-Diclo 25 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.2USD tablet
Pms-Diclofenac 25 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.2USD tablet
Sandoz Diclofenac 25 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.2USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6407079No2002-06-182019-06-18Us
US8217078No2012-07-102029-07-10Us
US8546450No2013-10-012030-08-09Us
US8618164No2013-12-312029-07-10Us
US8741956No2014-06-032029-07-10Us
US5985850No1999-11-162015-08-11Us
US5792753No1998-08-112015-08-11Us
US5914322No1999-06-222015-08-11Us
US5607690No1997-03-042019-04-13Us
US6974595No2005-12-132017-05-15Us
US7482377No2009-01-272017-05-15Us
US7759394No2010-07-202026-06-16Us
US8097651No2012-01-172026-06-16Us
US8927604No2015-01-062026-06-16Us
US6365180No2002-04-022019-07-15Us
US7662858No2010-02-162029-02-24Us
US7884095No2011-02-082029-02-24Us
US7939518No2011-05-102029-02-24Us
US8110606No2012-02-072029-02-24Us
US8623920No2014-01-072029-02-24Us
US6287594No2001-09-112019-01-15Us
US8946292No2015-02-032027-03-22Us
US9180095No2015-11-102030-04-23Us
US9186328No2015-11-172030-04-23Us
US8999387No2015-04-072030-04-23Us
US9173854No2015-11-032030-04-23Us
US9180096No2015-11-102030-04-23Us
US9017721No2015-04-282030-04-23Us
US8679544No2014-03-252030-04-23Us
US8252838No2012-08-282028-04-21Us
US8563613No2013-10-222027-10-17Us
US8871809No2014-10-282027-10-17Us
US9132110No2015-09-152027-10-17Us
US9220784No2015-12-292027-10-17Us
US9101591No2015-08-112027-10-17Us
US9168305No2015-10-272027-10-17Us
US9066913No2015-06-302027-10-17Us
US9168304No2015-10-272027-10-17Us
US9561200No2017-02-072029-02-24Us
US9370501No2016-06-212029-07-10Us
US9375412No2016-06-282029-07-10Us
US9339552No2016-05-172027-10-17Us
US9539335No2017-01-102027-10-17Us
US9415029No2016-08-162029-07-10Us
US9339551No2016-05-172027-10-17Us
US9827197No2017-11-282026-06-16Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)283-285 °CNot Available
water solubility2.37 mg/L (at 25 °C)FINI,A ET AL. (1986)
logP4.51AVDEEF,A (1997)
pKa4.15SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00447 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.98ALOGPS
logP4.26ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity75.46 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9548
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9541
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7976
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8254
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9548
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9086
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7779
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6724
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5923
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.6786
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.848
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8947
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8647
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6607
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6706
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9719
Rat acute toxicity3.6447 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9514
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.868
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-03xv-3390000000-cd724f772f8ff3648856
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03xv-1290000000-8fb3ce6f68fc69b5218e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-1d8a04523a99bbdd0f79
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-55cf6c5663edc2bce2af
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-0257da659c18c3020ebe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0090000000-eba79744370d30689f45
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03fr-0890000000-0870dbb742038ce60ba1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-a9b9817f70b72a327169
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-58aba74cf5c165b0b3e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-380ce6ec03fa880c2fee
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0090000000-1c764b23643b9731a5a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ik9-0290000000-5d59b6e5d4465a9e6493
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-483b1ac79bbfb8f591c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fb9-0950000000-4192d5344ed223d4bfd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-1d8a04523a99bbdd0f79
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-d28bb6688b1bce51bfce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-33332a8dbce37d5ad759
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1490000000-f1c9ca0a1b924dba188e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-4910000000-4c58f3f969da3d86e23c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00or-7900000000-3b2e03ec45a0b642cb4d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0390000000-247401e4df8c88d9f260
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0980000000-dee808683174f31bbd7b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-5685aad1c834522ac60a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-5685aad1c834522ac60a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0090000000-659ebbc59b4a39d35b04
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-0090000000-f5310eb88501c49fae99
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-22b25c07db224512f663
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-185b3e61f8dee1cd34fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-258397c7de133a923918
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-a01fa70dc6bb2e228326
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-dda6bd4971ef03dfabd5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f92-0090000000-2442038174fa86b3208e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-6651d739e4ae3414e4dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-d36dd717311d2b0886bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-ce3de7d00b24b610d60e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-79f23644751784fec0ff
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-2b7106a8023f21da905f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f92-0090000000-3a985a8972fed8e003bb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-97ab164f74166b6b9013
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-0e7b515022ec37b87106
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-4bc6d8a15c3425f5cd10
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-80bb26643a94999c6114
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-e5473cba8c9d7b59691b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-f4f62ca3d4d5ab12ba13
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-0190000000-5072b5cbb937155d3784
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fr2-0690000000-0ad1d80cd74eb2ccbdb0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014j-0690000000-4183a2580dc0b109b758
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dj-1590000000-fbe48d026f4e8bbc143f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2590000000-f9746f93eefd2c1420c4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fb9-0090000000-ea3b07d4dee166a8e13a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03xr-0090000000-e46d3368f4461372a4d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-6f11e14bc0fc7b731ddb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-c297b571605fec05d894
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-044f51839f5d4002b30d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0i00-0090000000-c627af8df018c1c51b07

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Dichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aniline and substituted anilines / Aryl chlorides / Amino acids / Secondary amines / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Aniline or substituted anilines / 1,3-dichlorobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Amino acid or derivatives / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid / Secondary amine / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, secondary amino compound, dichlorobenzene, aromatic amine, amino acid (CHEBI:47381)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Steinbach N, Meisel C, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2: no relationship to the CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;55(1):51-61. [PubMed:12534640]
  2. Blomme EA, Chinn KS, Hardy MM, Casler JJ, Kim SH, Opsahl AC, Hall WA, Trajkovic D, Khan KN, Tripp CS: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition does not affect the healing of cutaneous full-thickness incisional wounds in SKH-1 mice. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Feb;148(2):211-23. [PubMed:12588370]
  3. Beubler E: [Pharmacology of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2003;153(5-6):95-9. [PubMed:12705061]
  4. Chavez ML, DeKorte CJ: Valdecoxib: a review. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):817-51. [PubMed:12852704]
  5. Rowlinson SW, Kiefer JR, Prusakiewicz JJ, Pawlitz JL, Kozak KR, Kalgutkar AS, Stallings WC, Kurumbail RG, Marnett LJ: A novel mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition involving interactions with Ser-530 and Tyr-385. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 14;278(46):45763-9. Epub 2003 Aug 18. [PubMed:12925531]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Calkin AC, Sudhir K, Honisett S, Williams MR, Dawood T, Komesaroff PA: Rapid potentiation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation by estradiol in postmenopausal women is mediated via cyclooxygenase 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Nov;87(11):5072-5. [PubMed:12414874]
  2. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Steinbach N, Meisel C, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2: no relationship to the CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;55(1):51-61. [PubMed:12534640]
  3. Kampfer H, Brautigam L, Geisslinger G, Pfeilschifter J, Frank S: Cyclooxygenase-1-coupled prostaglandin biosynthesis constitutes an essential prerequisite for skin repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May;120(5):880-90. [PubMed:12713596]
  4. Chavez ML, DeKorte CJ: Valdecoxib: a review. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):817-51. [PubMed:12852704]
  5. Hinz B, Rau T, Auge D, Werner U, Ramer R, Rietbrock S, Brune K: Aceclofenac spares cyclooxygenase 1 as a result of limited but sustained biotransformation to diclofenac. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;74(3):222-35. [PubMed:12966366]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Mo SL, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Wei MQ, Zhou SF: New insights into the structural features and functional relevance of human cytochrome P450 2C9. Part I. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Dec;10(10):1075-126. [PubMed:20167001]
  2. Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE: Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):831-7. [PubMed:12065442]
  3. Leemann T, Transon C, Dayer P: Cytochrome P450TB (CYP2C): a major monooxygenase catalyzing diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation in human liver. Life Sci. 1993;52(1):29-34. [PubMed:8417277]
  4. Kumar V, Rock DA, Warren CJ, Tracy TS, Wahlstrom JL: Enzyme source effects on CYP2C9 kinetics and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Nov;34(11):1903-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.010249. Epub 2006 Aug 23. [PubMed:16928789]
  5. Roth H: Planning information services in the disability field: some essential steps. Int J Rehabil Res. 1989;12(4):439-48. [PubMed:2534640]
  6. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Bort R, Mace K, Boobis A, Gomez-Lechon MJ, Pfeifer A, Castell J: Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):787-96. [PubMed:10449188]
  2. Mancy A, Antignac M, Minoletti C, Dijols S, Mouries V, Duong NT, Battioni P, Dansette PM, Mansuy D: Diclofenac and its derivatives as tools for studying human cytochromes P450 active sites: particular efficiency and regioselectivity of P450 2Cs. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 26;38(43):14264-70. doi: 10.1021/bi991195u. [PubMed:10572000]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Data supporting these enzyme actions is limited to in vitro studies.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Karjalainen MJ, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: In vitro inhibition of CYP1A2 by model inhibitors, anti-inflammatory analgesics and female sex steroids: predictability of in vivo interactions. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Aug;103(2):157-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00252.x. [PubMed:18816299]
  2. Ma Z, Shi X, Zhang G, Guo F, Shan L, Cai J: Metabolism and Metabolic Inhibition of Xanthotoxol in Human Liver Microsomes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:5416509. doi: 10.1155/2016/5416509. Epub 2016 Mar 10. [PubMed:27034690]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Bort R, Mace K, Boobis A, Gomez-Lechon MJ, Pfeifer A, Castell J: Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):787-96. [PubMed:10449188]
  2. Mancy A, Antignac M, Minoletti C, Dijols S, Mouries V, Duong NT, Battioni P, Dansette PM, Mansuy D: Diclofenac and its derivatives as tools for studying human cytochromes P450 active sites: particular efficiency and regioselectivity of P450 2Cs. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 26;38(43):14264-70. doi: 10.1021/bi991195u. [PubMed:10572000]
  3. Melet A, Marques-Soares C, Schoch GA, Macherey AC, Jaouen M, Dansette PM, Sari MA, Johnson EF, Mansuy D: Analysis of human cytochrome P450 2C8 substrate specificity using a substrate pharmacophore and site-directed mutants. Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 14;43(49):15379-92. doi: 10.1021/bi0489309. [PubMed:15581350]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Kuehl GE, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Bigler J: Glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: identifying the enzymes responsible in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jul;33(7):1027-35. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.002527. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843492]
Details
6. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Ngui JS, Tang W, Stearns RA, Shou M, Miller RR, Zhang Y, Lin JH, Baillie TA: Cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated interaction of diclofenac and quinidine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Sep;28(9):1043-50. [PubMed:10950847]
  2. Tang W: The metabolism of diclofenac--enzymology and toxicology perspectives. Curr Drug Metab. 2003 Aug;4(4):319-29. [PubMed:12871048]
  3. Masubuchi Y, Ose A, Horie T: Diclofenac-induced inactivation of CYP3A4 and its stimulation by quinidine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Oct;30(10):1143-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.30.10.1143. [PubMed:12228192]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Bort R, Mace K, Boobis A, Gomez-Lechon MJ, Pfeifer A, Castell J: Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):787-96. [PubMed:10449188]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Bort R, Mace K, Boobis A, Gomez-Lechon MJ, Pfeifer A, Castell J: Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 1;58(5):787-96. [PubMed:10449188]
  2. Mancy A, Antignac M, Minoletti C, Dijols S, Mouries V, Duong NT, Battioni P, Dansette PM, Mansuy D: Diclofenac and its derivatives as tools for studying human cytochromes P450 active sites: particular efficiency and regioselectivity of P450 2Cs. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 26;38(43):14264-70. doi: 10.1021/bi991195u. [PubMed:10572000]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Bigler J: Glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: identifying the enzymes responsible in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jul;33(7):1027-35. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.002527. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843492]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Bigler J: Glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: identifying the enzymes responsible in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jul;33(7):1027-35. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.002527. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843492]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as...
Gene Name
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID
P06133
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4
Molecular Weight
60512.035 Da
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Lampe JW, Potter JD, Bigler J: Glucuronidation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: identifying the enzymes responsible in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jul;33(7):1027-35. doi: 10.1124/dmd.104.002527. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843492]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Charlier C, Michaux C: Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) as a new strategy to provide safer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Eur J Med Chem. 2003 Jul-Aug;38(7-8):645-59. [PubMed:12932896]
  2. Kudo C, Kori M, Matsuzaki K, Yamai K, Nakajima A, Shibuya A, Niwa H, Kamisaki Y, Wada K: Diclofenac inhibits proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Jul 15;66(2):289-95. [PubMed:12826271]
  3. Whittle BJ: Cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide systems in the gut as therapeutic targets for safer anti-inflammatory drugs. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;4(6):538-45. [PubMed:15525540]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-ph...
Gene Name
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID
P14555
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
Molecular Weight
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Madanick RD, O'Loughlin CJ, Barkin JS: Diclofenac reduces the incidence of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 May;50(5):879-81. [PubMed:15906762]
  2. Singh N, Jabeen T, Sharma S, Somvanshi RK, Dey S, Srinivasan A, Singh TP: Specific binding of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to phospholipase A2: structure of the complex formed between phospholipase A2 and diclofenac at 2.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006 Apr;62(Pt 4):410-6. Epub 2006 Mar 18. [PubMed:16552142]
  3. Makela A, Kuusi T, Schroder T: Inhibition of serum phospholipase-A2 in acute pancreatitis by pharmacological agents in vitro. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1997 Aug;57(5):401-7. [PubMed:9279965]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Miller SR, Sekijima Y, Kelly JW: Native state stabilization by NSAIDs inhibits transthyretin amyloidogenesis from the most common familial disease variants. Lab Invest. 2004 May;84(5):545-52. [PubMed:14968122]
  2. Almeida MR, Macedo B, Cardoso I, Alves I, Valencia G, Arsequell G, Planas A, Saraiva MJ: Selective binding to transthyretin and tetramer stabilization in serum from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy by an iodinated diflunisal derivative. Biochem J. 2004 Jul 15;381(Pt 2):351-6. [PubMed:15080795]
Details
2. Serum albumin
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Yamasaki K, Rahman MH, Tsutsumi Y, Maruyama T, Ahmed S, Kragh-Hansen U, Otagiri M: Circular dichroism simulation shows a site-II-to-site-I displacement of human serum albumin-bound diclofenac by ibuprofen. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2000 May 14;1(2):E12. [PubMed:14727845]
  2. Davies NM, Anderson KE: Clinical pharmacokinetics of diclofenac. Therapeutic insights and pitfalls. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Sep;33(3):184-213. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199733030-00003. [PubMed:9314611]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [PubMed:10991954]
  2. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528]
  3. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-gluc...
Gene Name
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Westholm DE, Stenehjem DD, Rumbley JN, Drewes LR, Anderson GW: Competitive inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1-mediated thyroxine transport by the fenamate class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1025-32. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0188. Epub 2008 Oct 9. [PubMed:18845642]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Ahlin G, Bergstrom CA, Svensson R, Palm J, Artursson P: In vitro and in silico strategies to identify OATP1B1 inhibitors and predict clinical drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2012 Feb;29(2):411-26. doi: 10.1007/s11095-011-0564-9. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [PubMed:21861202]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Yang YC, Kuo CC: An inactivation stabilizer of the Na+ channel acts as an opportunistic pore blocker modulated by external Na+. J Gen Physiol. 2005 May;125(5):465-81. Epub 2005 Apr 11. [PubMed:15824190]
  2. Voilley N: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs): new targets for the analgesic effects of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2004 Mar;3(1):71-9. [PubMed:15032643]
  3. Jones NG, Slater R, Cadiou H, McNaughton P, McMahon SB: Acid-induced pain and its modulation in humans. J Neurosci. 2004 Dec 1;24(48):10974-9. [PubMed:15574747]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ligand-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Isoform 2 and isoform 3 function as proton-gated sodium channels; they are activated by a drop of the extracellular pH and then become rapidly desensitized. The channel generates a biphasic current...
Gene Name
ASIC1
Uniprot ID
P78348
Uniprot Name
Acid-sensing ion channel 1
Molecular Weight
59908.915 Da
References
  1. Voilley N, de Weille J, Mamet J, Lazdunski M: Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both the activity and the inflammation-induced expression of acid-sensing ion channels in nociceptors. J Neurosci. 2001 Oct 15;21(20):8026-33. [PubMed:11588175]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current...
Gene Name
KCNQ2
Uniprot ID
O43526
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2
Molecular Weight
95846.575 Da
References
  1. Peretz A, Degani N, Nachman R, Uziyel Y, Gibor G, Shabat D, Attali B: Meclofenamic acid and diclofenac, novel templates of KCNQ2/Q3 potassium channel openers, depress cortical neuron activity and exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;67(4):1053-66. Epub 2004 Dec 14. [PubMed:15598972]
  2. Xiong Q, Gao Z, Wang W, Li M: Activation of Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels by synthetic compounds. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Feb;29(2):99-107. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2007.11.010. Epub 2008 Jan 18. [PubMed:18206251]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native ...
Gene Name
KCNQ3
Uniprot ID
O43525
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3
Molecular Weight
96741.515 Da
References
  1. Xiong Q, Gao Z, Wang W, Li M: Activation of Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels by synthetic compounds. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Feb;29(2):99-107. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2007.11.010. Epub 2008 Jan 18. [PubMed:18206251]
  2. Peretz A, Degani N, Nachman R, Uziyel Y, Gibor G, Shabat D, Attali B: Meclofenamic acid and diclofenac, novel templates of KCNQ2/Q3 potassium channel openers, depress cortical neuron activity and exhibit anticonvulsant properties. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;67(4):1053-66. Epub 2004 Dec 14. [PubMed:15598972]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 13, 2019 23:23