Identification

Name
Naproxen
Accession Number
DB00788  (APRD01135, DB08298)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-(S)-6-Methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid
  • (+)-(S)-Naproxen
  • (+)-2-(6-Methoxy-2-naphthyl)propionic acid
  • (+)-2-(Methoxy-2-naphthyl)-propionic acid
  • (+)-2-(Methoxy-2-naphthyl)-propionsäure
  • (+)-Naproxen
  • (S)-(+)-2-(6-Methoxy-2-naphthyl)propionic acid
  • (S)-(+)-Naproxen
  • (S)-2-(6-Methoxy-2-naphthyl)propanoic acid
  • (S)-2-(6-Methoxy-2-naphthyl)propionic acid
  • (S)-6-Methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid
  • (S)-Naproxen
  • Naprolag
  • Naproxen
  • Naproxène
  • Naproxeno
  • Naproxenum
External IDs
RS 3540 / RS 3650 / RS-3540
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Naproxen sodium9TN87S3A3C26159-34-2CDBRNDSHEYLDJV-FVGYRXGTSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AnaproxTablet275 mgOralSyntex Inc.1980-12-311996-09-30Canada
AnaproxTablet275 mg/1OralRoche Laboratories Inc.2006-05-172006-05-17Us
AnaproxTablet275 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1980-09-042011-06-30Us
AnaproxTablet275 mgOralAtnahs Pharma Uk Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Anaprox DSTablet550 mg/1OralCanton Laboratories2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Anaprox DSTablet550 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1980-09-042011-06-30Us
Anaprox DSTablet550 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1980-09-042018-07-31Us
Anaprox DSTablet550 mgOralAtnahs Pharma Uk Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Anaprox DS Tab 550mgTablet550 mgOralSyntex Inc.1990-12-311996-09-30Canada
Apo Naproxen Tab 125mgTablet125 mgOralApotex Corporation1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
All Day ReliefTablet220 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2015-02-022017-03-10Us
AnaproxTablet550 mg/1OralDirectrx2016-07-11Not applicableUs
Apo-napro-NATablet275 mgOralApotex Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-napro-NA DSTablet550 mgOralApotex Corporation1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxenTablet500 mgOralApotex Corporation1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxenTablet250 mgOralApotex Corporation1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxenTablet375 mgOralApotex Corporation1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxen ECTablet, delayed release500 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxen ECTablet, delayed release375 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
Apo-naproxen EC TabletsTablet, delayed release250 mgOralApotex Corporation2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
7 Select Naproxen SodiumTablet, film coated220 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-08-11Not applicableUs
7 Select Naproxen SodiumTablet, film coated220 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-08-052016-06-19Us
AleveTablet220 mg/1OralR J General Corporation2014-02-26Not applicableUs
AleveTablet220 mgOralBayer2009-06-15Not applicableCanada
AleveTablet220 mg/1OralBayer Healthcare Llc.2002-07-26Not applicableUs
AleveTablet220 mg/1OralLil' Drug Store Products, Inc2000-01-01Not applicableUs
AleveTablet220 mg/1OralCardinal Health1994-01-11Not applicableUs
AleveTablet220 mg/1OralNavajo Manuracturing Company2017-12-04Not applicableUs
AleveCapsule, liquid filled220 mg/1OralBayer Healthcare Llc.2007-02-20Not applicableUs
Aleve Back and Body PainCapsule220 mgOralBayer2015-06-30Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aleve NighttimeNaproxen sodium (220 mg) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg)TabletOralBayer2016-02-24Not applicableCanada
Aleve PMNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBayer Healthcare Llc.2014-09-09Not applicableUs
Aleve-D Sinus and ColdNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)TabletOralBayer Healthcare Llc.2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Aleve-D Sinus and HeadacheNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)TabletOralBayer Healthcare Llc.2014-01-01Not applicableUs
All Day Sinus and Cold DNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralWalgreen2013-05-23Not applicableUs
All Day Sinus and Cold DNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralHyvee2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Flanax Pain Relief KitNaproxen (500 mg/1) + Menthol (6 g/60mL) + Methyl salicylate (13.8 g/60mL)KitBelmora LLC2015-08-252016-01-26Us
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Sinus and Cold DNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAmerisource Bergen2013-08-22Not applicableUs
Health Mart Sinus and Cold DNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMc Kesson2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Leader Sinus and Cold DNaproxen sodium (220 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralCardinal Health2017-06-07Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Equipto - Naproxen External Cream Compounding KitNaproxen (1 g/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2015-01-202018-03-08Us
NaproPaxNaproxen (500 mg/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 g/100g) + Menthol (5 1/100g)KitBasiem2015-08-302016-03-04Us
NaproxenPaxNaproxen (500 mg/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 g/100g) + Menthol (5 1/100g)KitSolubiomix2015-09-022016-03-04Us
TheraproxenNaproxen (250 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-05-19Not applicableUs
Theraproxen-500Naproxen (500 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-03-03Not applicableUs
Theraproxen-90Naproxen (250 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-05Not applicableUs
Trepoxen-250Naproxen (250 mg/1) + Histidine (50 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-03Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Alidase (Laboratorios) / Alpoxen (Actavis) / Alpron (Aldril) / Apain (Marvic) / Apranax (Roche) / Apronax (Bayer) / Bonyl (Orion) / Bruproxen (Bruluart) / Bumaflex N (Nycomed) / Congex (Buxton) / Debril (Monserrat) / Deproxen (Drug International) / Dysmenalgit (Krewel Meuselbach) / Emox (Emo-Farm) / Emoxen (EMO) / Eurogesic (Saval) / Fabralgina (Fabra) / Feminax Ultra (Bayer) / Flogotone (Interpharma) / Gerinap (Gerard) / Honlow (Panion & BF) / Improstan (Farmacoop) / Inflamax (Farmaceutica) / Inza (Alphapharm) / Iraxen (Quilab) / Jinkangpuli (Conba) / Lexinax (Brisafarma) / Melgar (Hexa) / Messelxen (Biomep) / Mobilat (STADA) / Naprometin (Roche) / Naprosyn CR (Abdi Ibrahim) / Naprosyn EC (Roche) / Naprosyn Entero (Roche) / Naprosyn SR (Roche) / Naprosyne (Roche) / Naproval (Labinco) / Naprux (Andromaco) / Neuralprona (Lba) / Noflam (Mylan) / Nopain (Medicef) / Prexan (New Research) / Priaxen (Remedica) / Princeps (Laser ) / Pronaxen (Orion) / Proxen (Grünenthal) / Proxen S (Roche) / Proxen SR (Roche) / Releve (General Pharma) / Repro (Doctor's Chemical Works) / Reuxen (Helcor) / Riproxen (BioGenet) / Sanaprox (Perumed) / Seladin (YSP) / Servinaprox (Novartis) / Tarproxen (Polfa Tarchomin) / Ticoflex (Incepta) / Tundra (Frasca) / Xenar (Elder) / Xenar-CR (Elder)
Categories
UNII
57Y76R9ATQ
CAS number
22204-53-1
Weight
Average: 230.2592
Monoisotopic: 230.094294314
Chemical Formula
C14H14O3
InChI Key
CMWTZPSULFXXJA-VIFPVBQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H14O3/c1-9(14(15)16)10-3-4-12-8-13(17-2)6-5-11(12)7-10/h3-9H,1-2H3,(H,15,16)/t9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid
SMILES
COC1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C(C=C2)[C@H](C)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, and acute gout. Also for the relief of mild to moderate pain and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Naproxen is a member of the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Naproxen has analgesic and antipyretic properties. As with other NSAIDs, its mode of action is not fully understood; however, its ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of naproxen, like that of other NSAIDs, is believed to be associated with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. Two unique cyclooxygenases have been described in mammals. The constitutive cyclooxygenase, COX-1, synthesizes prostaglandins necessary for normal gastrointestinal and renal function. The inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2, generates prostaglandins involved in inflammation. Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity while inhibition of COX-2 provides anti-inflammatory activity.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Human
UPeptostreptococcal albumin-binding proteinNot AvailablePeptostreptococcus magnus
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Naproxen itself is rapidly and completely absorbed from the GI tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95%. Although naproxen itself is well absorbed, the sodium salt form is more rapidly absorbed resulting in higher peak plasma levels for a given dose. Food causes a slight decrease in the rate absorption.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

At therapeutic levels naproxen is greater than 99% albumin-bound.

Metabolism

Naproxen is extensively metabolized to 6-0-desmethyl naproxen and both parent and metabolites do not induce metabolizing enzymes.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

The observed terminal elimination half-life is approximately 15 hours.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

ORAL (LD50): Acute: 248 mg/kg [Rat]. 360 mg/kg [Mouse]. Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, heartburn, indigestion, nausea, and vomiting.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
7-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 7-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
7,9-DimethylguanineThe serum concentration of 7,9-Dimethylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
8-azaguanineThe serum concentration of 8-azaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe serum concentration of 8-chlorotheophylline can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
9-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 9-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
9-MethylguanineThe serum concentration of 9-Methylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Naproxen.
AbacavirNaproxen may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Abciximab.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with a full glass of water.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference
US4009197
General References
  1. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C: Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2006 Jun 3;332(7553):1302-8. [PubMed:16740558]
  2. Zhang J, Ding EL, Song Y: Adverse effects of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors on renal and arrhythmia events: meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA. 2006 Oct 4;296(13):1619-32. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [PubMed:16968832]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001923
KEGG Drug
D00118
KEGG Compound
C01517
PubChem Compound
156391
PubChem Substance
46505508
ChemSpider
137720
BindingDB
50339185
ChEBI
7476
ChEMBL
CHEMBL154
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000968
PharmGKB
PA450595
HET
NPS
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Naproxen
ATC Codes
M01AE52 — Naproxen and esomeprazoleM01AE02 — NaproxenM01AE56 — Naproxen and misoprostolM02AA12 — NaproxenG02CC02 — Naproxen
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.04.92 — Other Nonsteroidal Antiimflammatory Agents
PDB Entries
2vdb / 3nt1 / 3r58 / 4fjp / 4jq1 / 4or0 / 4ot2 / 4po0 / 4zbr / 5dby
FDA label
Download (240 KB)
MSDS
Download (75.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOssification, Heterotopic1
0CompletedBasic ScienceOsteoarthritis (OA)1
1Active Not RecruitingPreventionLynch Syndrome1
1CompletedNot AvailableGastroduodenal Erosions1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacodynamic Interaction1
1CompletedNot AvailableMigraine Disorders / Migraines1
1CompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis Thumbs1
1CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedNot AvailableTherapeutic Equivalence1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAcute Gouty Arthritis1
1CompletedBasic ScienceArthritis2
1CompletedBasic ScienceBioequivalence / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRenal Hemodynamics1
1CompletedDiagnosticOsteoarthritis (OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentBioavailability1
1CompletedTreatmentBioequivalency2
1CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Lesions1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers6
1CompletedTreatmentHematology / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
1CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS4
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacodynamics of ASP7657 / Pharmacokinetics of ASP76571
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentTMD1
1, 2CompletedPreventionGastric Ulcer (GU)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain Management / Pulpitis dental1
2CompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Cognitive Decline Due to Alzheimer Disease / Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer's Disease1
2CompletedPreventionErosion / Gastroduodenal Ulcerations1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis / Moderate Renal Impairment1
2CompletedTreatmentBone Pain in Stage I - III Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
2CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)3
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Lower Back Pain Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)2
2CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
2CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2RecruitingPreventionPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis-related Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2TerminatedTreatmentPleural Effusion Malignant / Pleural Effusions1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer / Prostatic Neoplasms1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAdolescent Migraine / Migraines1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / Immune Reconstitution Syndrome / Tuberculosis1
3CompletedNot AvailablePain NOS2
3CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedPreventionAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS) / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
3CompletedPreventionGastric Lesion1
3CompletedSupportive CareMusculoskeletal Complications / Pain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS) / Spondyloarthritis, Axial1
3CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentGastric Ulcer (GU)3
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders / Migraine, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine, Without Aura1
3CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache3
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)5
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Peptic Ulcers1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
3CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Multiple Sclerosis (RMS) / Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis, Juvenile3
3CompletedTreatmentToothache1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute and Chronic Inflammation / Indigestion1
3RecruitingTreatmentHelicobacter Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
3TerminatedTreatmentGastric Ulcer (GU)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain2
3WithdrawnTreatmentHeadaches / Migraines2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis1
4CompletedNot AvailableGastroduodenal Ulcers1
4CompletedNot AvailableMigraines1
4CompletedPreventionMigraines2
4CompletedPreventionOsteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionPeptic Ulcers1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Low Back Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis of the Elbow1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis, Lateral Humeral / Lateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadache Disorders, Primary / Headache, Tension-Type / Migraines1
4CompletedTreatmentHypermenorrhea2
4CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4CompletedTreatmentMenstrual Migraines1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders / Migraine With or Without Aura / Migraine, Acute / Migrainous Headache1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraines2
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Vaginal Delivery Perineal Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis3
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis, Juvenile1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep1
4CompletedTreatmentSub-acute Back Pain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBone destruction / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4RecruitingBasic SciencePoor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 Variant / Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 Variant1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)2
4RecruitingTreatmentDysmenorrhea / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentLigament Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSciatica1
4TerminatedPreventionPost-Traumatic Headaches1
4TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Laminectomy Pain / Postoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4WithdrawnPreventionOssification, Heterotopic1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareClosed Fracture of Ankle1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentFlail Chest / General Surgery / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMigraine Disorders3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMigraines1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionContraception / Haemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionTooth Bleaching / Toothache1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareContraception1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAchilles Tendinopathy / Inflammatory Reaction / Tendon Injuries1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Pain Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCognitive Impairments / Migrainous Headache1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMigraine With Aura1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareToothache1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMigraines1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Roche palo alto llc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Pliva inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Hamilton pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Perrigo r and d co
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Westward pharmaceutical corp
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Stat trade inc
  • Watson laboratories inc florida
  • Bayer healthcare llc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Hikma pharmaceuticals
  • L perrigo co
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Altura Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Avkare Incorporated
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Chain Drug
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Group Health Cooperative
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hikma Pharmaceuticals
  • Innovative Manufacturing and Distribution Services Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medique Products
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Patient First Corp.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Pharmpak Inc.
  • Physician Partners Ltd.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescription Dispensing Service Inc.
  • Quality Pharmaceuticals Services Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Roxane Labs
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Talbert Medical Management Corp.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Victory Pharma
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral125 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral220 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
KitTopical1 g/1g
CapsuleOral200 mg
KitOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral375 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral375 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
SuspensionOral25 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg
CapsuleOral220 mg/1
SuspensionOral125 mg/5mL
TabletOral220 mg
TabletOral250 mg/1
TabletOral375 mg/1
TabletOral500 mg/1
TabletOral500 mg/500mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral375 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg/1
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral220 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral220 mg/1
TabletOral200 1/1
TabletOral220 mg/1
TabletOral275 mg
TabletOral275 mg/1
TabletOral550 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral220 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral275 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral550 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral220 mg/1
TabletOral220 mg/200mg
SuspensionOral125 mg
SuppositoryRectal500 mg
Kit
Kit500 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
TabletOral250 mg
TabletOral375 mg
TabletOral500 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral250 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral375 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg
TabletOral550 mg
Kit250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Naproxen 125 mg/5ml Suspension 500ml Bottle51.5USD bottle
Naprelan 750 mg 24 Hour tablet8.87USD tablet
Naprelan cr 500 mg tablet8.5USD tablet
Naprelan cr 750 mg tablet8.02USD tablet
Naprelan cr dosecrd 500-750 mg5.98USD each
Naprelan 375 mg 24 Hour tablet4.34USD tablet
Anaprox ds 550 mg tablet3.66USD tablet
Naprelan 500 mg 24 Hour tablet3.63USD tablet
Naprelan cr 375 mg tablet3.52USD tablet
Naproxen sodium powder2.63USD g
Anaprox 275 mg tablet2.52USD tablet
Naprosyn 500 mg tablet2.42USD tablet
Naproxen powder2.26USD g
Naprosyn 500 mg tablet ec2.19USD tablet
Naprosyn 375 mg tablet1.93USD tablet
Ec-naprosyn 375 mg tablet ec1.79USD tablet
Naprosyn 250 mg tablet1.47USD tablet
Naprosyn Sr 750 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.43USD tablet
Anaprox Ds 550 mg Tablet1.33USD tablet
Naproxen 500 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Naproxen sodium 550 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Naproxen DR 500 mg Enteric Coated Tabs1.3USD tab
Naproxen DR 375 mg Enteric Coated Tabs1.11USD tab
Naprosyn E 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet1.09USD tablet
Naproxen 375 mg tablet1.08USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen Sr 750 mg Sustained-Release Tablet1.05USD tablet
Pms-Naproxen 500 mg Suppository0.87USD suppository
Naproxen sodium 275 mg tablet0.86USD tablet
Naproxen 250 mg tablet0.79USD tablet
Apo-Napro-Na Ds 550 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Novo-Naprox Sodium Ds 550 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Anaprox 275 mg Tablet0.69USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen Ec 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.61USD tablet
Mylan-Naproxen Ec 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.61USD tablet
Novo-Naprox Ec 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.61USD tablet
Pms-Naproxen Ec 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.61USD tablet
Naprosyn E 375 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.6USD tablet
Naprosyn E 250 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.46USD tablet
Apo-Napro-Na 275 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Novo-Naprox Sodium 275 mg Tablet0.36USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen Ec 375 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Mylan-Naproxen Ec 375 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Novo-Naprox Ec 375 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Pms-Naproxen Ec 375 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen Ec 250 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.26USD tablet
Novo-Naprox Ec 250 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.26USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen 500 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Novo-Naprox 500 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Nu-Naprox 500 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Aleve 220 mg gelcap0.19USD capsule
Naprosyn 125 mg/5ml Suspension0.18USD ml
Mediproxen tablet0.17USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen 375 mg Tablet0.15USD tablet
Naproxen sodium 220 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Novo-Naprox 375 mg Tablet0.15USD tablet
Nu-Naprox 375 mg Tablet0.15USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy all day pain rlf 220 mg tb0.12USD tablet
Wal-proxen 220 mg tablet0.12USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen 250 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
Novo-Naprox 250 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
Nu-Naprox 250 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
All day pain rlf 220 mg caplet0.1USD caplet
Aleve 220 mg caplet0.09USD caplet
Aleve 220 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Wal-proxen 220 mg caplet0.09USD tablet
Apo-Naproxen 125 mg Tablet0.08USD tablet
All day pain relief 220 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Naprosyn 25 mg/ml Suspension0.07USD ml
Naproxen sodium 220 mg caplet0.06USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5637320No1994-06-102014-06-10Us
CA2034096No2002-03-262011-01-14Canada
US6060499Yes1998-02-142018-02-14Us
US7332183Yes2006-04-022026-04-02Us
US6586458Yes1998-02-142018-02-14Us
US5872145Yes1998-02-142018-02-14Us
US8022095Yes1998-02-142018-02-14Us
US5900424Yes1996-11-042016-11-04Us
US6369085Yes1998-11-252018-11-25Us
US7411070Yes1998-11-252018-11-25Us
US8852636No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US8858996No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US6926907No2003-02-282023-02-28Us
US7745466No1998-10-132018-10-13Us
US9161920No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US9198888No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US8945621No2011-10-172031-10-17Us
US8557285No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US9220698No2011-03-102031-03-10Us
US5714504Yes1995-08-032015-08-03Us
US9345695No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US9393208No2009-09-032029-09-03Us
US9707181No2002-05-312022-05-31Us
US9693978No2006-03-032026-03-03Us
US9693979No2006-03-032026-03-03Us
US10028925No2006-03-032026-03-03Us
US10022344No2006-03-032026-03-03Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)153 °CPhysProp
water solubility15.9 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.18HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.16ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.83ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.15SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0511 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.29ALOGPS
logP2.99ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity64.85 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9948
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6881
Caco-2 permeable+0.9091
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.586
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8747
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8396
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8615
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7548
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5715
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9521
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9447
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8905
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8598
Ames testAMES toxic0.5184
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8685
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7809
Rat acute toxicity2.4579 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9588
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9144
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.95 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0190000000-64cc22cce1238357760e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-17f4e93fda31d93027a1
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-0fr6-0900000000-4dd08568cff27d62d867
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0910000000-149b16cac2d80de64d8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-e7dfead967f29853140d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01b9-0900000000-f5f45cee188a08ef62b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-6c076658da1c69f1b909
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-2e1269f26d5b927bca33
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-68cd0c5a3fcc15470c14
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-64e5ecb5632e32f89b2d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0910000000-149b16cac2d80de64d8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-e7dfead967f29853140d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01b9-0900000000-f5f45cee188a08ef62b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-6c076658da1c69f1b909
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-2e1269f26d5b927bca33
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-b913db958cba90673250
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Naphthalenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Naphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Anisoles / Alkyl aryl ethers / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Naphthalene / Anisole / Alkyl aryl ether / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Ether / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, methoxynaphthalene (CHEBI:7476)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. James MJ, Cook-Johnson RJ, Cleland LG: Selective COX-2 inhibitors, eicosanoid synthesis and clinical outcomes: a case study of system failure. Lipids. 2007 Sep;42(9):779-85. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17541796]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Peptostreptococcus magnus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds serum albumin.
Gene Name
pab
Uniprot ID
Q51911
Uniprot Name
Peptostreptococcal albumin-binding protein
Molecular Weight
43057.45 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Albertini R, Aimbire F, Villaverde AB, Silva JA Jr, Costa MS: COX-2 mRNA expression decreases in the subplantar muscle of rat paw subjected to carrageenan-induced inflammation after low level laser therapy. Inflamm Res. 2007 Jun;56(6):228-9. [PubMed:17607546]
  2. Dhir A, Naidu PS, Kulkarni SK: Neuroprotective effect of nimesulide, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling and associated biochemical parameters in mice. Seizure. 2007 Dec;16(8):691-7. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17604186]
  3. Kumar P, Padi SS, Naidu PS, Kumar A: Cyclooxygenase inhibition attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats: possible antioxidant mechanisms. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;21(3):297-306. [PubMed:17521299]
  4. White WB: Cardiovascular effects of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Subcell Biochem. 2007;42:145-58. [PubMed:17612049]
  5. Hassan-Alin M, Naesdal J, Nilsson-Pieschl C, Langstrom G, Andersson T: Lack of Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Esomeprazole and the Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Naproxen and Rofecoxib in Healthy Subjects. Clin Drug Investig. 2005;25(11):731-40. [PubMed:17532719]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Tracy TS, Marra C, Wrighton SA, Gonzalez FJ, Korzekwa KR: Involvement of multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms in naproxen O-demethylation. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;52(4):293-8. [PubMed:9248768]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Banerjee T, Singh SK, Kishore N: Binding of naproxen and amitriptyline to bovine serum albumin: biophysical aspects. J Phys Chem B. 2006 Nov 30;110(47):24147-56. [PubMed:17125386]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [PubMed:10991954]
  2. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 21, 2018 20:26