You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameClotrimazole
Accession NumberDB00257  (APRD00244)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal cell membranes. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1-((2-Chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl)-1H-imidazoleNot AvailableNot Available
1-(o-Chloro-α,α-diphenylbenzyl)imidazoleNot AvailableNot Available
1-(o-Chlorotrityl)imidazoleNot AvailableNot Available
1-(α-(2-Chlorophenyl)benzhydryl)imidazoleNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
CanestenBayer
CanifugDr. August Wolff
ClotrimadermTaro
EmpecidBayer
FemCareNot Available
FungicipCipla
Gyne-LotriminSchering-Plough
LotriminSchering-Plough
MycelexBayer
Myclo-DermNot Available
Myclo-GyneNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Lotrisoneclotrimazole + betamethasone
Categories
CAS number23593-75-1
WeightAverage: 344.837
Monoisotopic: 344.108026261
Chemical FormulaC22H17ClN2
InChI KeyVNFPBHJOKIVQEB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H17ClN2/c23-21-14-8-7-13-20(21)22(25-16-15-24-17-25,18-9-3-1-4-10-18)19-11-5-2-6-12-19/h1-17H
IUPAC Name
1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-imidazole
SMILES
ClC1=CC=CC=C1C(N1C=CN=C1)(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassHalobenzenes
Direct parentChlorobenzenes
Alternative parentsAryl Chlorides; N-substituted Imidazoles; Polyamines; Organochlorides
Substituentsaryl chloride; aryl halide; n-substituted imidazole; azole; imidazole; polyamine; organohalogen; organochloride; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the local treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis and vaginal yeast infections, also used in fungal infections of the skin such as ringworm, athlete's foot, and jock itch.
PharmacodynamicsClotrimazole, an imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity, inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal cell membranes. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane. Betamethasone and clotrimazole are used together to treat cutaneous tinea infections. In studies in fungal cultures, the minimum fungicidal concentration of clotrimazole caused leakage of intracellular phosphorous compounds into the ambient medium with concomitant breakdown of cellular nucleic acids, and accelerated potassium etflux. Both of these events began rapidly and extensively after addition of the drug to the cultures. The primary action of clotrimazole is against dividing and growing organisms.
Mechanism of actionClotrimazole interacts with yeast 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the membrane. In this way, clotrimazole inhibits ergosterol synthesis, resulting in increased cellular permeability. Clotrimazole may also inhibit endogenous respiration, interact with membrane phospholipids, inhibit the transformation of yeasts to mycelial forms and the uptake of purine, impair triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis, and inhibit the movement of calcium and potassium ions across the cell membrane by blocking the ion transport pathway known as the Gardos channel.
AbsorptionPoorly and erratically absorbed orally, minimal vaginal or topical absorption.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding90%
Metabolism

Hepatic (metabolized to inactive metabolites)

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include erythema, stinging, blistering, peeling, edema, pruritus, urticaria, burning, and general irritation of the skin, and cramps.
Affected organisms
  • Yeast and other fungi
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9725
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9837
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6858
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7185
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.6612
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.7884
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.5854
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9149
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6262
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9106
CYP450 2C9 substrate Inhibitor 0.8948
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8932
CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.8994
CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.8478
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9799
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7428
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9018
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 2.7194 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9659
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.6779
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Schering plough healthcare products inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
  • Glenmark pharmaceuticals inc usa
  • Nycomed us inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals inc
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Paddock laboratories inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamIntravaginal
CreamTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clotrimazole 70 10 mg Troche Bottle117.04USDbottle
Clotrimazole 1% Cream 45 gm Tube49.99USDtube
Clotrimazole 1% Cream 30 gm Tube35.99USDtube
Clotrimazole 1% Solution 30ml Bottle24.99USDbottle
Clotrimazole 1% Cream 15 gm Tube17.99USDtube
Clotrimazole 1% Solution 10ml Bottle17.99USDbottle
Clotrimazole powder5.2USDg
Mycelex 10 mg troche1.85USDtroche
Clotrimazole 10 mg troche1.61USDtroche
Mycelex-7 100 mg vaginal tablet1.33USDtablet
Lotrimin 1% cream1.28USDg
Gyne-lotrimin insert1.03USDinsert
Mycelex 1% cream0.9USDg
Clotrimazole insert0.86USDinsert
Lotrimin ultra 1% cream0.68USDg
Clotrimazole 1% cream0.53USDg
Clotrimazole 3 2% cream0.5USDg
Ra clotrimazole 3 cream0.46USDg
Ra athlete's 1% foot cream0.37USDg
Desenex 1% cream0.33USDg
CVS Pharmacy clotrimazole 1% cream0.32USDg
Antifungal 1% cream0.27USDg
Sm antifungal 1% cream0.25USDg
Ra clotrimazole af cream0.24USDg
Clotrim 1% vaginal cream0.18USDg
Lotrimin af 2% spray powder0.05USDg
Lotrimin af 2% liquid spray0.04USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point154-156Buechel, K.H., et al; South African Patent 69/0039; January 3, 1969; assigned to Farben- Buechel, K.H., Regel, E. and Plempel, M.; US. Patent 3,660,577; May 2,1972; and U.S. fabriken Bayer AG, Germany. Patent 3,705,172; Dec. 5,1972; both assigned to Farbenfabriken Bayer A.G. (Germany).
water solubility29.84 mg/mLNot Available
logP6.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.47e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP5.48ALOGPS
logP5.84ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)6.62ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area17.82ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity103.76ChemAxon
polarizability36.25ChemAxon
number of rings4ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Buechel, K.H., et al; South African Patent 69/0039; January 3, 1969; assigned to Farben- Buechel, K.H., Regel, E. and Plempel, M.; US. Patent 3,660,577; May 2,1972; and U.S. fabriken Bayer AG, Germany.
Patent 3,705,172; Dec. 5,1972; both assigned to Farbenfabriken Bayer A.G. (Germany).

US3705172
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00282
KEGG CompoundC06922
PubChem Compound2812
PubChem Substance46507927
ChemSpider2710
BindingDB31774
ChEBI3764
ChEMBLCHEMBL104
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000138
PharmGKBPA449057
IUPHAR2330
Guide to Pharmacology2330
Drug Product Database2229380
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/clotrimaz.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/clotrimazole.html
WikipediaClotrimazole
ATC CodesA01AB18D01AC01G01AF02
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(139 KB)
MSDSshow(73.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlvimopanDecreases levels by P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) efflux transporter. Can significantly increase systemic exposure to P-glycoprotein substrates.
BudesonideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic, Oral Inhalation). Consider reducing the oral budesonide dose when used together with a CYP3A4 inhibitor. This interaction is likely less severe with orally inhaled budesonide. Any patient receiving both budesonide and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of corticosteroid excess.
ColchicineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of colchicine. Reduce colchicine dose (for gout flares: to 1.2 mg x 1 dose, with next dose no sooner than 3 days later; for Familial Mediterranean Fever: to no more than 1.2 mg/day) when using in combination with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor such as erythromycin or verapamil. Increase monitoring for colchicine-related toxicity when using such combinations. Use extra caution in patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function.
EverolimusCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate)such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of everolimus. The prescribing information for the Afinitor branded everolimus product lists indication-specific recommendations for managing this interaction.
FentanylCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of fentanyl. Concurrent use of fentanyl with any CYP3A4 inhibitor may result in increased fentanyl concentrations and could increase or prolong adverse effects, including potentially fatal respiratory depression. Patients receiving fentanyl and any CYP3A4 inhibitor should be closely monitored for several days following initiation of the combination, and fentanyl dosage reductions should be made as appropriate.
HalofantrineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrmazole may increase the serum concentration of halofantrine. Extreme caution, with possibly increased monitoring of cardiac status (e.g., ECG), should be used with concurrent use of halofantrine with any moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor(s).
LurasidoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of lurasidone. Limit adult lurasidone dose to 40 mg/day in patients receiving a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
RanolazineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) such as clotrimazole may increase the serum concentration of ranolazine. Limit the ranolazine dose to a maximum of 500mg twice daily in patients concurrently receiving moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., diltiazem, verapamil, erythromycin, etc.). Monitor for increased effects/toxicity of ranolazine during concomitant use.
TacrolimusThe antifungal, Clotrimazole, may increase serum concentrations of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Clotrimazole therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
TamsulosinClotrimazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Clotrimazole is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TolterodineClotrimazole may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity.
TolvaptanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of tolvaptan. Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with tolvaptan is contraindicated.
TramadolClotrimazole may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance.
TrazodoneThe CYP3A4 inhibitor, Clotrimazole, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Clotrimazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Yeast

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase P10613 Details

References:

  1. Warrilow AG, Martel CM, Parker JE, Melo N, Lamb DC, Nes WD, Kelly DE, Kelly SL: Azole binding properties of Candida albicans sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CaCYP51). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Oct;54(10):4235-45. Epub 2010 Jul 12. Pubmed
  2. Gachotte D, Pierson CA, Lees ND, Barbuch R, Koegel C, Bard M: A yeast sterol auxotroph (erg25) is rescued by addition of azole antifungals and reduced levels of heme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11173-8. Pubmed
  3. Henry KW, Nickels JT, Edlind TD: Upregulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Oct;44(10):2693-700. Pubmed
  4. Lorenz RT, Parks LW: Physiological effects of fenpropimorph on wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fenpropimorph-resistant mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Aug;35(8):1532-7. Pubmed
  5. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

2. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4 O15554 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Brugnara C, Gee B, Armsby CC, Kurth S, Sakamoto M, Rifai N, Alper SL, Platt OS: Therapy with oral clotrimazole induces inhibition of the Gardos channel and reduction of erythrocyte dehydration in patients with sickle cell disease. J Clin Invest. 1996 Mar 1;97(5):1227-34. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp

2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Bjornsson TD, Callaghan JT, Einolf HJ, Fischer V, Gan L, Grimm S, Kao J, King SP, Miwa G, Ni L, Kumar G, McLeod J, Obach SR, Roberts S, Roe A, Shah A, Snikeris F, Sullivan JT, Tweedie D, Vega JM, Walsh J, Wrighton SA: The conduct of in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies: a PhRMA perspective. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 May;43(5):443-69. Pubmed
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Lexicomp

3. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lexicomp

4. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial P05108 Details

References:

  1. Mason JI, Murry BA, Olcott M, Sheets JJ: Imidazole antimycotics: inhibitors of steroid aromatase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Apr 1;34(7):1087-92. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

6. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

7. Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial P15538 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 19A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 19A1 P11511 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

10. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

11. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

12. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Lexicomp

13. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2 O15438 Details

References:

  1. Teng S, Jekerle V, Piquette-Miller M: Induction of ABCC3 (MRP3) by pregnane X receptor activators. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Nov;31(11):1296-9. Pubmed

2. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Geick A, Eichelbaum M, Burk O: Nuclear receptor response elements mediate induction of intestinal MDR1 by rifampin. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 4;276(18):14581-7. Epub 2001 Jan 31. Pubmed
  2. Schuetz EG, Beck WT, Schuetz JD: Modulators and substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A coordinately up-regulate these proteins in human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):311-8. Pubmed
  3. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. Pubmed
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  5. Bain LJ, LeBlanc GA: Interaction of structurally diverse pesticides with the human MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;141(1):288-98. Pubmed
  6. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. Pubmed

3. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Kauffmann HM, Pfannschmidt S, Zoller H, Benz A, Vorderstemann B, Webster JI, Schrenk D: Influence of redox-active compounds and PXR-activators on human MRP1 and MRP2 gene expression. Toxicology. 2002 Feb 28;171(2-3):137-46. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 09, 2014 12:21