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Identification
NameSpironolactone
Accession NumberDB00421  (APRD01234)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
EspironolactonaSpanishINN
SpironolactoneNot AvailableINN, BAN, JAN
SpironolactonumLatinINN
SpironolattoneNot AvailableDCIT
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aldactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aldactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aldactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralG.D. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralGreenstone LLC1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralGreenstone LLC1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralGreenstone LLC1960-01-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC2007-01-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC2007-01-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralActavis Elizabeth LLC2007-01-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-01-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-01-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1981-02-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-08-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-08-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2001-08-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralSandoz Inc1982-01-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-11-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet50 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-11-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet100 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-11-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-10-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-04-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2007-01-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2007-01-03Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-10-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralAv Pak2011-05-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralUnit Dose Services1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralUnit Dose Services1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralUnit Dose Services1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.1996-12-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2002-02-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2002-02-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-09-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-04-16Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet50 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet100 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-03-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-09-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-03-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralCardinal Health2011-06-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralCardinal Health2011-02-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralCardinal Health2011-02-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralCardinal Health2011-02-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralCardinal Health2011-05-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralJubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralJubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralJubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1986-07-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet50 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2009-08-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-06-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet50 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-06-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet50 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet100 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-08-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-08-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2010-04-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2011-06-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated100 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2011-06-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc1994-03-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated50 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-17Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet25 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-10-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Spironolactonetablet, film coated25 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-12-07Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
OsyrolNot Available
SpiresisNot Available
SpireticNot Available
SpiroctanNot Available
UractoneNot Available
VerospironNot Available
XenalonNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Aldactazide 2525 mg Hydrochlorothiazide + 25 mg Spironolactone
Aldactazide 5050 mg Hydrochlorothiazide + 50 mg Spironolactone
Apo-Spirozide TabHydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone
Novo-Spirozine Tab 25mgHydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone
Novo-Spirozine-50 TabHydrochlorothiazide + Spironolactone
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number52-01-7
WeightAverage: 416.573
Monoisotopic: 416.202130202
Chemical FormulaC24H32O4S
InChI KeyLXMSZDCAJNLERA-ZHYRCANASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H32O4S/c1-14(25)29-19-13-15-12-16(26)4-8-22(15,2)17-5-9-23(3)18(21(17)19)6-10-24(23)11-7-20(27)28-24/h12,17-19,21H,4-11,13H2,1-3H3/t17-,18-,19+,21+,22-,23-,24+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1'S,2R,2'R,9'R,10'R,11'S,15'S)-9'-(acetylsulfanyl)-2',15'-dimethylspiro[oxolane-2,14'-tetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan]-6'-ene-5,5'-dione
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@]3(CCC(=O)O3)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])[C@@]([H])(CC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C)SC(C)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as spironolactones and derivatives. These are steroid lactones with a structure based on the spironolactone skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSteroid lactones
Direct ParentSpironolactones and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Spironolactone
  • Oxosteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Oxolane
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Lactone
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thioether
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed primarily to treat low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conn's syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsSpironolactone is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics. On its own, spironolactone is only a weak diuretic, but it can be combined with other diuretics. Due to its anti-androgen effect, it can also be used to treat hirsutism, and is a common component in hormone therapy for male-to-female transgendered people. Spironolactone inhibits the effect of aldosterone by competing for intracellular aldosterone receptor in the distal tubule cells. This increases the secretion of water and sodium, while decreasing the excretion of potassium. Spironolactone has a fairly slow onset of action, taking several days to develop and similarly the effect diminishes slowly.
Mechanism of actionSpironolactone is a specific pharmacologic antagonist of aldosterone, acting primarily through competitive binding of receptors at the aldosterone-dependent sodium-potassium exchange site in the distal convoluted renal tubule. Spironolactone causes increased amounts of sodium and water to be excreted, while potassium is retained. Spironolactone acts both as a diuretic and as an antihypertensive drug by this mechanism. It may be given alone or with other diuretic agents which act more proximally in the renal tubule. Aldosterone interacts with a cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid receptor to enhance the expression of the Na+, K+-ATPase and the Na+ channel involved in a Na+ K+ transport in the distal tubule . Spironolactone bind to this mineralcorticoid receptor, blocking the actions of aldosterone on gene expression. Aldosterone is a hormone; its primary function is to retain sodium and excrete potassium in the kidneys.
AbsorptionFairly rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Food increases the bioavailability of unmetabolized spironolactone by almost 100%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingSpironolactone and its metabolites are more than 90% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Rapidly and extensively metabolized. The metabolic pathway of spironolactone is complex and can be divided into two main routes: those in which the sulfur moiety is retained and those in which the sulfur moiety is removed by dethioacetylation. Spironolactone is transformed to a reactive metabolite that can inactivate adrenal and testicular cytochrome P450 enzymes. It also has anti-androgenic activity.

Route of eliminationThe metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine and secondarily in bile.
Half life10 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe oral LD50 of spironolactone is greater than 1,000 mg/kg in mice, rats, and rabbits. Acute overdosage of spironolactone may be manifested by drowsiness, mental confusion, maculopapular or erythematous rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or diarrhea. Spironolactone has been shown to be a tumorigen in chronic toxicity studies in rats.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9912
Blood Brain Barrier+0.932
Caco-2 permeable+0.5432
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5691
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6807
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.727
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6638
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9276
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8681
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9158
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9288
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9696
Rat acute toxicity2.0150 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9427
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7002
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Gd searle llc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral25 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Spironolactone powder12.56USD g
Aldactone 100 mg tablet2.14USD tablet
Aldactazide 50-50 mg tablet2.02USD tablet
Aldactazide 50-50 tablet1.92USD tablet
Aldactone 50 mg tablet1.84USD tablet
Spironolactone 100 mg tablet1.45USD tablet
Aldactazide 25-25 mg tablet1.26USD tablet
Aldactazide 25-25 tablet1.04USD tablet
Spironolactone 50 mg tablet0.83USD tablet
Aldactone 25 mg tablet0.8USD tablet
Spironolactone-HCTZ 25-25 mg tablet0.57USD tablet
Spironolactone 25 mg tablet0.5USD tablet
Novo-Spiroton 100 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Novo-Spiroton 25 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point134.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility22 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.78HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.28ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00198 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.1ALOGPS
logP3.64ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity113.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS
References
Synthesis Reference

Giuseppe Bernini, “Process for preparing micronized spironolactone.” U.S. Patent US4332721, issued July, 1975.

US4332721
General Reference
  1. Berardesca E, Gabba P, Ucci G, Borroni G, Rabbiosi G: Topical spironolactone inhibits dihydrotestosterone receptors in human sebaceous glands: an autoradiographic study in subjects with acne vulgaris. Int J Tissue React. 1988;10(2):115-9. Pubmed
  2. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, Palensky J, Wittes J: The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 2;341(10):709-17. Pubmed
  3. Wandelt-Freerksen E: [Aldactone in the treatment of sarcoidosis of the lungs (author’s transl)] Z Erkr Atmungsorgane. 1977 Jul;149(1):156-9. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesC03DA01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:32.20
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (395 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Abiraterone Acetate.
AlfentanilAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
AlfuzosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
AmifostineAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine.
AmilorideMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone.
Ammonium chloridePotassium-Sparing Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ammonium Chloride. Specifically the risk of systemic acidosis.
ArticaineMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
AtorvastatinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Spironolactone. Specifically, there is a theoretical potential for enhanced effects on reducing endogenous steroid activity.
AtracuriumMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).
BuprenorphineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
ButabarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ButethalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ButorphanolAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
CholestyramineCholestyramine Resin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Spironolactone. Specifically, the risks of developing metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia may be elevated with this combination.
Cisatracurium BesylateMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).
CodeineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
DiazoxideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
DigoxinMay increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Spironolactone (and/or its metabolites) may also interfere with the assays used to determine Digoxin concentrations, falsely increasing or decreasing Digoxin concentrations.
DihydrocodeineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
DipivefrinMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
DopamineMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
DrospirenoneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
DuloxetineHypotensive Agents may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of DULoxetine.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
FentanylAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
HeparinMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
HeptabarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HexobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydrocodoneAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
HydromorphoneAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
LevonordefrinMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
LevorphanolAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
MethadoneAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
MethohexitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethylphenidateMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
MitotaneSpironolactone may diminish the therapeutic effect of Mitotane.
MorphineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
NalbuphineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
NitrofurantoinMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone.
NorepinephrineMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
ObinutuzumabAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of Obinutuzumab.
OxycodoneAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
OxymorphoneAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
PancuroniumMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).
PentobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PentoxifyllineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
PethidineAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
PrimidoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PseudoephedrineMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
QuinidinePotassium-Sparing Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of QuiNIDine.
RemifentanilAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
RisperidoneHypotensive Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of RisperiDONE.
RituximabAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of RiTUXimab.
RocuroniumMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).
SecobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
SufentanilAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
SulfamethoxazoleTrimethoprim may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone.
TadalafilMay enhance the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
TapentadolAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
TolvaptanMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
TramadolAnalgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics.
TriamtereneTriamterene may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone.
TrimethoprimMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Spironolactone.
TriprolidineMay diminish the vasoconstricting effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists.
VardenafilMay enhance the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
VecuroniumMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing).
YohimbineMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Food increases the bioavailability of spironolactone by almost 100%.
  • Spironolactone may decrease the excretion of potassium. Salt substitutes containing potassium increase the risk of hyperkalemia.

Targets

1. Mineralocorticoid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mineralocorticoid receptor P08235 Details

References:

  1. Sitruk-Ware R: Progestogens in hormonal replacement therapy: new molecules, risks, and benefits. Menopause. 2002 Jan-Feb;9(1):6-15. Pubmed
  2. Rogerson FM, Yao YZ, Smith BJ, Dimopoulos N, Fuller PJ: Determinants of spironolactone binding specificity in the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Dec;31(3):573-82. Pubmed
  3. Gertner RA, Klein JD, Bailey JL, Kim DU, Luo XH, Bagnasco SM, Sands JM: Aldosterone decreases UT-A1 urea transporter expression via the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Mar;15(3):558-65. Pubmed
  4. Frishman WH, Stier CT Jr: Aldosterone and aldosterone antagonism in systemic hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2004 Jun;6(3):195-200. Pubmed
  5. Rogerson FM, Yao Y, Smith BJ, Fuller PJ: Differences in the determinants of eplerenone, spironolactone and aldosterone binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Oct;31(10):704-9. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Sica DA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mineralocorticoid blocking agents and their effects on potassium homeostasis. Heart Fail Rev. 2005 Jan;10(1):23-9. Pubmed
  8. Rossi G, Boscaro M, Ronconi V, Funder JW: Aldosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr;16(3):104-7. Pubmed

2. Androgen receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Androgen receptor P10275 Details

References:

  1. Ye P, Yamashita T, Pollock DM, Sasano H, Rainey WE: Contrasting effects of eplerenone and spironolactone on adrenal cell steroidogenesis. Horm Metab Res. 2009 Jan;41(1):35-9. Epub 2008 Sep 25. Pubmed

3. Progesterone receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Progesterone receptor P06401 Details

References:

  1. Fagart J, Hillisch A, Huyet J, Barfacker L, Fay M, Pleiss U, Pook E, Schafer S, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Kolkhof P: A new mode of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by a potent and selective nonsteroidal molecule. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 24;285(39):29932-40. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.131342. Epub 2010 Jul 22. Pubmed

4. Glucocorticoid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glucocorticoid receptor P04150 Details

References:

  1. Fagart J, Hillisch A, Huyet J, Barfacker L, Fay M, Pleiss U, Pook E, Schafer S, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Kolkhof P: A new mode of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by a potent and selective nonsteroidal molecule. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 24;285(39):29932-40. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.131342. Epub 2010 Jul 22. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial P19099 Details

References:

  1. Cheng SC, Suzuki K, Sadee W, Harding BW: Effects of spironolactone, canrenone and canrenoate-K on cytochrome P450, and 11beta- and 18-hydroxylation in bovine and human adrenal cortical mitochondria. Endocrinology. 1976 Oct;99(4):1097-106. Pubmed

6. 17alpha-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Spironolactone and endocrine dysfunction. Ann Intern Med. 1976 Nov;85(5):630-6. Pubmed
  2. Desai; Meena P.; Vijayalakshmi Bhatia & P.S.N. Menon (1 January 2001). Pediatric Endocrine Disorders. Orient Blackswan. p. 167. ISBN 978-81-250-2025-7. Retrieved 28 May 2012.

7. 17,20-desmolase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Spironolactone and endocrine dysfunction. Ann Intern Med. 1976 Nov;85(5):630-6. Pubmed
  2. Desai; Meena P.; Vijayalakshmi Bhatia & P.S.N. Menon (1 January 2001). Pediatric Endocrine Disorders. Orient Blackswan. p. 167. ISBN 978-81-250-2025-7. Retrieved 28 May 2012

8. 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase

Kind: protein group

Organism:

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1 P18405 Details
3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 2 P31213 Details
Polyprenol reductase Q9H8P0 Details

References:

  1. Corvol P, Michaud A, Menard J, Freifeld M, Mahoudeau J: Antiandrogenic effect of spirolactones: mechanism of action. Endocrinology. 1975 Jul;97(1):52-8. Pubmed

9. Sex hormone-binding globulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sex hormone-binding globulin P04278 Details

References:

  1. Braunstein GD: Clinical practice. Gynecomastia. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1229-37. Pubmed

10. Voltage-dependent calcium channel

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit Q06432 Details
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 P54289 Details
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Q9NY47 Details
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-3 Q8IZS8 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Q13936 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D Q01668 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F O60840 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S Q13698 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Q02641 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 Q08289 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3 P54284 Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4 O00305 Details
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B Q00975 Details
Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A O00555 Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G O43497 Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H O95180 Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I Q9P0X4 Details
Voltage-gated calcium channel beta 1 subunit splice variant CavB1d Q6TME4 Details

References:

  1. Sorrentino R, Autore G, Cirino G, d’Emmanuele de Villa Bianca R, Calignano A, Vanasia M, Alfieri C, Sorrentino L, Pinto A: Effect of spironolactone and its metabolites on contractile property of isolated rat aorta rings. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;36(2):230-5. Pubmed
  2. Melander A, Danielson K, Schersten B, Thulin T, Wahlin E: Enhancement by food of canrenone bioavailability from spironolactone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Jul;22(1):100-3. Pubmed

11. Dihydrotestosterone receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Berardesca E, Gabba P, Ucci G, Borroni G, Rabbiosi G: Topical spironolactone inhibits dihydrotestosterone receptors in human sebaceous glands: an autoradiographic study in subjects with acne vulgaris. Int J Tissue React. 1988;10(2):115-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial P15538 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Cheng SC, Suzuki K, Sadee W, Harding BW: Effects of spironolactone, canrenone and canrenoate-K on cytochrome P450, and 11beta- and 18-hydroxylation in bovine and human adrenal cortical mitochondria. Endocrinology. 1976 Oct;99(4):1097-106. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Johnson DR, Klaassen CD: Regulation of rat multidrug resistance protein 2 by classes of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers that activate distinct transcription pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Jun;67(2):182-9. Pubmed

2. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Transient expression of oatp organic anion transporter in mammalian cells: identification of candidate substrates. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F319-25. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10