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Identification
NameZidovudine
Accession NumberDB00495  (APRD00449)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
AzidothymidineNot AvailableNot Available
AZTNot AvailableNot Available
ZDVNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
RetrovirNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
CombivirLamivudine + Zidovudine
TrizivirAbacavir sulfate + Lamivudine + Zidovudine
Categories
CAS number30516-87-1
WeightAverage: 267.2413
Monoisotopic: 267.096753929
Chemical FormulaC10H13N5O4
InChI KeyInChIKey=HBOMLICNUCNMMY-XLPZGREQSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H13N5O4/c1-5-3-15(10(18)12-9(5)17)8-2-6(13-14-11)7(4-16)19-8/h3,6-8,16H,2,4H2,1H3,(H,12,17,18)/t6-,7+,8+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1-[(2R,4S,5S)-4-azido-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-5-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CC1=CN([C@H]2C[C@H](N=[N+]=[N-])[C@@H](CO)O2)C(=O)NC1=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganooxygen Compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
SubclassGlycosyl Compounds
Direct parentPyrimidine Nucleosides and Analogues
Alternative parentsPyrimidones; Hydropyrimidines; Tetrahydrofurans; Oxolanes; Organic Azides; Polyamines; Primary Alcohols; Ethers
Substituentspyrimidone; pyrimidine; hydropyrimidine; tetrahydrofuran; oxolane; azide; ether; polyamine; primary alcohol; organonitrogen compound; amine; alcohol
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the pyrimidine nucleosides and analogues. These are compounds comprising a pyrimidine base attached to a sugar.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunovirus (HIV) infections.
PharmacodynamicsZidovudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Zidovudine is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The lack of a 3'-OH group in the incorporated nucleoside analogue prevents the formation of the 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.
Mechanism of actionZidovudine, a structural analog of thymidine, is a prodrug that must be phosphorylated to its active 5′-triphosphate metabolite, zidovudine triphosphate (ZDV-TP). It inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue. It competes with the natural substrate dGTP and incorporates itself into viral DNA. It is also a weak inhibitor of cellular DNA polymerase α and γ.
AbsorptionRapid and nearly complete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration; however, because of first-pass metabolism, systemic bioavailability of zidovudine capsules and solution is approximately 65% (range, 52 to 75%). Bioavailability in neonates up to 14 days of age is approximately 89%, and it decreases to approximately 61% and 65% in neonates over 14 days of age and children 3 months to 12 years, respectively. Administration with a high-fat meal may decrease the rate and extent of absorption.
Volume of distribution

Apparent volume of distribution, HIV-infected patients, IV administration = 1.6 ± 0.6 L/kg

Protein binding30-38%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolized by glucuronide conjugation to major, inactive metabolite, 3′-azido-3′-deoxy-5′- O-beta-D-glucopyranuronosylthymidine (GZDV). UGT2B7 is the primary UGT isoform that is responsible for glucuronidation. Compared to zidovudine, GZDV's area under the curve is approximately 3-fold greater. The cytochrome P450 isozymes are responsible for the reduction of the azido moiety to form 3'-amino-3'- deoxythymidine (AMT).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zidovudine
    3'-azido-3'-deoxy-5'- O-beta-D-glucopyranuronosylthymidineDetails
    Zidovudine
      3’-amino-3’-deoxythimidineDetails
      Zidovudine
        3’-amino-3’-deoxythimidine glucuronideDetails
        Zidovudine
          5’glucuronyl zidovudineDetails
          Route of eliminationAs in adult patients, the major route of elimination was by metabolism to GZDV. After intravenous dosing, about 29% of the dose was excreted in the urine unchanged and about 45% of the dose was excreted as GZDV.
          Half lifeElimination half life, HIV-infected patients, IV administration = 1.1 hours (range of 0.5 - 2.9 hours)
          Clearance
          • 0.65 +/- 0.29 L/hr/kg [HIV-infected, Birth to 14 Days of Age]
          • 1.14 +/- 0.24 L/hr/kg [HIV-infected, 14 Days to 3 Months of Age]
          • 1.85 +/- 0.47 L/hr/kg [HIV-infected, 3 Months to 12 Years of Age].
            The transporters, ABCB1, ABCC4, ABCC5, and ABCG2 are involved with the clearance of zidovudine.
          ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting. LD50 is 3084 mg/kg (orally in mice).
          Affected organisms
          • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
          PathwaysNot Available
          SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
          SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
          ADMET
          Predicted ADMET features
          Property Value Probability
          Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9343
          Blood Brain Barrier + 0.6224
          Caco-2 permeable - 0.8728
          P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.6959
          P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9118
          P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8981
          Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8798
          CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.663
          CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8987
          CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5329
          CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9355
          CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9143
          CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9315
          CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9175
          CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.848
          CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9585
          Ames test AMES toxic 0.9107
          Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7484
          Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5673
          Rat acute toxicity 2.0464 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
          hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.7124
          hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8821
          Pharmacoeconomics
          Manufacturers
          • Viiv healthcare co
          • Aurobindo pharma ltd inc
          • Cipla ltd
          • Pharmaforce inc
          • Aurobindo pharma ltd
          • Hetero drugs ltd unit iii
          • Matrix laboratories ltd
          • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
          • Roxane laboratories inc
          Packagers
          Dosage forms
          FormRouteStrength
          CapsuleOral100 mg
          Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/mL
          SyrupOral50 mg/5 mL
          TabletOral300 mg
          Prices
          Unit descriptionCostUnit
          Retrovir 50 mg/5ml Syrup 240ml Bottle74.11USDbottle
          Retrovir 300 mg tablet9.1USDtablet
          Zidovudine 300 mg tablet6.17USDtablet
          Retrovir 100 mg capsule3.09USDcapsule
          Retrovir iv infusion vial1.61USDml
          DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
          Patents
          CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
          Canada22166342004-07-202016-03-28
          Canada21054872002-09-242012-03-05
          Properties
          Statesolid
          Experimental Properties
          PropertyValueSource
          melting point113-115 °CPhysProp
          water solubility2.01E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)PHYSICIANS DESK REFERENCE (2003)
          logP0.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
          Caco2 permeability-5.16ADME Research, USCD
          Predicted Properties
          PropertyValueSource
          water solubility1.63e+01 g/lALOGPS
          logP-0.1ALOGPS
          logP-0.3ChemAxon
          logS-1.2ALOGPS
          pKa (strongest acidic)9.96ChemAxon
          pKa (strongest basic)-3ChemAxon
          physiological charge0ChemAxon
          hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
          hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
          polar surface area108.3ChemAxon
          rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
          refractivity61.7ChemAxon
          polarizability24.93ChemAxon
          number of rings2ChemAxon
          bioavailability1ChemAxon
          rule of fiveYesChemAxon
          Ghose filterYesChemAxon
          Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
          MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
          Spectra
          SpectraNot Available
          References
          Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
          General Reference
          1. De Clercq E: HIV resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jan 20;47(2):155-69. Pubmed
          2. Yarchoan R, Mitsuya H, Broder S: AIDS therapies. Sci Am. 1988 Oct;259(4):110-9. Pubmed
          3. Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O’Sullivan MJ, VanDyke R, Bey M, Shearer W, Jacobson RL, et al.: Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 3;331(18):1173-80. Pubmed
          4. Mitsuya H, Yarchoan R, Broder S: Molecular targets for AIDS therapy. Science. 1990 Sep 28;249(4976):1533-44. Pubmed
          5. Mitsuya H, Weinhold KJ, Furman PA, St Clair MH, Lehrman SN, Gallo RC, Bolognesi D, Barry DW, Broder S: 3’-Azido-3’-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct;82(20):7096-100. Pubmed
          6. Court MH, Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Duan SX, Patten CJ, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Evaluation of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine, morphine, and codeine as probe substrates for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) in human liver microsomes: specificity and influence of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Sep;31(9):1125-33. Pubmed
          External Links
          ResourceLink
          KEGG DrugD00413
          KEGG CompoundC07210
          PubChem Compound35370
          PubChem Substance46508240
          ChemSpider32555
          BindingDB50002692
          ChEBI10110
          ChEMBLCHEMBL129
          Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000701
          PharmGKBPA451954
          Drug Product Database1946323
          RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/zidovud.htm
          Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/zidovudine.html
          PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/ret1375.shtml
          WikipediaZidovudine
          ATC CodesJ05AF01
          AHFS Codes
          • 08:18.08.20
          PDB EntriesNot Available
          FDA labelshow(217 KB)
          MSDSshow(57.2 KB)
          Interactions
          Drug Interactions
          Drug
          AtovaquoneAtovaquone increases the effect and toxicity of zidovudine
          ClarithromycinClarithromycin may decrease the serum concentration of zidovudine. Increased myelosuppression in mice has been observed. Consider staggering doses during concomitant therapy and closely monitor response to zidovudine therapy.
          DoxorubicinAdditive myelosuppression may occur. Doxorubicin may decrease the efficacy of zidovudine. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          GanciclovirIncreased risk of hematologic toxicity. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Interferon beta-1bThe interferon increases the effect and toxicity of zidovudine
          MethadoneMethadone increases the effect and toxicity of zidovudine
          ProbenecidRash, malaise, myalgia
          RibavirinIncreased risk or severity of anemia. Consider alternate therapy or monitor more closely for anemia.
          RifabutinThe rifamycin decreases levels of zidovudine
          RifampicinRifampin may decrease the serum concentration of zidovudine by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the serum concentration and therapeutic and adverse effects of zidovudine if rifampin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
          RifapentineRifapentin may decrease the serum concentration of zidovudine by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the serum concentration and therapeutic and adverse effects of zidovudine if rifapentin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
          StavudineZidovudine may decrease the efficacy of stavudine. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          TipranavirTipranavir decreases the concentration of Zidovudine.
          ValganciclovirThe adverse/toxic effects of Zidovudine, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nucleoside), may be enhanced by Valganciclovir. There is a significant risk of hematologic toxicity. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
          Food InteractionsNot Available

          1. Reverse Transcriptase

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

          Pharmacological action: yes

          Actions: inhibitor

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Reverse transcriptase/RNaseH Q72547 Details

          References:

          1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
          2. Barry M, Gibbons S, Back D, Mulcahy F: Protease inhibitors in patients with HIV disease. Clinically important pharmacokinetic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Mar;32(3):194-209. Pubmed
          3. De Clercq E: Antiretroviral drugs. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2010 May 12. Pubmed

          2. Telomerase reverse transcriptase

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: inhibitor

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Telomerase reverse transcriptase O14746 Details

          References:

          1. Leeansyah E, Cameron PU, Solomon A, Tennakoon S, Velayudham P, Gouillou M, Spelman T, Hearps A, Fairley C, Smit de V, Pierce AB, Armishaw J, Crowe SM, Cooper DA, Koelsch KK, Liu JP, Chuah J, Lewin SR: Inhibition of telomerase activity by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a potential factor contributing to HIV-associated accelerated aging. J Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;207(7):1157-65. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit006. Epub 2013 Jan 9. Pubmed

          1. Cytochrome P450 2A6

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          2. Cytochrome P450 2C19

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
          2. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. Pubmed
          3. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. Pubmed
          4. Letter: Exercise testing and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1975 Dec 4;293(23):1208-10. Pubmed
          5. Letter: Exercise testing and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1975 Dec 4;293(23):1208-10. Pubmed

          3. Cytochrome P450 2C8

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          4. Cytochrome P450 2C9

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          5. Cytochrome P450 3A4

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

          References:

          1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

          6. Thymidine kinase, cytosolic

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Thymidine kinase, cytosolic P04183 Details

          References:

          1. Furman PA, Fyfe JA, St Clair MH, Weinhold K, Rideout JL, Freeman GA, Lehrman SN, Bolognesi DP, Broder S, Mitsuya H, et al.: Phosphorylation of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine and selective interaction of the 5’-triphosphate with human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov;83(21):8333-7. Pubmed

          7. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 P16662 Details

          References:

          1. Court MH, Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Duan SX, Patten CJ, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Evaluation of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine, morphine, and codeine as probe substrates for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) in human liver microsomes: specificity and influence of the UGT2B7*2 polymorphism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Sep;31(9):1125-33. Pubmed

          1. Serum albumin

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: no

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Serum albumin P02768 Details

          References:

          1. Quevedo MA, Moroni GN, Brinon MC: Human serum albumin binding of novel antiretroviral nucleoside derivatives of AZT. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 9;288(4):954-60. Pubmed

          1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

          References:

          1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed

          2. Solute carrier family 22 member 6

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Solute carrier family 22 member 6 Q4U2R8 Details

          References:

          1. Wada S, Tsuda M, Sekine T, Cha SH, Kimura M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Rat multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (rOAT1) transports zidovudine, acyclovir, and other antiviral nucleoside analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Sep;294(3):844-9. Pubmed
          2. Takeda, M. et al. Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300, 918- 924 (2002).Pubmed

          3. Solute carrier family 22 member 7

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Solute carrier family 22 member 7 Q9Y694 Details

          References:

          1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. Pubmed

          4. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

          References:

          1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. Pubmed

          5. Solute carrier family 22 member 11

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Solute carrier family 22 member 11 Q9NSA0 Details

          References:

          1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24. Pubmed

          6. Sodium/nucleoside cotransporter 1

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Sodium/nucleoside cotransporter 1 O00337 Details

          References:

          1. Cano-Soldado P, Lorrayoz IM, Molina-Arcas M, Casado FJ, Martinez-Picado J, Lostao MP, Pastor-Anglada M: Interaction of nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with the concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (SLC28A1). Antivir Ther. 2004 Dec;9(6):993-1002. Pubmed

          7. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 Q14542 Details

          References:

          1. Yao SY, Ng AM, Sundaram M, Cass CE, Baldwin SA, Young JD: Transport of antiviral 3’-deoxy-nucleoside drugs by recombinant human and rat equilibrative, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-insensitive (ENT2) nucleoside transporter proteins produced in Xenopus oocytes. Mol Membr Biol. 2001 Apr-Jun;18(2):161-7. Pubmed

          8. Multidrug resistance protein 1

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

          References:

          1. Anderson PL, Lamba J, Aquilante CL, Schuetz E, Fletcher CV: Pharmacogenetic characteristics of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine therapy in HIV-infected adults: a pilot study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Aug 1;42(4):441-9. Pubmed

          9. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 O15439 Details

          References:

          1. Abla N, Chinn LW, Nakamura T, Liu L, Huang CC, Johns SJ, Kawamoto M, Stryke D, Taylor TR, Ferrin TE, Giacomini KM, Kroetz DL: The human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4): functional analysis of a highly polymorphic gene. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Jun;325(3):859-68. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.136523. Epub 2008 Mar 25. Pubmed

          10. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 O15440 Details

          References:

          1. Jorajuria S, Dereuddre-Bosquet N, Becher F, Martin S, Porcheray F, Garrigues A, Mabondzo A, Benech H, Grassi J, Orlowski S, Dormont D, Clayette P: ATP binding cassette multidrug transporters limit the anti-HIV activity of zidovudine and indinavir in infected human macrophages. Antivir Ther. 2004 Aug;9(4):519-28. Pubmed

          11. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

          Kind: protein

          Organism: Human

          Pharmacological action: unknown

          Actions: substrate

          Components

          Name UniProt ID Details
          ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

          References:

          1. Pan G, Giri N, Elmquist WF: Abcg2/Bcrp1 mediates the polarized transport of antiretroviral nucleosides abacavir and zidovudine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1165-73. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed

          Comments
          Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10