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Identification
NameTamoxifen
Accession NumberDB00675  (APRD00123)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) with tissue-specific activities for the treatment and prevention of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
TamoxifenGermanINN
TamoxifèneFrenchINN
TamoxifeneItalianDCIT
TamoxifenoSpanishINN
TamoxifenumLatinINN
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Tamoxifen Citrate
54965-24-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: FQZYTYWMLGAPFJ-OQKDUQJOSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 563.251917165
  • Average Mass: 563.6381
DBSALT000168
Brand names
NameCompany
AdifenMedicamerc
AdopanSawai Seiyaku
BilemTeva Int'l
CaditamCadila
CitofenNot Available
CrisafenoLKM
DoctamoxifeneDocpharma
EbefenEbewe
FenahexSandoz
GenoxMerck Serono
GynatamBiogalenic
IstubalAstraZeneca
MammonexCP Pharmaceuticals
NeophedanAspen Pharmacare
NoltamNot Available
NolvadexAstraZeneca
Nolvadex-DAstraZeneca
NovofenRemedica
OncomoxSun
PMS-TamoxifenPharmascience
SoltamoxDara Biosciences
TadexOrion
TamifenMedochemie
TamizamMithra
TamofenSanofi-Aventis
TamoneprinActavis
TamoplexPharmachemie
TamoxenAscent
TamoxilonCelon
TamteroHetero
TecnotaxZodiac
TomifenAlkem
ValodexNot Available
ZemideNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number10540-29-1
WeightAverage: 371.5146
Monoisotopic: 371.224914555
Chemical FormulaC26H29NO
InChI KeyInChIKey=NKANXQFJJICGDU-QPLCGJKRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H29NO/c1-4-25(21-11-7-5-8-12-21)26(22-13-9-6-10-14-22)23-15-17-24(18-16-23)28-20-19-27(2)3/h5-18H,4,19-20H2,1-3H3/b26-25-
IUPAC Name
(2-{4-[(1Z)-1,2-diphenylbut-1-en-1-yl]phenoxy}ethyl)dimethylamine
SMILES
CC\C(=C(/C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=C(OCCN(C)C)C=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassPhenylpropanoids and Polyketides
ClassStilbenes
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentStilbenes
Alternative parentsDiphenylmethanes; Phenylpropenes; Phenol Ethers; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines
Substituentsphenylpropene; phenol ether; alkyl aryl ether; benzene; tertiary amine; polyamine; ether; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
Pharmacology
IndicationTamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men and ductal carcinoma in Situ.
PharmacodynamicsTamoxifen belongs to a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Tamoxifen has the same nucleus as diethylstilbestrol but possesses an additional side chain (trans isomer) which accounts for its antiestrogenic activity.
Mechanism of actionTamoxifen is a nonsteroidal agent that binds to estrogen receptors (ER), inducing a conformational change in the receptor. This results in a blockage or change in the expression of estrogen dependent genes. The prolonged binding of tamoxifen to the nuclear chromatin of these results in reduced DNA polymerase activity, impaired thymidine utilization, blockade of estradiol uptake, and decreased estrogen response. It is likely that tamoxifen interacts with other coactivators or corepressors in the tissue and binds with different estrogen receptors, ER-alpha or ER-beta, producing both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects.
AbsorptionWhen a single oral dose of 20 mg is given, the average peak plasma concentration (Cmax) is 40 ng/mL which occurred approximately 5 hours after dosing (Tmax). The Cmax of N-desmethyl tamoxifen is 15 ng/mL. Steady-state concentrations for tamoxifen is achieved in 4 weeks, while steady-state concentrations for N-desmethyl tamoxifen is achieved in 8 weeks.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Tamoxifen is extensively metabolized after oral administration. N-Desmethyl-tamoxifen is the major metabolite found in plasma. N-Desmethyl-tamoxifen's activity is similar to tamoxifen. 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and a side chain primary alcohol derivative of tamoxifen have been identified as minor metabolites in plasma. 4-Hydroxy-tamoxifen formation is catalyzed mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and also by CYP2C9 and 3A4. At high tamoxifen concentrations, CYP2B6 also catalyzes 4-hydroxylation of the parent drug. 4-Hydroxy-tamoxifen possesses 30- to 100-times greater affinity for the estrogen receptor and 30- to 100-times greater potency at inhibiting estrogen-dependent cell proliferation compared to tamoxifen. It is also metabolized by flavin monooxygenases FMO1 and FMO3 to form tamoxifen-N-oxide.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Tamoxifen
N-DesmethyltamoxifenDetails
Tamoxifen
4-HydroxytamoxifenDetails
Tamoxifen
3-Hydroxytamoxifen (Droloxifene)Details
Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen N-oxideDetails
Tamoxifen
Alpha-hydroxytamoxifenDetails
Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen-N-glucuronideDetails
4-Hydroxytamoxifen
EndoxifenDetails
Alpha-hydroxytamoxifen
    Alpha-hydroxy-tamoxifen-O-glucuronideDetails
    4-Hydroxytamoxifen
    4-hydroxytamoxifen sulfateDetails
    4-Hydroxytamoxifen
    4-hydroxytamoxifen-N-glucuronideDetails
    4-Hydroxytamoxifen
    4-hydroxytamoxifen-O-glucuronideDetails
    N-Desmethyltamoxifen
    alpha-Hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifenDetails
    N-Desmethyltamoxifen
    EndoxifenDetails
    Endoxifen
    Endoxifen sulfateDetails
    Endoxifen
      NorendoxifenDetails
      Endoxifen
      Endoxifen O-glucuronideDetails
      N-Desmethyltamoxifen
      N-Didesmethyl-tamoxifenDetails
      4-Hydroxytamoxifen
      3,4-Dihydroxy-tamoxifenDetails
      Tamoxifen
      4'-HydroxytamoxifenDetails
      4-Hydroxytamoxifen
      cis-4-HydroxytamoxifenDetails
      Tamoxifen N-oxide
      alpha-Hydroxytamoxifen N-oxideDetails
      Alpha-hydroxytamoxifen
      alpha-Hydroxytamoxifen N-oxideDetails
      Alpha-hydroxytamoxifen
        alpha-Hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifenDetails
        Route of elimination65% of the dose was excreted from the body over 2 weeks in which fecal excretion was the primary route of elimination. Tamoxifen is excreted mainly as polar conjugates, with unchanged drug and unconjugated metabolites accounting for less than 30% of the total fecal radioactivity.
        Half lifeThe decline in tamoxifen plasma concentrations is biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 5 to 7 days. The estimated half-life of N-desmethyl tamoxifen is 14 days.
        Clearance

        Clearance (CL/F) as body weight adjusted in female pediatric patients was approximately 2.3-fold higher than in female breast cancer patients.

        ToxicitySigns observed at the highest doses following studies to determine LD50 in animals were respiratory difficulties and convulsions.
        Affected organisms
        • Humans and other mammals
        Pathways
        PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
        Tamoxifen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00471
        Tamoxifen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00606
        SNP Mediated Effects
        Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
        Cytochrome P450 2D6
        Gene symbol: CYP2D6
        UniProt: P10635
        rs3892097 CYP2D6*4A Allele, homozygotePoor response to drug treatment, shorter time to relapse17115111
        SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
        Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
        Coagulation factor V
        Gene symbol: F5
        UniProt: P12259
        rs6025 Not AvailableA alleleBreast cancer patients taking tamoxifen as part of treatment regimine are more likely to experience a thromboembolic event.20554945
        ADMET
        Predicted ADMET features
        Property Value Probability
        Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.997
        Blood Brain Barrier + 0.5838
        Caco-2 permeable + 0.8866
        P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7718
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8564
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.6225
        Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.6715
        CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8071
        CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8918
        CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7407
        CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.8535
        CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9072
        CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8448
        CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
        CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8796
        CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5054
        Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
        Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.6058
        Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9048
        Rat acute toxicity 1.9882 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
        hERG inhibition (predictor I) Strong inhibitor 0.7402
        hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.6898
        Pharmacoeconomics
        Manufacturers
        • Rosemont group ltd
        • Astrazeneca pharmaceuticals lp
        • Aegis pharmaceuticals inc
        • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
        • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
        • Pharmachemie bv
        • Roxane laboratories inc
        • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
        • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
        • Watson laboratories inc
        • Watson laboratories inc florida
        Packagers
        Dosage forms
        FormRouteStrength
        SolutionOral10 mg/5 mL
        TabletOral10 mg, 20 mg
        Prices
        Unit descriptionCostUnit
        Tamoxifen citrate powder50.03USDg
        Nolvadex 20 mg tablet4.46USDtablet
        Tamoxifen Citrate 20 mg tablet3.94USDtablet
        Tamoxifen 20 mg tablet3.79USDtablet
        Nolvadex 10 mg tablet2.04USDtablet
        Tamoxifen Citrate 10 mg tablet1.97USDtablet
        Tamoxifen 10 mg tablet1.89USDtablet
        DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
        Patents
        CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
        United States61274251998-06-262018-06-26
        Properties
        Statesolid
        Experimental Properties
        PropertyValueSource
        melting point97 °CPhysProp
        water solubility0.000167 mg/mL at 25 °CMEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)
        logP7.1Not Available
        Predicted Properties
        PropertyValueSource
        water solubility1.02e-03 g/lALOGPS
        logP5.93ALOGPS
        logP6.35ChemAxon
        logS-5.6ALOGPS
        pKa (strongest basic)8.76ChemAxon
        physiological charge1ChemAxon
        hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
        hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
        polar surface area12.47ChemAxon
        rotatable bond count8ChemAxon
        refractivity128.43ChemAxon
        polarizability44.19ChemAxon
        number of rings3ChemAxon
        bioavailability1ChemAxon
        rule of fiveNoChemAxon
        Ghose filterNoChemAxon
        Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
        MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
        Spectra
        SpectraNot Available
        References
        Synthesis Reference

        Chengjian Mao, “Tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-activated system for regulated production of proteins in eukaryotic cells.” U.S. Patent US20030199022, issued October 23, 2003.

        US20030199022
        General Reference
        1. Jordan VC: Tamoxifen (ICI46,474) as a targeted therapy to treat and prevent breast cancer. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S269-76. Pubmed
        2. Jordan VC: Fourteenth Gaddum Memorial Lecture. A current view of tamoxifen for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Br J Pharmacol. 1993 Oct;110(2):507-17. Pubmed
        3. Howell A, Cuzick J, Baum M, Buzdar A, Dowsett M, Forbes JF, Hoctin-Boes G, Houghton J, Locker GY, Tobias JS: Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years’ adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Lancet. 2005 Jan 1-7;365(9453):60-2. Pubmed
        4. Steiner AZ, Terplan M, Paulson RJ: Comparison of tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2005 Jun;20(6):1511-5. Epub 2005 Apr 21. Pubmed
        5. van Bommel EF, Hendriksz TR, Huiskes AW, Zeegers AG: Brief communication: tamoxifen therapy for nonmalignant retroperitoneal fibrosis. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jan 17;144(2):101-6. Pubmed
        6. FDA label
        External Links
        ResourceLink
        KEGG DrugD00966
        KEGG CompoundC07108
        PubChem Compound2733526
        PubChem Substance46505515
        ChemSpider2015313
        BindingDB20607
        ChEBI9396
        ChEMBLCHEMBL83
        Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000108
        PharmGKBPA451581
        IUPHAR1016
        Guide to Pharmacology1016
        HETOHT
        Drug Product Database2237460
        RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/tamox.htm
        Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/tamoxifen.html
        WikipediaTamoxifen
        ATC CodesL02BA01
        AHFS Codes
        • 10:00.00
        PDB EntriesNot Available
        FDA labelshow(102 KB)
        MSDSshow(74.8 KB)
        Interactions
        Drug Interactions
        Drug
        AcenocoumarolTamoxifen may increase the serum concentration of Acenocoumarol increasing the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        AminoglutethimideAminoglutethimide may increase Tamoxifen clearance decreasing its therapeutic effect. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tamoxifen effects when Aminoglutethimide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        AmiodaroneAmiodarone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        AmprenavirAmprenavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        AtazanavirAtazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        CapecitabineCapecitabine may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Capecitabine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        CimetidineCimetidine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        CinacalcetCinacalcet may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        ClarithromycinClarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        ClozapineClozapine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        CocaineCocaine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        ConivaptanConivaptan may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        DarifenacinDarifenacin may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        DarunavirDarunavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        DelavirdineDelavirdine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        DiphenhydramineDiphenhydramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        DuloxetineDuloxetine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        FloxuridineFloxuridine may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Floxiridine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        FluconazoleFluconzole may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        FluorouracilFluorouracil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        FluoxetineFluoxetine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Flurbiprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        FosamprenavirFosmprenavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        GemfibrozilGemfibrozil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Gemfibrozil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        HaloperidolHaloperidol may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        IbuprofenIbuprofen may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Ibuprofen is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ImatinibImatinib may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Imatinib may also decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing active metabolite production. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Imatinib is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ImipramineImipramine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        IndinavirIndinavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        IndomethacinIndomethacin may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Indomethacin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        IsoniazidIsoniazid may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Isoniazid may also decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing active metabolite production. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Isoniazid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        ItraconazoleItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Ketoconazole may also decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing active metabolite production. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        LidocaineLidocaine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        LopinavirLopinavir may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        LumefantrineLumefantrine, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the formation of highly potent tamoxifen metabolites. Concomitant therapy may decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen. Consider alternate therapy.
        Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Mefenamic acid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        MethadoneMethadone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        MethimazoleMethimazole may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        MiconazoleMiconazole may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        NelfinavirNelfinavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        NicardipineNicardipine may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Nicardipine may also decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing active metabolite production. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        NilotinibNilotinib may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        ParoxetineParoxetine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        PergolidePergolide may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        PioglitazonePioglitazone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        PiroxicamPiroxicam may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Piroxicam is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        PosaconazolePosaconazole may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        PyrimethaminePyrimethamine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        QuinidineQuinidine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        QuinineQuinine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity
        RanolazineRanolazine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        RifabutinThe rifamycin decreases the effect of anti-estrogen
        RifampicinThe rifamycin decreases the effect of anti-estrogen
        RitonavirRitonavir may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        RivaroxabanTamoxifen may increase serum concentrations of Rivaroxaban increasing the risk of bleeding. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        SaquinavirSaquinavir may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for increased adverse/toxic effects of Tamoxifen.
        SertralineSertraline may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        SitaxentanSitaxsentan may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Sitaxsentan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        SulfadiazineSulfadiazine may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Sulfadiazine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        SulfisoxazoleSulfisoxazole may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Sulfisoxazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Tamoxifen. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        TerbinafineTerbinafine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        ThioridazineThioridazine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        TiclopidineTiclopidine may decrease the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        TolbutamideTolbutamide, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamoxifen. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tamoxifen therapeutic and adverse effects if Tolbutamide is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        TopotecanThe p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Tamoxifen, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
        TranylcypromineThe CYP2D6 inhibitor, Tranylcypromine, may decrease the efficacy of Tamoxifen by reducing active metabolite production. Consider alternate therapy.
        TrazodoneTrazodone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
        TretinoinThe moderate CYP2C8 inhibitor, Tamoxifen, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of oral Tretinoin. Monitor for changes in Tretinoin effectiveness and adverse/toxic effects if Tamoxifen is initiated, discontinued to dose changed.
        VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of tamoxifen if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
        WarfarinTamoxifen, a CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of warfarin by decreasing its metabolism. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated due to significant increase in bleed risk.
        Food InteractionsNot Available

        1. Estrogen receptor

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: yes

        Actions: antagonist agonist

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Estrogen receptor P03372 Details

        References:

        1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
        2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. Pubmed
        3. Fabian CJ, Kimler BF: Chemoprevention for high-risk women: tamoxifen and beyond. Breast J. 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):311-20. Pubmed
        4. Cyrus K, Wehenkel M, Choi EY, Lee H, Swanson H, Kim KB: Jostling for position: optimizing linker location in the design of estrogen receptor-targeting PROTACs. ChemMedChem. 2010 Jul 5;5(7):979-85. Pubmed

        2. Estrogen receptor beta

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: yes

        Actions: antagonist agonist

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Estrogen receptor beta Q92731 Details

        References:

        1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
        2. Chen B, Gajdos C, Dardes R, Kidwai N, Johnston SR, Dowsett M, Jordan VC: Potential of endogenous estrogen receptor beta to influence the selective ER modulator ERbeta complex. Int J Oncol. 2005 Aug;27(2):327-35. Pubmed
        3. Horner-Glister E, Maleki-Dizaji M, Guerin CJ, Johnson SM, Styles J, White IN: Influence of oestradiol and tamoxifen on oestrogen receptors-alpha and -beta protein degradation and non-genomic signalling pathways in uterine and breast carcinoma cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Dec;35(3):421-32. Pubmed
        4. Girault I, Bieche I, Lidereau R: Role of estrogen receptor alpha transcriptional coregulators in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Maturitas. 2006 Jul 20;54(4):342-51. Epub 2006 Jul 5. Pubmed
        5. Mc Ilroy M, Fleming FJ, Buggy Y, Hill AD, Young LS: Tamoxifen-induced ER-alpha-SRC-3 interaction in HER2 positive human breast cancer; a possible mechanism for ER isoform specific recurrence. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006 Dec;13(4):1135-45. Pubmed
        6. Gruvberger-Saal SK, Bendahl PO, Saal LH, Laakso M, Hegardt C, Eden P, Peterson C, Malmstrom P, Isola J, Borg A, Ferno M: Estrogen receptor beta expression is associated with tamoxifen response in ERalpha-negative breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;13(7):1987-94. Pubmed
        7. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. Pubmed
        8. Hayes DF, Skaar TC, Rae JM, Henry NL, Nguyen AT, Stearns V, Li L, Philips S, Desta Z, Flockhart DA: Estrogen Receptor Genotypes, Menopausal Status, and the Effects of Tamoxifen on Lipid Levels: Revised and Updated Results. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Sep 8. Pubmed

        1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

        References:

        1. Higgins MJ, Stearns V: CYP2D6 polymorphisms and tamoxifen metabolism: clinical relevance. Curr Oncol Rep. 2010 Jan;12(1):7-15. Pubmed
        2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        3. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        4. Kuderer NM, Peppercorn J: CYP2D6 testing in breast cancer: ready for prime time? Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Dec;23(14):1223-32. Pubmed, Link.
        5. Goetz MP: Tamoxifen, endoxifen, and CYP2D6: the rules for evaluating a predictive factor. Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Dec;23(14):1233-4, 1236. Pubmed, Link.
        6. Desta Z, Ward BA, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA: Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):1062-75. Epub 2004 May 24. Pubmed
        7. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed
        8. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        3. Desta Z, Ward BA, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA: Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):1062-75. Epub 2004 May 24. Pubmed
        4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
        5. Williams JA, Ring BJ, Cantrell VE, Jones DR, Eckstein J, Ruterbories K, Hamman MA, Hall SD, Wrighton SA: Comparative metabolic capabilities of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):883-91. Pubmed

        3. Cytochrome P450 3A5

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        4. Cytochrome P450 3A7

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

        References:

        1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

        5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        6. Cytochrome P450 2C19

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Desta Z, Ward BA, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA: Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):1062-75. Epub 2004 May 24. Pubmed
        3. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed
        4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        7. Cytochrome P450 2B6

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Desta Z, Ward BA, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA: Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):1062-75. Epub 2004 May 24. Pubmed
        3. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed
        4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        8. Cytochrome P450 1A1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        9. Cytochrome P450 1A2

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed

        10. Cytochrome P450 1B1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 1B1 Q16678 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
        2. Crewe HK, Notley LM, Wunsch RM, Lennard MS, Gillam EM: Metabolism of tamoxifen by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes: formation of the 4-hydroxy, 4’-hydroxy and N-desmethyl metabolites and isomerization of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):869-74. Pubmed
        3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        11. Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1 Q01740 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

        12. Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3 P31513 Details

        References:

        1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

        13. Cytochrome P450 2C8

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

        References:

        1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed
        2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        14. Liver carboxylesterase 1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Liver carboxylesterase 1 P23141 Details

        References:

        1. Fleming CD, Bencharit S, Edwards CC, Hyatt JL, Tsurkan L, Bai F, Fraga C, Morton CL, Howard-Williams EL, Potter PM, Redinbo MR: Structural insights into drug processing by human carboxylesterase 1: tamoxifen, mevastatin, and inhibition by benzil. J Mol Biol. 2005 Sep 9;352(1):165-77. Pubmed

        15. Cytochrome P450 19A1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 19A1 P11511 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        16. Cytochrome P450 2A6

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        17. Cytochrome P450 2E1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

        References:

        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

        18. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 P22310 Details

        References:

        1. Sun D, Sharma AK, Dellinger RW, Blevins-Primeau AS, Balliet RM, Chen G, Boyiri T, Amin S, Lazarus P: Glucuronidation of active tamoxifen metabolites by the human UDP glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Nov;35(11):2006-14. Epub 2007 Jul 30. Pubmed

        19. Sulfotransferase 1A1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Sulfotransferase 1A1 P50225 Details

        References:

        1. Hertz DL, McLeod HL, Irvin WJ Jr: Tamoxifen and CYP2D6: a contradiction of data. Oncologist. 2012;17(5):620-30. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0418. Epub 2012 Apr 24. Pubmed

        1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

        References:

        1. Riley J, Styles J, Verschoyle RD, Stanley LA, White IN, Gant TW: Association of tamoxifen biliary excretion rate with prior tamoxifen exposure and increased mdr1b expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jul 15;60(2):233-9. Pubmed
        2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. Pubmed
        3. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. Pubmed
        4. Bekaii-Saab TS, Perloff MD, Weemhoff JL, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL: Interactions of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen with P-glycoprotein and CYP3A. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 Oct;25(7):283-9. Pubmed
        5. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
        6. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. Pubmed

        2. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

        References:

        1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. Pubmed

        3. Bile salt export pump

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: inhibitor

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

        References:

        1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed

        4. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

        Kind: protein

        Organism: Human

        Pharmacological action: unknown

        Actions: substrate

        Components

        Name UniProt ID Details
        Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

        References:

        1. Kiyotani K, Mushiroda T, Imamura CK, Hosono N, Tsunoda T, Kubo M, Tanigawara Y, Flockhart DA, Desta Z, Skaar TC, Aki F, Hirata K, Takatsuka Y, Okazaki M, Ohsumi S, Yamakawa T, Sasa M, Nakamura Y, Zembutsu H: Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1287-93. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.25.7246. Epub 2010 Feb 1. Pubmed

        Comments
        Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11