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Identification
NamePentoxifylline
Accession NumberDB00806  (APRD00121)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Oxpentifylline
Pentoxifilina
Pentoxifyllin
Pentoxifylline
Pentoxifyllinum
Pentoxil
Trental
External Identifiers
  • BL 191
  • PTX
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nu-pentoxifylline-SR 400 mgtablet (extended-release)400 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-182012-09-04Canada
Pentoxifylline SRtablet (extended-release)400 mgoralAa Pharma Inc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada
Ratio-pentoxifyllinetablet (extended-release)400 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1997-04-152010-08-02Canada
Trentaltablet (extended-release)400 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1996-10-232013-03-01Canada
Trental Srt 400mgtablet (extended-release)400 mgoralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1993-12-311998-08-12Canada
Trental Tab 400mgtablet (extended-release)400 mgoralHoechst Canada Inc.1984-12-311996-08-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1998-07-31Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1998-07-31Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-30Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-09-21Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralCardinal Health2004-02-16Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-09-28Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-25Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2013-07-31Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2014-08-22Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1999-06-10Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1999-06-10Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1998-07-20Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1999-06-10Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2004-02-16Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralApotex Corp.1999-06-10Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, extended release400 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2001-06-18Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-29Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-09-21Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralCardinal Health1999-06-102016-03-11Us
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1998-01-15Not applicableUs
Pentoxifyllinetablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-07-08Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AgapurinZentiva
Agapurin SRZentiva
An Ruo NingNanjing Yaoda Bio-Pharmaceutical
AngiopentHelcor
Ao Le NiC & O Pharmaceuticals
Ao Nuo HongAosaiKang Pharmaceutical
AotongTreeful Pharmaceutical
AzupentatNot Available
BehrifilSanofi-Aventis
Bo Shu TeJisheng Pharmaceutical
ClaudicatNycomed
DurapentalMylan dura
ElorganSanofi Aventis
EndopentoksasEndokriniai
PentilinKrka
Pentilin RetardKrka
PentofluxBouchara-Recordati
PentofyllinSopharma
PentoksifilinPanfarma
PentolabLamsa
Pentomerratiopharm
PentoxilUpsher-Smith
RentylinAmdipharm
TorentalSanofi-Aventis
Trentilin RetardSanta-Farma
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Gapeam BudibacAlvix Laboratories, LLC
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIISD6QCT3TSU
CAS number6493-05-6
WeightAverage: 278.307
Monoisotopic: 278.137890462
Chemical FormulaC13H18N4O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=BYPFEZZEUUWMEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18N4O3/c1-9(18)6-4-5-7-17-12(19)10-11(14-8-15(10)2)16(3)13(17)20/h8H,4-7H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CCCCC(C)=O)C(=O)N2C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Ketone
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.
PharmacodynamicsPentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.
Mechanism of actionPentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity. It is also a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding70%
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationExcretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine.
Half life0.4-0.8 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9851
Caco-2 permeable-0.5056
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.595
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7023
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6511
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9827
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.901
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8965
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7457
Rat acute toxicity2.4070 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kittopical
Tablet, extended releaseoral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral400 mg/1
Tablet (extended-release)oral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
TRENtal 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.4USD tab
Trental er 400 mg tablet1.27USD tablet
Pentoxifylline powder0.91USD g
Trental 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pentoxifylline 400 mg tablet sa0.71USD tablet
Pentoxifylline CR 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil er 400 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Pentoxifylline er 400 mg tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Pentoxifylline Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
Nu-Pentoxifylline-Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point105 °CNot Available
water solubility7.7E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.29BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Authors unspecified: European Pentoxifylline Multi-Infarct Dementia Study. Eur Neurol. 1996;36(5):315-21. [PubMed:8864715 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC04AD03
AHFS Codes
  • 20:24.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (51.7 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.
AcebutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AliskirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AmiloridePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amiloride.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.
AmlodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
AnagrelidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.
ArdeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.
AtenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Azilsartan medoxomil.
BenazeprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.
BetaxololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.
BisoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.
BumetanidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bumetanide.
CandesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.
CangrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.
CaptoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.
CarvedilolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.
ChlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.
ChlorthalidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.
CilostazolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
CitalopramPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Citalopram.
ClevidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clevidipine.
ClonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.
ClopidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
DalteparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DesvenlafaxinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Desvenlafaxine.
DiclofenacPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Diclofenac.
DicoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DiflunisalPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Diflunisal.
DiltiazemPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.
DipyridamolePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.
DoxazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.
DuloxetinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Duloxetine.
EnalaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.
EnalaprilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.
EnoxaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EplerenonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Eplerenone.
EprosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.
EptifibatidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.
EscitalopramPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Escitalopram.
EsmololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Esmolol.
Etacrynic acidPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ethacrynic acid.
EtodolacPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Etodolac.
FelodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.
FenoprofenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Fenoprofen.
FloctafeninePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Floctafenine.
FluoxetinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Fluoxetine.
FlurbiprofenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Flurbiprofen.
FluvoxaminePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Fluvoxamine.
FosinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.
FurosemidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Furosemide.
GuanfacinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.
HeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
IbuprofenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibuprofen.
IndapamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.
IndomethacinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
IrbesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.
IsradipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Isradipine.
KetoprofenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketoprofen.
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.
LabetalolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.
LevomilnacipranPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Levomilnacipran.
LisinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.
LosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.
MannitolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mannitol.
MecamylaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.
Mefenamic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Mefenamic acid.
MeloxicamPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Meloxicam.
MethoxsalenThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Methoxsalen.
MethyclothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.
MetolazonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.
MetoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metoprolol.
MexiletineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Mexiletine.
MilnacipranPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milnacipran.
MinoxidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MoexiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.
MoxonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.
NabumetonePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nabumetone.
NadololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.
NadroparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.
NaproxenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naproxen.
NebivololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.
NicardipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicardipine.
NifedipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nifedipine.
NimodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nimodipine.
NisoldipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nisoldipine.
NitroprussidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
OfloxacinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Ofloxacin.
OlmesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.
OxaprozinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Oxaprozin.
ParoxetinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Paroxetine.
PenbutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PerindoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.
PhenoxybenzaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.
PhentolaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.
PindololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.
PiroxicamPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Piroxicam.
PrasugrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.
PrazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.
PrimaquineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
PropranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propranolol.
QuinaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.
RamiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.
ReserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.
SertralinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sertraline.
SotalolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Sotalol.
SpironolactonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Spironolactone.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulindacPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sulindac.
TelmisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.
TerazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Terazosin.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.
Tiaprofenic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tiaprofenic acid.
TicagrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticagrelor.
TiclopidinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.
TimololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.
TinzaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.
TirofibanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.
TolmetinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tolmetin.
TorasemidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.
TrandolaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.
TriamterenePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Triamterene.
ValsartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VenlafaxinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Venlafaxine.
VerapamilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.
VilazodonePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vilazodone.
VorapaxarPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.
VortioxetinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vortioxetine.
WarfarinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Limit caffeine intake.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular Weight:
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular Weight:
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D: Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;230:41-63. [PubMed:3588607 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, PubMed:15489334). Specifically regulates nitric-oxide-generated cGMP (PubMed:15489334).
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular Weight:
99984.14 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular Weight:
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular Weight:
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Kreth S, Ledderose C, Luchting B, Weis F, Thiel M: Immunomodulatory properties of pentoxifylline are mediated via adenosine-dependent pathways. Shock. 2010 Jul;34(1):10-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc3e2. [PubMed:19997047 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. Exhibits AMP-, NAD-, and NMN-nucleosidase activities.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular Weight:
63367.255 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Ustunsoy H, Sivrikoz MC, Tarakcioglu M, Bakir K, Guldur E, Celkan MA: The effects of pentoxifylline on the myocardial inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-61. [PubMed:16426349 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2013 11:35