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Identification
NameKetamine
Accession NumberDB01221  (APRD00493)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate) and may interact with sigma receptors. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-Ketamine
(±)-ketamine
2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone
2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone
DL-ketamine
Ketamina
KETAMINE
Ketaminum
NMDA
Special k
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ketalarinjection10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
Ketalarsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ketalarsolution10 mgintramuscular; intravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ketalarinjection10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-17Not applicableUs
Ketalarinjection100 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
Ketalarinjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection100 mg/mLintravenousREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-06-18Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection100 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection Sdzsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection Sdzsolution10 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection Sdzsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2013-08-12Not applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection USPsolution10 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2003-02-05Not applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection USPsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2003-02-04Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1996-06-27Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution100 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-16Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-11Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1996-06-27Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochlorideinjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
KetajectBristol-Myers Squibb
KetanestParke Davis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Ketamine hydrochloride
1867-66-9
Thumb
  • InChI Key: VCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 273.068719585
  • Average Mass: 274.186
DBSALT000396
Categories
UNII690G0D6V8H
CAS number6740-88-1
WeightAverage: 237.725
Monoisotopic: 237.092041846
Chemical FormulaC13H16ClNO
InChI KeyInChIKey=YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexan-1-one
SMILES
CNC1(CCCCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassHalobenzenes
Direct ParentChlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aralkylamine
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Cyclohexanone
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.
PharmacodynamicsKetamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. Ketamine is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. The anesthetic state produced by Ketamine has been termed “dissociative anesthesia” in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticularactivating and limbic systems).
Mechanism of actionKetamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following parenteral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ketamine
NorketamineDetails
Ketamine
Not Available
6-HydroxyketamineDetails
Ketamine
Not Available
5-HydroxyketamineDetails
Ketamine
Not Available
4-HydroxyketamineDetails
Norketamine
Not Available
4-HydroxynorketamineDetails
Norketamine
Not Available
5-HydroxynorketamineDetails
Norketamine
Not Available
6-HydroxynorketamineDetails
6-Hydroxyketamine
Not Available
6-HydroxynorketamineDetails
5-Hydroxyketamine
Not Available
5-HydroxynorketamineDetails
4-Hydroxyketamine
Not Available
4-HydroxynorketamineDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life2.5-3 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9826
Caco-2 permeable+0.6326
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5753
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5948
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6737
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6363
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7323
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7985
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6912
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5347
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8253
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5426
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7223
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8878
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9937
Rat acute toxicity2.3939 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8859
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6047
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg/mL
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous100 mg/mL
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg
Injectionintravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateintramuscular; intravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateintramuscular; intravenous50 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ketamine hcl powder7.22USD g
Ketamine hcl-ns 50 mg/5 ml syr2.82USD ml
Ketamine 100 mg/ml vial2.36USD ml
Ketalar 100 mg/ml vial1.95USD ml
Ketamine hcl-ns 100 mg/10 ml1.95USD ml
Ketamine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution1.77USD ml
Ketalar 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketamine 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketalar 50 mg/ml vial0.75USD ml
Ketamine 50 mg/ml vial0.61USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point92-93U.S. Patent 3,254,124.
logP2.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.69ALOGPS
logP3.35ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity65.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

John A. Flores, Kenton L. Crowley, “Process for the preparation of ketamine ointment.” U.S. Patent US5817699, issued June, 1995.

US5817699
General References
  1. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237 ]
  2. Bergman SA: Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1999 Winter;46(1):10-20. [PubMed:10551055 ]
  3. Bonanno FG: Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture). Injury. 2002 May;33(4):323-7. [PubMed:12091028 ]
  4. Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi D, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts MC: First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Mar 16;87(2-3):183-93. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979848 ]
  5. Reboso Morales JA, Gonzalez Miranda F: [Ketamine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Mar;46(3):111-22. [PubMed:10228376 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AX03
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (67.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AzelastineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ketamine.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
BuprenorphineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
EthanolKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
HydrocodoneKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Ketamine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Memantine.
MethotrimeprazineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosineKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
MirtazapineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
OrphenadrineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
ParaldehydeKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PramipexoleKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
RopiniroleKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketamine.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SuvorexantKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.
ThalidomideKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Thiopental.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
ZolpidemKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428 ]
  2. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237 ]
  3. Sinner B, Graf BM: Ketamine. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):313-33. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. [PubMed:18175098 ]
  4. Radovanovic D, Pjevic M: [Ketamine: the past 30 years and its future]. Med Pregl. 2003 Sep-Oct;56(9-10):439-45. [PubMed:14740534 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Tachykinin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of affinity of this receptor to tachykinins is: substance P > substance K > neuromedin-K.
Gene Name:
TACR1
Uniprot ID:
P25103
Molecular Weight:
46250.5 Da
References
  1. Okamoto T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Ogata J, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of ketamine and pentobarbital on substance p receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):104-10, table of contents. [PubMed:12818951 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonistpartial agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H: Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil. Synapse. 2009 Aug;63(8):698-704. doi: 10.1002/syn.20647. [PubMed:19391150 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Salt PJ, Barnes PK, Beswick FJ: Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979 Sep;51(9):835-8. [PubMed:508488 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1P11229 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2P08172 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3P20309 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4P08173 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5P08912 Details
References
  1. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2AP28223 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2BP41595 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2CP28335 Details
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1AP08908 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1BP28222 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1DP28221 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1EP28566 Details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1FP30939 Details
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 03, 2014 21:13