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Identification
NameDiazepam
Accession NumberDB00829  (APRD00642, DB07699)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, illicit
Description

A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneNot AvailableNot Available
Methyl diazepinoneNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
DiastatNot Available
ValiumHoffmann-La Roche
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number439-14-5
WeightAverage: 284.74
Monoisotopic: 284.071640755
Chemical FormulaC16H13ClN2O
InChI KeyInChIKey=AAOVKJBEBIDNHE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H13ClN2O/c1-19-14-8-7-12(17)9-13(14)16(18-10-15(19)20)11-5-3-2-4-6-11/h2-9H,10H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
SMILES
CN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
Mass Specshow(10.4 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentBenzodiazepines
Alternative parentsChlorobenzenes; Aryl Chlorides; Tertiary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Tertiary Amines; Polyamines; Carboxylic Acids; Organochlorides
Substituentschlorobenzene; benzene; aryl halide; aryl chloride; tertiary carboxylic acid amide; tertiary amine; carboxamide group; polyamine; carboxylic acid; carboxylic acid derivative; organohalogen; organochloride; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of diazepine(unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with two nitrogen atoms replacing two carbon atoms).
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsDiazepam, a benzodiazepine, generates the same active metabolite as chlordiazepoxide and clorazepate. In animals, diazepam appears to act on parts of the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus, and induces calming effects. Diazepam, unlike chlorpromazine and reserpine, has no demonstrable peripheral autonomic blocking action, nor does it produce extrapyramidal side effects; however, animals treated with diazepam do have a transient ataxia at higher doses. Diazepam was found to have transient cardiovascular depressor effects in dogs. Long-term experiments in rats revealed no disturbances of endocrine function. Injections into animals have produced localized irritation of tissue surrounding injection sites and some thickening of veins after intravenous use.
Mechanism of actionBenzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
AbsorptionEssentially complete, with a bioavailability of 93%.
Volume of distribution
  • 0.8 to 1.0 L/kg [young healthy males]
Protein binding98.5%
Metabolism

Hepatic via the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The main active metabolite is desmethyldiazepam, in addition to minor active metabolites including temazepam and oxazepam.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Diazepam
NordiazepamDetails
Diazepam
TemazepamDetails
Diazepam
OxazepamDetails
Diazepam
    desmethyldiazepamDetails
    Nordiazepam
    OxazepamDetails
    Temazepam
    OxazepamDetails
    Nordiazepam
      Nordiazepam O-glucuronideDetails
      Route of eliminationDiazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates.
      Half lifeBiphasic 1-2 days and 2-5 days, active metabolites with long half lives.
      Clearance
      • 20-30 mL/min
      ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.
      Affected organisms
      • Humans and other mammals
      PathwaysNot Available
      SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
      SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
      ADMET
      Predicted ADMET features
      Property Value Probability
      Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9948
      Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9934
      Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
      P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.661
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.5557
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8383
      Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.6152
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.6699
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.8177
      CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.8175
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5562
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.858
      CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.5221
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.6423
      CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.5693
      Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
      Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8312
      Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
      Rat acute toxicity 2.5946 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
      hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9948
      hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8734
      Pharmacoeconomics
      Manufacturers
      • Hoffmann la roche inc
      • Roxane laboratories inc
      • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
      • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
      • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
      • Hospira inc
      • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
      • Parenta pharmaceuticals inc
      • Us army medical research materiel command
      • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
      • Watson laboratories inc
      • Pharmacia and upjohn co
      • Actavis elizabeth llc
      • Barr laboratories inc
      • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
      • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
      • Ferndale laboratories inc
      • Halsey drug co inc
      • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
      • Martec usa llc
      • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
      • Par pharmaceutical inc
      • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
      • Sandoz inc
      • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
      • Quantum pharmics ltd
      Packagers
      Dosage forms
      FormRouteStrength
      EmulsionIntramuscular
      GelRectal
      SolutionIntramuscular
      SolutionOral
      TabletOral
      Prices
      Unit descriptionCostUnit
      Diastat acudial 12.5-15-20 mg429.58USDeach
      Diastat acudial 5-7.5-10 mg kit429.58USDkit
      Diastat AcuDial 10 mg Gel 1 Box Contains Two 10 mg Syringes423.95USDbox
      Diastat AcuDial 20 mg Gel 1 Box Contains Two 20 mg Syringes413.6USDbox
      Diastat 2.5 mg pedi system362.12USDeach
      Valium 10 mg tablet6.06USDtablet
      Diazepam powder3.99USDg
      Valium 5 mg tablet2.55USDtablet
      Valium 2 mg tablet2.43USDtablet
      Diazemuls 5 mg/ml Emulsion1.23USDml
      Diazepam 5 mg/ml0.69USDml
      Diazepam 10 mg tablet0.38USDtablet
      Diazepam 5 mg tablet0.3USDtablet
      Diazepam 2 mg tablet0.26USDtablet
      Diazepam 5 mg/ml vial0.17USDml
      Apo-Diazepam 10 mg Tablet0.09USDtablet
      Apo-Diazepam 5 mg Tablet0.07USDtablet
      Apo-Diazepam 2 mg Tablet0.05USDtablet
      DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
      Patents
      CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
      United States54627401993-09-172013-09-17
      Canada21716272006-01-312014-09-12
      Properties
      Statesolid
      Experimental Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      melting point132 °CPhysProp
      water solubility50 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
      logP2.82SANGSTER (1994)
      Caco2 permeability-4.32ADME Research, USCD
      pKa3.4MERCK INDEX (1996)
      Predicted Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      water solubility1.22e-02 g/lALOGPS
      logP2.63ALOGPS
      logP3.08ChemAxon
      logS-4.4ALOGPS
      pKa (strongest basic)2.92ChemAxon
      physiological charge0ChemAxon
      hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
      hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
      polar surface area32.67ChemAxon
      rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
      refractivity79.81ChemAxon
      polarizability29.39ChemAxon
      number of rings3ChemAxon
      bioavailability1ChemAxon
      rule of fiveYesChemAxon
      Ghose filterYesChemAxon
      Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
      MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
      Spectra
      SpectraNot Available
      References
      Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
      General Reference
      1. Mant A, Whicker SD, McManus P, Birkett DJ, Edmonds D, Dumbrell D: Benzodiazepine utilisation in Australia: report from a new pharmacoepidemiological database. Aust J Public Health. 1993 Dec;17(4):345-9. Pubmed
      2. Earley JV, Fryer RI, Ning RY: Quinazolines and 1,4-benzodiazepines. LXXXIX: Haptens useful in benzodiazepine immunoassay development. J Pharm Sci. 1979 Jul;68(7):845-50. Pubmed
      3. Usami N, Yamamoto T, Shintani S, Ishikura S, Higaki Y, Katagiri Y, Hara A: Substrate specificity of human 3(20)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):441-5. Pubmed
      4. Oishi R, Nishibori M, Itoh Y, Saeki K: Diazepam-induced decrease in histamine turnover in mouse brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 May 27;124(3):337-42. Pubmed
      5. McLean MJ, Macdonald RL: Benzodiazepines, but not beta carbolines, limit high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Feb;244(2):789-95. Pubmed
      External Links
      ResourceLink
      KEGG DrugD00293
      KEGG CompoundC06948
      PubChem Compound3016
      PubChem Substance46505210
      ChemSpider2908
      ChEBI49575
      ChEMBLCHEMBL12
      Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC000549
      PharmGKBPA449283
      IUPHAR3364
      Guide to Pharmacology3364
      HETDZP
      Drug Product Database2247176
      RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/diazepam.htm
      Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/diazepam.html
      PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/val1473.shtml
      WikipediaDiazepam
      ATC CodesN05BA01N05BA17
      AHFS Codes
      • 28:24.08
      PDB EntriesNot Available
      FDA labelshow(260 KB)
      MSDSshow(53.1 KB)
      Interactions
      Drug Interactions
      Drug
      AmprenavirAmprenavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      CimetidineCimetidine may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      ClarithromycinThe macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      ClozapineIncreased risk of toxicity
      DigoxinThe benzodiazepine, diazepam, may increase the effect of digoxin.
      ErythromycinThe macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      EthotoinEthotoin may increase the metabolism of diazepam via CYP3A4.
      EtravirineDiazepam (a CYP21C9 and CYP3A4 substrate), when administered concomitantly with etravirine, may experience an increase (via CYP21C9 inhibition) or a decrease(via CYP3A4 induction) in serum concentration. Overall clinical significance is unknown. It is recommended to monitor diazepam therapy.
      FluconazoleFluconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      FosamprenavirFosamprenavir may increase the effect and toxicity of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      FosphenytoinFosphenytoin may increase the metabolism of diazepam via CYP3A4.
      IndinavirThe protease inhibitor, indinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      ItraconazoleItraconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      JosamycinThe macrolide, josamycin, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      KavaKava may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      MephenytoinMephenytoin may increase the metabolism of diazepam via CYP3A4.
      NelfinavirThe protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      OmeprazoleOmeprazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      PhenytoinPhenytoin may increase the metabolism of diazepam via CYP3A4.
      QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity
      RifampicinRifampin may decrease the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      RitonavirThe protease inhibitor, ritonavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      SaquinavirThe protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      St. John's WortSt. John's Wort may decrease the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
      TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Diazepam if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      TiclopidineTiclopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Diazepam if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      TipranavirTipranavir may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for Diazepam toxic effects if Tipranavir is initiated or dose increased.
      TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Diazepam, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
      VoriconazoleVoriconazole may increase the serum concentration of diazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for diazepam toxicity if voriconazole is initiated or dose increased.
      Food Interactions
      • Avoid alcohol.
      • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (caffeine).
      • Avoid taking with grapefruit or grapefruit juice as grapefruit can significantly increase serum levels of this product.
      • Take with food.

      1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed
      3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. Pubmed

      2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed
      3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. Pubmed

      3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed
      3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. Pubmed

      4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed
      3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. Pubmed

      5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 P18505 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 P28472 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 Q8N1C3 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 Q99928 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta O14764 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      12. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon P78334 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi O00591 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      14. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1 P24046 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2 P28476 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3 A8MPY1 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta Q9UN88 Details

      References:

      1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. Pubmed
      2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Pubmed

      18. Translocator protein

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: potentiator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Translocator protein P30536 Details

      References:

      1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
      2. Falchi AM, Battetta B, Sanna F, Piludu M, Sogos V, Serra M, Melis M, Putzolu M, Diaz G: Intracellular cholesterol changes induced by translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO/PBR ligands. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Aug;53(2):318-29. Epub 2007 Jun 2. Pubmed

      19. GABA-A receptor (anion channel)

      Kind: protein group

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: positive allosteric modulator

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 P18505 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 P28472 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta O14764 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon P78334 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 Q8N1C3 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 Q99928 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi O00591 Details
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta Q9UN88 Details

      References:

      1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card (Accessed December 2013)

      1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

      4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
      4. Jung F, Richardson TH, Raucy JL, Johnson EF: Diazepam metabolism by cDNA-expressed human 2C P450s: identification of P4502C18 and P4502C19 as low K(M) diazepam N-demethylases. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Feb;25(2):133-9. Pubmed

      5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
      3. Jung F, Richardson TH, Raucy JL, Johnson EF: Diazepam metabolism by cDNA-expressed human 2C P450s: identification of P4502C18 and P4502C19 as low K(M) diazepam N-demethylases. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Feb;25(2):133-9. Pubmed

      6. Cytochrome P450 2B6

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
      3. Lin Y, Lu P, Tang C, Mei Q, Sandig G, Rodrigues AD, Rushmore TH, Shou M: Substrate inhibition kinetics for cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 1):368-74. Pubmed

      7. Cytochrome P450 1A2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

      References:

      1. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects. Source
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      8. Cytochrome P450 2C18

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C18 P33260 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      9. Cytochrome P450 2C8

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      10. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

      11. Cytochrome P450 2E1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

      References:

      1. Tassaneeyakul W, Birkett DJ, Miners JO: Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P4502E1 by azole antifungals, CNS-active drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Xenobiotica. 1998 Mar;28(3):293-301. Pubmed

      1. Serum albumin

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: no

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Serum albumin P02768 Details

      References:

      1. Bertucci C, Wainer IW: Improved chromatographic performance of a modified human albumin based stationary phase. Chirality. 1997;9(4):335-40. Pubmed
      2. Brodersen R, Honore B: Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1989 May;78(3):342-6. Pubmed

      1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

      References:

      1. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. Pubmed
      2. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. Pubmed

      Comments
      Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12