Psychostimulants, Agents Used for Adhd and Nootropics

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00182AmphetamineAmphetamine is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as well as for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as narcolepsy.[A18540] ADHD is a complex disorder associated with the substantial heterogeneity in etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment outcome. ADHD comes from a complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors which cause complex mental disorders in children and teenagers.[A174271] On the other hand, narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder typically resenting during adolescence and characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness.[A174274] Amphetamine is also being used nowadays off-label for the treatment of obesity, depression and chronic pain.[A174268, A174283]
DB00201CaffeineFor management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants.
DB00422MethylphenidateFor use as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate-to-severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity.
DB00745ModafinilTo improve wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy.
DB01230PemolineFor treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
DB01255LisdexamfetamineFor the treatment of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for moderate to severe binge eating disorder in adults [FDA label], [A40246]. This drug is not indicated for weight loss. Use of other sympathomimetic drugs for weight loss is associated with serious cardiovascular effects. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of obesity have not yet been determined [FDA label].
DB01463FencamfamineFor the the treatment of depressive fatigue in convalescence and other debilitated states as well as in the treatment of depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy.
DB01576DextroamphetamineUsed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
DB01577MetamfetamineFor the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) and exogenous obesity.
DB04599AniracetamNot Available
DB06413ArmodafinilInvestigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, depression, and bipolar disorders.
DB06479PropentofyllineInvestigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease.
DB06701DexmethylphenidateDexmethylphenidate is used as a treatment for ADHD, ideally in conjunction with psychological, educational, behavioral or other forms of treatment.
DB08842AcetylcarnitineAcetylcarnitine is not approved for any indication in the United states and Canada, but it is approved and indicated in Italy for cerebrovascular disorders, mental function disorders, peripheral nerve disorders, diabetic neuropathy, and nutritional supplementation; Portugal for mental function disorders; Argentina for cerebral vasculopathy, nutritional supplementation, and peripheral neuropathy; Chile for dementia; Philippines for cerebrovascular disorders and mental function disorders; Australia for nutritional supplementation; and India for nutritional supplementation to increase sperm count. Acetylcarnitine also has several potential therapeutic indications for which it is still being investigated: in Norway, acetylcarnitine is in a phase IV trial for prophylactic treatment of migraines; in Italy acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for use in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a phase III trial for alleviating fatigue in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and for use in patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy; in the United States acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for the neurodegenerative disorder Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a phase II and III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy, a phase I and II trial for treating patients in septic shock, a phase II trial for bipolar depression, a phase II trial to reduce oxidative stress in patients with Sickle Cell disease, a phase I and II trial for chronic fatigue syndrome, and a study for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; in China acetylcarnitine is in a phase III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy; in the United Kingdom acetylcarnitine is being investigated for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; and in Israel acetylcarnitine is being studied for the treatment of male infertility.
DB08925AdrafinilUsed to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients.
DB09081IdebenoneIdebenone is indicated for use by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of visual impairment in adolescent and adult patients with Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). It is not currently approved for use by either the Food and Drug Administration (USA) or Health Canada [L885].
DB09210PiracetamIndicated in adult patients suffering from myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of aetiology, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies [L1125].
DB11584PipradrolUsed to manage fatigue [L2522] and depression [L2515], [A32724], [L2518], [L2523]. Used as an adjunct therapy in the management of obesity [L2522].
DB12131VinpocetineNot Available
DB13084PyritinolNot Available
DB13352DeanolNot Available
DB01482FenethyllineNot Available
DB12153CiticolineNot Available
DB00289AtomoxetineAtomoxetine is recommended for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is recommended as a monotherapy in youths that do not respond correctly to stimulants.[A175723] ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be categorized as a mental health condition. The symptoms of this condition start at childhood but they continue in adolescence and adulthood. The risk factors of ADHD are variable and they include the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol or drugs during pregnancy, low brain weight, brain injuries, toxical exposure or genetic disorders. The main symptoms for this condition are difficult in paying attention, overactivity and impulsivity.[L5665]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00182AmphetamineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00182AmphetamineCocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript proteintarget
DB00182AmphetamineTrace amine-associated receptor 1target
DB00182AmphetamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00182AmphetamineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00182AmphetamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00182AmphetamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB00182AmphetamineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00182AmphetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00182AmphetamineAlpha adrenergic receptortarget
DB00182AmphetamineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00182AmphetamineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00182AmphetamineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB00182AmphetamineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00182AmphetamineMonoamine oxidasetarget
DB00182Amphetaminevesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)target
DB00201CaffeineAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00201CaffeinecAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4Btarget
DB00201CaffeineAdenosine receptor A2atarget
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00201CaffeineRyanodine receptor 1target
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00201CaffeineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00201CaffeineCyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterasetarget
DB00201CaffeineDNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunittarget
DB00201CaffeinePhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoformtarget
DB00201CaffeinePhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoformtarget
DB00201CaffeinePhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoformtarget
DB00201CaffeineInositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptortarget
DB00201CaffeineSerine-protein kinase ATMtarget
DB00422MethylphenidateSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00422MethylphenidateSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00422MethylphenidateSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00745ModafinilSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00745ModafinilAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00745ModafinilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01255LisdexamfetamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01255LisdexamfetamineSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01255LisdexamfetamineTrace amine-associated receptor 1target
DB01463FencamfamineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB01576DextroamphetamineTrace amine-associated receptor 1target
DB01577MetamfetamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01577MetamfetamineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB01577MetamfetamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01577MetamfetamineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01577MetamfetamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB01577MetamfetamineTrace amine-associated receptor 1target
DB01577MetamfetamineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01577MetamfetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01577MetamfetamineChromaffin granule amine transportertarget
DB01577MetamfetamineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Atarget
DB01577MetamfetamineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB01577MetamfetamineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01577MetamfetamineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01577MetamfetamineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB04599Aniracetam5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB04599AniracetamD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB04599AniracetamGlutamate receptor 2target
DB04599AniracetamGlutamate receptor 3target
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06413ArmodafinilSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB06479PropentofyllinecAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4Atarget
DB06479PropentofyllineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06701DexmethylphenidateSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB06701DexmethylphenidateSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB06701DexmethylphenidateSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB08842AcetylcarnitineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB08842AcetylcarnitineSolute carrier family 22 member 21transporter
DB11584PipradrolD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB12131VinpocetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01482FenethyllineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB12153CiticolineLicC proteintarget
DB00289AtomoxetineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00289AtomoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00289AtomoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00289AtomoxetineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00289AtomoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00289AtomoxetineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00289AtomoxetineNMDA receptortarget
DB00289AtomoxetineSerum albumincarrier
DB00289Atomoxetinealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB00289AtomoxetineHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Icarrier