Identification

Name
Methylphenidate
Accession Number
DB00422  (APRD00657)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of dextroamphetamine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Methyl phenidylacetate
  • methyl phenyl(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
  • methyl α-phenyl-α-(2-piperidyl)acetate
  • methyl α-phenyl-α-2-piperidinylacetate
  • Methylphenidan
  • Methylphenidatum
  • Metilfenidato
  • MPH
  • α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid methyl ester
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Methylphenidate hydrochloride4B3SC438HI23655-65-4JUMYIBMBTDDLNG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release27 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2017-10-26Not applicableCanada
Act Methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release54 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2017-10-26Not applicableCanada
Act Methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release18 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2017-10-26Not applicableCanada
Act Methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release36 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2017-10-26Not applicableCanada
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release60 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release40 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release15 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release30 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release10 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Aptensio XRCapsule, extended release50 mg/1OralRhodes Pharmaceuticals, L.P.2015-04-17Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-methylphenidateTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation2004-11-02Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidateTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation2004-11-02Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidateTablet5 mgOralApotex Corporation2006-02-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release36 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-07-22Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release54 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-07-22Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release27 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-07-22Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidate ERTablet, extended release18 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-07-22Not applicableCanada
Apo-methylphenidate SRTablet, extended release20 mgOralApotex Corporation2005-04-27Not applicableCanada
Metadate ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralUnither Pharmaceuticals1988-06-01Not applicableUs
Metadate ERTablet, extended release20 mg/1OralUpstate Pharma, LLC2014-11-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Daytrana / Equasym XL / Medikinet XL / Metadate / Quillivant / Riphenidate / Rubifen SR
Categories
UNII
207ZZ9QZ49
CAS number
113-45-1
Weight
Average: 233.3062
Monoisotopic: 233.141578857
Chemical Formula
C14H19NO2
InChI Key
DUGOZIWVEXMGBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H19NO2/c1-17-14(16)13(11-7-3-2-4-8-11)12-9-5-6-10-15-12/h2-4,7-8,12-13,15H,5-6,9-10H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
methyl 2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
SMILES
COC(=O)C(C1CCCCN1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate-to-severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Methylphenidate also blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of dextroamphetamine. Furthermore, it is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-threo enantiomers. The d-threo enantiomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-threo enantiomer.

Mechanism of action

Methylphenidate blocks dopamine uptake in central adrenergic neurons by blocking dopamine transport or carrier proteins. Methylphenidate acts at the brain stem arousal system and the cerebral cortex and causes increased sympathomimetic activity in the central nervous system. Alteration of serotonergic pathways via changes in dopamine transport may result.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Readily absorbed in a biphasic manner when orally administered (tablets) to children diagnosed with ADHD and to healthy adults. In children and adults males, after administration of a single oral dose of Ritalin LA and Ritalin given in two doses 4 hours apart, peak plasma concentration is reached approximately 2 hours for the first phase and 5-6 hours for the second phase. The absolute oral bioavailability of methylphenidate in children was 22±8% for d-methylphenidate and 5±3% for l-methylphenidate. These low values suggest that methylphenidate is highly metabolized presystemically.

Volume of distribution

d-methylphenidate = 2.65 L/kg; l-methylphenidate = 1.80 L/kg;

Protein binding

Binding to plasma proteins is low (10%-33%).

Metabolism

Methylphenidate is hepatically metabolized. More specifically, it is rapidly and extensively metabolized by carboxylesterase CES1A1. Via this enzyme, methylphenidate undergoes de-esterification to ritalinic acid (a-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid, PPAA), which has little to no pharmacologic activity.

Route of elimination

After oral administration of an immediate release formulation of methylphenidate, 78%-97% of the dose is excreted in the urine and 1%-3% in the feces in the form of metabolites within 48-96 hours. Only small quantities (<1%) of unchanged methylphenidate appear in the urine. Most of the dose is excreted in the urine as ritalinic acid (60%-86%), the remainder being accounted for by minor metabolites.

Half life

d-methylphenidate = 3-4 hours; l-methylphenidate = 1-3 hours; Ritalinic acid = 3-4 hours;

Clearance

Systemic clearance for Ritalin LA and Ritalin tablets is as follows: d-methylphenidate= 0.40±0.12 L/h/kg; l-methylphenidate = 0.73±0.28 L/h/kg;

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes. LD50=190mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Methylphenidate.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Methylphenidate.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine is combined with Methylphenidate.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Methylphenidate.
3,5-DinitrocatecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with 3,5-Dinitrocatechol.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Methylphenidate.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Methylphenidate.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Methoxyamphetamine is combined with Methylphenidate.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is combined with Methylphenidate.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

References

Synthesis Reference
US2512572
General References
  1. Keating GM, McClellan K, Jarvis B: Methylphenidate (OROS formulation). CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):495-500; discussion 501-3. [PubMed:11524026]
  2. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Pestreich LK, Patrick KS, Muniz R: A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-methylphenidate: an exploratory study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98. [PubMed:17201613]
  3. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. [PubMed:15661631]
  4. Sharma RP, Javaid JI, Pandey GN, Easton M, Davis JM: Pharmacological effects of methylphenidate on plasma homovanillic acid and growth hormone. Psychiatry Res. 1990 Apr;32(1):9-17. [PubMed:2190251]
  5. Shults T, Kownacki AA, Woods WE, Valentine R, Dougherty J, Tobin T: Pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of methylphenidate in Thoroughbred horses. Am J Vet Res. 1981 May;42(5):722-6. [PubMed:7258793]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014566
KEGG Drug
D04999
KEGG Compound
C07196
PubChem Compound
4158
PubChem Substance
46505929
ChemSpider
4015
BindingDB
50062912
ChEBI
84276
ChEMBL
CHEMBL796
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000024
PharmGKB
PA450464
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Methylphenidate
ATC Codes
N06BA04 — Methylphenidate
AHFS Codes
  • 28:20.32 — Respiratory and CNS Stimulants
FDA label
Download (178 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
0CompletedBasic SciencePTSD1
0CompletedBasic ScienceSocial Cognition1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCocaine Use Disorders1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceNormal Physiology / Opioid-Related Disorders1
0RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease, Idiopathic1
0SuspendedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTiredness1
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Use Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedDiagnosticMethamphetamine Abuse / Methamphetamine Dependence1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchCognitively Healthy Subjects Influenced by Psychoactive Drugs1
1CompletedPreventionNicotine Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
1CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceNormal Physiology1
1RecruitingTreatmentDelayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
1Unknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingMultiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentOpioid Abuse / Opioid Addiction / Stimulant Abuse / Stimulant Addiction1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceEmergence From Anesthesia / Post Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2WithdrawnOtherActive Emergence From General Anesthesia1
1, 2WithdrawnOtherAttention Defict Hyperactivity Disorder / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
2CompletedDiagnosticHoarding Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Apathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Cognition Disorder / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity5
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)4
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood / Moods Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED)1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine / Methamphetamine Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPharmacological Action (PA)1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer / Tiredness1
2CompletedTreatmentSmoking1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingOtherAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Brain Injury1
2RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Autism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
2RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1
2TerminatedSupportive CareCentral Nervous System Tumor, Pediatric / Specific Disorders of Sleep / Tiredness1
2TerminatedSupportive CareDepression / Neurotoxicity / Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2TerminatedTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms / Tiredness1
2TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMethamphetamine Dependence1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSubstance-Related Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)4
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Dependence, Cocaine / Opioid-Related Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Autism, Early Infantile1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCancer-Related Fatigue1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDystrophia Myotonica 11
2, 3RecruitingNot AvailableDementia, Vascular / Mild Cognitive Disorder (Vascular) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (Vascular)1
3CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
3CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
3CompletedOtherAnxiety Disorders1
3CompletedSupportive CareTiredness / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific2
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity6
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)25
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Autism, Early Infantile1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Smoking1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Substance Abuse1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentMania1
3CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHematological Cancers1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Apathy1
3RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3RecruitingTreatmentFatigue in Multiple Sclerosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Melanoma1
3TerminatedSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Cognitive/Functional Effects / Depression / Quality of Life / Tiredness1
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthenia1
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthenia / Neoplasms1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Gastrointestinal Cancers / Tiredness1
3TerminatedTreatmentDelirium1
3TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHIV Dementia1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Tbi / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4CompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
4CompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedNot AvailableNeurofibromatosis Type 11
4CompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol Dependence / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Alcohol Dependence / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCarboxylesterase 1 (CES1) Genotype / CES1 Activity2
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedDiagnosticCocaine-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedPreventionAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
4CompletedSupportive CareAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Neoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Apathy / Dementias1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity5
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)18
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR)1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Growth1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Reading Disability1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Stimulant-Induced Euphoria1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Epilepsies1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficits / Cognitive Deficits / Epilepsies1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder3
4CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder / Autism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentDementias / Gait Disorders, Neurologic / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentExecutive Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentGait Impairment / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Substance Use Disorder (SUD)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticFragile X Syndrome (FXS) / Velocardiofacial Syndrome / Williams Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)4
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Autism, Early Infantile1
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Behavioural insomnia of childhood1
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Preschool Child1
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2
4TerminatedPreventionApathy / Dementias / Falls, Accidental1
4TerminatedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents1
4TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Attention Deficit Disorders With Hyperactivity / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentADHD - Combined Type / ADHD - Inattentive Type1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Apathy / Dementias / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Sleep Onset Insomnia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Trichotillomania1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherDependence, Cocaine / Impulsivity1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEating Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDopamine Activity / Episodic Memory Consolidation / Response Preparation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers5
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentApathy / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Executive Function Deficits (EFD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Separation Anxiety / Social Phobia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Autistic Disorder / Pervasive Development Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBrain Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancers / Depression / Palliative Care / Psychiatric Disorder NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDisruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMPH Influence on Creativity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostural Imbalance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVisual Field Tests1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Problem Behavior1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMethylphenidate1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Enuresis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHyperthermia / Muscle Force1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDependence, Cocaine1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSarcoidosis / Tiredness1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareCancers1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) / ALL, Childhood / Brain Neoplasms, Malignant / Cancer of Brain / Cancer of the Brain / Leukaemia, Lymphoblastic / Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L1 / Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L2 / Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, Philadelphia-Positive / Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute / Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L1 / Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L2 / Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood / Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L1 / Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L2 / Lymphocytic Leukemia, L1 / Lymphocytic Leukemia, L2 / Lymphoma, Lymphoblastic / Neoplasms, Brain / Primary Malignant Brain Tumors1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticBD1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareCancer, Advanced / Tiredness1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Shire development inc
  • Ucb inc
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Tris pharma inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceutical inc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Packagers
  • Alliant Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Alza Corp.
  • Apothecon
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Chattem Chemicals Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Eurand Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Janssen-Ortho Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • McNeil Laboratories
  • Novartis AG
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ortho Mcneil Janssen Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Patriot Pharmaceuticals
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Purdue Pharma LP
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Care
  • Sandoz
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Shire Inc.
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Superior Pharmeceuticals
  • UCB Pharma
  • Upstate Pharma LLC
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral15 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral40 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral60 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral80 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral18 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral18 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral27 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral27 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral36 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral36 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral54 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral54 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral17.3 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25.9 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral8.6 mg/1
PatchTransdermal10 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal15 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal20 mg/9h
PatchTransdermal30 mg/9h
Tablet, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral10 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral50 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
SolutionOral1 mg/1mL
SolutionOral10 mg/5mL
SolutionOral2 mg/1mL
SolutionOral5 mg/5mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral18 mg/1
TabletOral27 mg/1
TabletOral36 mg/1
TabletOral54 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral2.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral5 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral72 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral18 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral27 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral36 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral54 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral20 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral60 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
TabletOral10.00 mg
TabletOral20.00 mg
TabletOral5.00 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral20 mg/1
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Tablet, chewable, extended releaseOral40 mg/1
Suspension, extended releaseOral300 mg/60mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral600 mg/120mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral750 mg/150mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral900 mg/180mL
Tablet, extended releaseOral20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Daytrana 30 15 mg/9hr Patches Box175.64USD box
Daytrana 30 30 mg/9hr Patches Box174.73USD box
Daytrana 30 10 mg/9hr Patches Box172.78USD box
Daytrana 30 20 mg/9hr Patches Box168.72USD box
Methylphenidate hcl powder44.62USD g
Concerta er 54 mg tablet25.45USD tablet
Concerta er 36 mg tablet23.38USD tablet
Concerta er 27 mg tablet22.65USD tablet
Concerta er 18 mg tablet22.11USD tablet
Metadate cd 50 mg capsule7.08USD capsule
Metadate cd 60 mg capsule7.02USD capsule
Concerta 54 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.18USD tab
Metadate cd 40 mg capsule5.77USD capsule
Concerta 36 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.72USD tab
Focalin xr 30 mg capsule5.42USD capsule
Focalin XR 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule5.31USD capsule
Daytrana 10 mg/9 hr patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 15 mg/9 hr patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 20 mg/9 hour patch5.16USD patch
Daytrana 30 mg/9 hour patch5.16USD patch
Focalin xr 15 mg capsule5.16USD capsule
Focalin xr 20 mg capsule5.16USD capsule
Focalin XR 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule5.15USD capsule
Focalin xr 10 mg capsule5.02USD capsule
Concerta 18 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.0USD tab
Concerta 27 mg Controlled Release Tabs5.0USD tab
Focalin XR 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.96USD capsule
Focalin xr 5 mg capsule4.95USD capsule
Concerta 54 mg tablet sa4.91USD tablet
Focalin XR 15 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.89USD capsule
Focalin XR 5 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.83USD capsule
Ritalin la 40 mg capsule4.55USD capsule
Concerta 36 mg tablet sa4.51USD tablet
Ritalin la 30 mg capsule4.43USD capsule
Ritalin LA 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 20 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 30 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Ritalin LA 40 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.42USD capsule
Concerta 27 mg tablet sa4.37USD tablet
Ritalin la 10 mg capsule4.33USD capsule
Ritalin la 20 mg capsule4.33USD capsule
Concerta 18 mg tablet sa4.27USD tablet
Metadate cd 20 mg capsule4.24USD capsule
Metadate cd 30 mg capsule4.24USD capsule
Metadate cd 10 mg capsule4.2USD capsule
Methylphenidate er 10 mg tablet3.24USD tablet
Ritalin SR 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.0USD tab
Ritalin sr 20 mg tablet2.67USD tablet
Ritalin 20 mg tablet1.87USD tablet
Focalin 10 mg tablet1.7USD tablet
Ritalin 5 mg tablet1.42USD tablet
Metadate er 20 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Methylin ER 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.3USD tab
Ritalin 10 mg tablet1.29USD tablet
Metadate er 10 mg tablet sa1.28USD tablet
Focalin 5 mg tablet1.26USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl CR 20 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.2USD tab
Methylin er 20 mg tablet1.12USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl 20 mg tablet1.05USD tablet
Methylin ER 10 mg1.0USD tab
Methylphenidate HCl 10 mg tablet0.95USD tablet
Methylphenidate HCl 5 mg tablet0.94USD tablet
Methylin er 10 mg tablet0.84USD tablet
Focalin 2.5 mg tablet0.76USD tablet
Methylin 20 mg tablet0.69USD tablet
Methylphenidate 20 mg tablet0.69USD tablet
Ritalin 20 mg Tablet0.67USD tablet
Ritalin Sr 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.67USD tablet
Methylin 10 mg tablet0.48USD tablet
Methylphenidate 10 mg tablet0.48USD tablet
Ritalin 10 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate 20 mg Tablet0.37USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate Sr 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 20 mg Tablet0.37USD tablet
Sandoz Methylphenidate 20 mg Extended-Release Tablet0.37USD tablet
Methylin 5 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Methylphenidate 5 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Apo-Methylphenidate 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 10 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Pms-Methylphenidate 5 mg Tablet0.1USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5958446No1992-12-122012-12-12Us
CA2355644No2009-01-202019-12-17Canada
CA2264852No2005-11-012017-09-16Canada
US8999386No2013-04-142033-04-14Us
US6919373Yes1998-01-312018-01-31Us
US6930129Yes1998-01-312018-01-31Us
US9000038Yes1998-01-312018-01-31Us
US9144549No1997-07-312017-07-31Us
US9029416No1997-07-312017-07-31Us
US8163798Yes1998-01-312018-01-31Us
US8629179Yes1998-01-312018-01-31Us
US6344215No2000-10-272020-10-27Us
US6228398No1999-11-012019-11-01Us
US6635284No1995-12-042015-12-04Us
US7431944No1995-12-042015-12-04Us
US5837284No1995-12-042015-12-04Us
US7691880No2004-10-072024-10-07Us
US6210705No1998-09-302018-09-30Us
US6348211No1998-09-302018-09-30Us
US8632802No2005-10-072025-10-07Us
US9034370No2005-10-072025-10-07Us
US8062667No2009-03-292029-03-29Us
US8465765No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US8778390No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US8563033No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US8956649No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US9040083No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US8287903No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US9295642No2013-08-142033-08-14Us
US8202537No2007-03-152027-03-15Us
US7438930No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US9066869No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US7247318No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US7083808No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US6419960No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US8580310No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US8840924No2006-06-052026-06-05Us
US9668981No2005-10-072025-10-07Us
US9545399No2013-08-142033-08-14Us
US9089496No2012-06-282032-06-28Us
US9072680No2012-06-282032-06-28Us
US9844544No2013-08-142033-08-14Us
US9801823No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US10039719No1999-12-162019-12-16Us
US9498447No2012-03-232032-03-23Us
US9283214No2012-03-232032-03-23Us
US9023389No2012-03-232032-03-23Us
US8927010No2012-03-232032-03-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)224-226 °CNot Available
water solubility1255mg/LNot Available
logP0.20HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995), pH 7.2
pKa8.77SANGSTER,J (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.182 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP2.25ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity66.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9941
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9663
Caco-2 permeable+0.6564
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5466
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7964
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9601
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.532
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5985
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.592
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.897
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5245
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9265
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8539
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9328
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9648
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5759
Rat acute toxicity2.7718 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8466
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7491
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.79 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-b461cd02e59ebf84d3f9
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-9100000000-c75de12fbdae54dce658
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-001i-9100000000-1a9c5badbee827946da1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aralkylamines. These are alkylamines in which the alkyl group is substituted at one carbon atom by an aromatic hydrocarbyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Aralkylamines
Alternative Parents
Piperidines / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Methyl esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Dialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Piperidine / Benzenoid / Methyl ester / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester / Carboxylic acid derivative / Secondary aliphatic amine / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, methyl ester, beta-amino acid ester (CHEBI:84276)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Dewey SL, Wang GJ, Logan J, Ding YS, Franceschi D, Gifford A, Morgan A, Pappas N, King P: Comparable changes in synaptic dopamine induced by methylphenidate and by cocaine in the baboon brain. Synapse. 1999 Jan;31(1):59-66. [PubMed:10025684]
  2. Wayment HK, Deutsch H, Schweri MM, Schenk JO: Effects of methylphenidate analogues on phenethylamine substrates for the striatal dopamine transporter: potential as amphetamine antagonists? J Neurochem. 1999 Mar;72(3):1266-74. [PubMed:10037500]
  3. Dresel SH, Kung MP, Huang X, Plossl K, Hou C, Shiue CY, Karp J, Kung HF: In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr;26(4):342-7. [PubMed:10199939]
  4. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Fischman M, Foltin R, Abumrad NN, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Wong C, Gifford A, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N: Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain. Life Sci. 1999;65(1):PL7-12. [PubMed:10403500]
  5. Izenwasser S, Coy AE, Ladenheim B, Loeloff RJ, Cadet JL, French D: Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 4;373(2-3):187-93. [PubMed:10414438]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  8. Viggiano D, Vallone D, Sadile A: Dysfunctions in dopamine systems and ADHD: evidence from animals and modeling. Neural Plast. 2004;11(1-2):97-114. [PubMed:15303308]
  9. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [PubMed:18698001]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Yang L, Wang YF, Li J, Faraone SV: Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;43(9):1154-8. [PubMed:15322419]
  2. Williard RL, Middaugh LD, Zhu HJ, Patrick KS: Methylphenidate and its ethanol transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate: brain disposition, monoamine transporters and motor activity. Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;18(1):39-51. [PubMed:17218796]
  3. Chuhan YS, Taukulis HK: Impairment of single-trial memory formation by oral methylphenidate in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2006 Mar;85(2):125-31. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [PubMed:16246598]
  4. Gray JD, Punsoni M, Tabori NE, Melton JT, Fanslow V, Ward MJ, Zupan B, Menzer D, Rice J, Drake CT, Romeo RD, Brake WG, Torres-Reveron A, Milner TA: Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 4;27(27):7196-207. [PubMed:17611273]
  5. Sandoval V, Riddle EL, Ugarte YV, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methamphetamine-induced rapid and reversible changes in dopamine transporter function: an in vitro model. J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 15;21(4):1413-9. [PubMed:11160413]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  7. Tilley MR, Gu HH: The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):554-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.141713. Epub 2008 Aug 12. [PubMed:18698001]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Dresel SH, Kung MP, Huang X, Plossl K, Hou C, Shiue CY, Karp J, Kung HF: In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr;26(4):342-7. [PubMed:10199939]
  2. Izenwasser S, Coy AE, Ladenheim B, Loeloff RJ, Cadet JL, French D: Chronic methylphenidate alters locomotor activity and dopamine transporters differently from cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 4;373(2-3):187-93. [PubMed:10414438]
  3. Stehouwer JS, Jarkas N, Zeng F, Voll RJ, Williams L, Owens MJ, Votaw JR, Goodman MM: Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of carbon-11 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3'-((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl)nortropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter with positron emission tomography. J Med Chem. 2006 Nov 16;49(23):6760-7. [PubMed:17154506]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Carboxylic ester hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
CES1A1a
Uniprot ID
Q6LAP9
Uniprot Name
Carboxylesterase
Molecular Weight
1908.25 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 16, 2018 08:26