Identification

Name
Atomoxetine
Accession Number
DB00289  (APRD00614)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt of atomoxetine. This chemical is manufactured and marketed under the brand name Strattera; by Eli Lilly and Company and as a generic Attentin by Torrent Pharmaceuticals. There is currently no generic available within the United States due to patent restrictions.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (-)-Tomoxetine
  • Atomoxetina
  • Atomoxetine
  • Tomoxetina
  • Tomoxetine
  • Tomoxetinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Atomoxetine hydrochloride57WVB6I2W082248-59-7LUCXVPAZUDVVBT-UNTBIKODSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtomoxetineCapsule10 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-29Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule18 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-10-07Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule18 mgOralSanis Health Inc2018-01-15Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule25 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-10-07Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule25 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-29Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule40 mgOralSanis Health Inc2018-01-15Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule60 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-10-07Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule60 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-29Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule80 mgOralSanis Health Inc2018-01-15Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule18 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-29Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule18 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-03-15Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule40 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-07-19Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule80 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-07-19Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule25 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-03-15Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule60 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-07-19Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule10 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-03-15Not applicableCanada
Apo-atomoxetineCapsule100 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-07-19Not applicableCanada
AtomoxetineCapsule25 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma2017-05-30Not applicableUs
AtomoxetineCapsule10 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc.,Usa2017-05-30Not applicableUs
AtomoxetineCapsule18 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2017-05-30Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-28Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-30Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-28Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (80 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-09-25Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (80 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-09-25Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-30Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-30Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-28Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (18 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-10-28Us
StratteraAtomoxetine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (60 mg/1) + Atomoxetine hydrochloride (80 mg/1)KitOralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2014-08-312018-09-25Us
International/Other Brands
Attentin / Tomoxetin
Categories
UNII
ASW034S0B8
CAS number
83015-26-3
Weight
Average: 255.3547
Monoisotopic: 255.162314299
Chemical Formula
C17H21NO
InChI Key
VHGCDTVCOLNTBX-QGZVFWFLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H21NO/c1-14-8-6-7-11-16(14)19-17(12-13-18-2)15-9-4-3-5-10-15/h3-11,17-18H,12-13H2,1-2H3/t17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl[(3R)-3-(2-methylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropyl]amine
SMILES
CNCC[C@@H](OC1=CC=CC=C1C)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) alone or in combination with behavioral treatment, as an adjunct to psychological, educational, social, and other remedial measures.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Atomoxetine is classified as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is approved for use in children, adolescents, and adults. However, its efficacy has not been studied in children under six years old. Its advantage over stimulants for the treatment of ADHD is that it has less abuse potential than stimulants, is not scheduled as a controlled substance and has proven in clinical trials to offer 24 hour coverage of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults and children.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism by which atomoxetine produces its therapeutic effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is unknown, but is thought to be related to selective inhibition of the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter, as determined through in-vitro studies. Atomoxetine appears to have minimal affinity for other noradrenergic receptors or for other neurotransmitter transporters or receptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporterNot AvailableHuman
USodium-dependent serotonin transporterNot AvailableHuman
USodium-dependent dopamine transporter
binder
Human
UNMDA receptor
blocker
Human
Absorption

Atomoxetine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with absolute bioavailability of about 63% in EMs and 94% in PMs. Drugs that elevate gastric pH (magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide, omeprazole) have no effect on atomoxetine bioavailability. Absorption is minimally affected by food.

Volume of distribution
  • 0.85 L/kg
Protein binding

At therapeutic concentrations, 98% of atomoxetine in plasma is bound to protein, primarily albumin.

Metabolism

Atomoxetine is primarily metabolized by the CYP2D6 pathway to 4-hydroxyatomoxetine. 4-Hydroxyatomoxetine is equipotent to atomoxetine as an inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter but circulates in plasma at much lower concentrations (1% of atomoxetine concentration in EMs and 0.1% of atomoxetine concentration in PMs).

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

5 hours

Clearance
  • 0.35 L/hr/kg [after oral administration in adult extensive metabolizers]
  • 0.03 L/hr/kg [administration of atomoxetine to poor metabolizers]
Toxicity

The most commonly reported symptoms accompanying acute and chronic overdoses are somnolence, agitation, hyperactivity, abnormal behavior, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3(-;-)2549delAEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 may be associated with reduced metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4(A;A)A Allele, homozygoteEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 is associated with poor metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole Gene DeletionEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 is associated with poor metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6(-;-) / (-;T)T deletion, homozygoteEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 is associated with poor metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased side effects.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableG alleleEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 may be associated with reduced metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not Available3877G>AEffect Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in CYP2D6 may be associated with reduced metabolism of atomoxetine and more frequent occurrence of adverse events.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe serum concentration of (R)-warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Atomoxetine.
(S)-WarfarinThe serum concentration of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Atomoxetine.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Atomoxetine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
Food Interactions
  • In the presence of food, the absorption rate is reduced, without the quantity absorbed being affected.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Judith Aronhime, Stefano Bianchi, Eugenio Castelli, Paola Daverio, Silvia Mantovani, Adrienne Kovacsne-Mezei, "Processes for the preparation of atomoxetine hydrochloride." U.S. Patent US20060211772, issued September 21, 2006.

US20060211772
General References
  1. Spencer TJ, Faraone SV, Michelson D, Adler LA, Reimherr FW, Glatt SJ, Biederman J: Atomoxetine and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of comorbidity. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;67(3):415-20. [PubMed:16649828]
  2. Pilhatsch MK, Burghardt R, Wandinger KP, Bauer M, Adli M: Augmentation with atomoxetine in treatment-resistant depression with psychotic features. A case report. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006 Mar;39(2):79-80. [PubMed:16555170]
  3. Carpenter LL, Milosavljevic N, Schecter JM, Tyrka AR, Price LH: Augmentation with open-label atomoxetine for partial or nonresponse to antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;66(10):1234-8. [PubMed:16259536]
  4. Kratochvil CJ, Newcorn JH, Arnold LE, Duesenberg D, Emslie GJ, Quintana H, Sarkis EH, Wagner KD, Gao H, Michelson D, Biederman J: Atomoxetine alone or combined with fluoxetine for treating ADHD with comorbid depressive or anxiety symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Sep;44(9):915-24. [PubMed:16113620]
  5. McElroy SL, Guerdjikova A, Kotwal R, Welge JA, Nelson EB, Lake KA, Keck PE Jr, Hudson JI: Atomoxetine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;68(3):390-8. [PubMed:17388708]
  6. Purper-Ouakil D, Fourneret P, Wohl M, Reneric JP: [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents]. Encephale. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):337-48. [PubMed:16142049]
  7. Simpson D, Plosker GL: Atomoxetine: a review of its use in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Drugs. 2004;64(2):205-22. [PubMed:14717619]
  8. Montoya A, Hervas A, Cardo E, Artigas J, Mardomingo MJ, Alda JA, Gastaminza X, Garcia-Polavieja MJ, Gilaberte I, Escobar R: Evaluation of atomoxetine for first-line treatment of newly diagnosed, treatment-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Nov;25(11):2745-54. doi: 10.1185/03007990903316152. [PubMed:19785510]
  9. Gaillez C, Sorbara F, Perrin E: [Atomoxetine (Strattera), an alternative in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children]. Encephale. 2007 Sep;33(4 Pt 1):621-8. [PubMed:18033153]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014434
KEGG Drug
D07473
PubChem Compound
54841
PubChem Substance
46506160
ChemSpider
49516
BindingDB
50366567
ChEBI
127342
ChEMBL
CHEMBL641
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000721
PharmGKB
PA134688071
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Atomoxetine
ATC Codes
N06BA09 — Atomoxetine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:92.00 — Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents
FDA label
Download (72.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
0RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease, Idiopathic1
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedBasic ScienceChanges in Striatal [11C]ORM-13070 Binding1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDependence, Cocaine1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentContinuous Methamphetamine Dependence / Methamphetamine Dependence in Remission1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceAlcohol Craving / Emotional Instability1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceAlcohol Sensitivity / Alcohol-induced Cue-craving1
1TerminatedTreatmentMethamphetamine Abuse / Methamphetamine Dependence1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Orthostatic Intolerance / Tachycardia1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMethamphetamine Dependence1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStress1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStress, Physiological1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAtomoxetine Hydrochloride / Placebos1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)3
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR)1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Substance Use Disorder (SUD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Marijuana Abuse2
2CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentChorea / Huntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCognition / Schizophrenic Disorders / Smoking1
2CompletedTreatmentCognitive Impairments / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Memory Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentOpiate Dependence / Stimulant Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentSubstance Abuse1
2CompletedTreatmentSyncope, Vasovagal1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension1
2RecruitingTreatmentSyncope, Vasovagal1
2TerminatedTreatmentCognition Disorders / Memory Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Social Phobia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity3
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)18
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Oppositional Defiant Disorder2
3CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile1
3CompletedTreatmentFreezing of Gait / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension / Orthostatic Intolerance1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)2
3WithdrawnTreatmentCognitive Late Effects / Malignancies1
4CompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableBinge Eating Disorder (BED)1
4CompletedNot AvailableInjuries, Whiplash1
4CompletedDiagnosticAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentADHD NOS2
4CompletedTreatmentAsperger's Disorder / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Autism, Early Infantile / Pervasive Development Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity3
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)17
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Comorbid Alcohol Abuse1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Dyslexia2
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Reading Disability1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Reading Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Autistic Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Substance-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2
4CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder / Comorbid Dyslexia1
4CompletedTreatmentCognition in Schizophrenia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDepressive Symptoms1
4CompletedTreatmentExecutive Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension1
4TerminatedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Cannabis Abuse1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Attention Deficit Disorders With Hyperactivity / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Sleeplessness1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Substance Use Disorder (SUD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Cerebrovascular Accidents / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAddictions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Substance Abuse1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCognitive Impairments / Menopause1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnorexia Nervosa (AN) / Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine / Opiate Dependence1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
Packagers
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Cardinal Health
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lilly Del Caribe Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Pharmacy Service Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral18 mg/1
CapsuleOral40 mg/1
CapsuleOral60 mg/1
CapsuleOral80 mg/1
CapsuleOral10 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral18 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral40 mg
CapsuleOral60 mg
CapsuleOral80 mg
KitOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Strattera 80 mg capsule6.94USD capsule
Strattera 100 mg capsule6.83USD capsule
Strattera 40 mg capsule6.43USD capsule
Strattera 60 mg capsule6.43USD capsule
Strattera 18 mg capsule6.03USD capsule
Strattera 25 mg capsule5.85USD capsule
Strattera 10 mg capsule5.84USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2209735No2002-10-012016-01-04Canada
US5658590Yes1997-08-192017-05-26Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility27.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP3.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0039 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.95ALOGPS
logP3.81ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area21.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity79.44 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.79 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.964
Caco-2 permeable+0.852
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6133
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7771
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8003
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5929
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7443
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6216
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9324
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.9037
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8122
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7371
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7738
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8493
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8013
Rat acute toxicity2.5166 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.7132
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7974
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-456e1257123470a131c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-0f4cf059747adb026b96
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-ecaeebd63dc195659e57
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-6da1a9a3edfed770c2cd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00xs-0900000000-d71f5b857319380ce595
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01bc-2900000000-37eb3191934e545cc338
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-6900000000-6be893f7d4702639eac2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-c2030f3f981d83eacf57
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-3c27da7fa8c958a76be1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-133c9cb2f2383aa0fe8a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00r5-1900000000-b68a2013855cb02e4512
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01bd-1900000000-c4fd6863785e44cc724e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-3900000000-4529fcb6c89f3acafac9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-06348bdc8d24fed52e75
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0690000000-494128ae0f3b90b415b3

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenol ethers
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Toluenes / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Toluene / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Secondary aliphatic amine / Ether / Secondary amine / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aromatic ether, secondary amino compound, toluenes (CHEBI:127342)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Biederman J, Heiligenstein JH, Faries DE, Galil N, Dittmann R, Emslie GJ, Kratochvil CJ, Laws HF, Schuh KJ: Efficacy of atomoxetine versus placebo in school-age girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2002 Dec;110(6):e75. [PubMed:12456942]
  2. Spencer T, Heiligenstein JH, Biederman J, Faries DE, Kratochvil CJ, Conners CK, Potter WZ: Results from 2 proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled studies of atomoxetine in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;63(12):1140-7. [PubMed:12523874]
  3. Michelson D, Adler L, Spencer T, Reimherr FW, West SA, Allen AJ, Kelsey D, Wernicke J, Dietrich A, Milton D: Atomoxetine in adults with ADHD: two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Jan 15;53(2):112-20. [PubMed:12547466]
  4. Wernicke JF, Faries D, Girod D, Brown J, Gao H, Kelsey D, Quintana H, Lipetz R, Michelson D, Heiligenstein J: Cardiovascular effects of atomoxetine in children, adolescents, and adults. Drug Saf. 2003;26(10):729-40. [PubMed:12862507]
  5. Wernicke JF, Adler L, Spencer T, West SA, Allen AJ, Heiligenstein J, Milton D, Ruff D, Brown WJ, Kelsey D, Michelson D: Changes in symptoms and adverse events after discontinuation of atomoxetine in children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective, placebo-controlled assessment. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004 Feb;24(1):30-5. [PubMed:14709944]
  6. Garnock-Jones KP, Keating GM: Atomoxetine: a review of its use in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs. 2009;11(3):203-26. doi: 10.2165/00148581-200911030-00005. [PubMed:19445548]
  7. Kaplan S, Heiligenstein J, West S, Busner J, Harder D, Dittmann R, Casat C, Wernicke JF: Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. J Atten Disord. 2004 Oct;8(2):45-52. [PubMed:15801334]
  8. Purper-Ouakil D, Fourneret P, Wohl M, Reneric JP: [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents]. Encephale. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):337-48. [PubMed:16142049]
  9. Gaillez C, Sorbara F, Perrin E: [Atomoxetine (Strattera), an alternative in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children]. Encephale. 2007 Sep;33(4 Pt 1):621-8. [PubMed:18033153]
  10. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH, Morin SM, Gehlert DR, Perry KW: Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Nov;27(5):699-711. [PubMed:12431845]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Blocker
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...

Components:
References
  1. Ludolph AG, Udvardi PT, Schaz U, Henes C, Adolph O, Weigt HU, Fegert JM, Boeckers TM, Fohr KJ: Atomoxetine acts as an NMDA receptor blocker in clinically relevant concentrations. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 May;160(2):283-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00707.x. [PubMed:20423340]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 2D6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Purper-Ouakil D, Fourneret P, Wohl M, Reneric JP: [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents]. Encephale. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):337-48. [PubMed:16142049]
  2. Garnock-Jones KP, Keating GM: Atomoxetine: a review of its use in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs. 2009;11(3):203-26. doi: 10.2165/00148581-200911030-00005. [PubMed:19445548]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  4. Sauer JM, Long AJ, Ring B, Gillespie JS, Sanburn NP, DeSante KA, Petullo D, VandenBranden MR, Jensen CB, Wrighton SA, Smith BP, Read HA, Witcher JW: Atomoxetine hydrochloride: clinical drug-drug interaction prediction and outcome. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):410-8. doi: 10.1124/jpet.103.058727. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610241]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sauer JM, Long AJ, Ring B, Gillespie JS, Sanburn NP, DeSante KA, Petullo D, VandenBranden MR, Jensen CB, Wrighton SA, Smith BP, Read HA, Witcher JW: Atomoxetine hydrochloride: clinical drug-drug interaction prediction and outcome. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):410-8. doi: 10.1124/jpet.103.058727. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610241]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 18, 2018 09:06