Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00230PregabalinPregabalin is used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures [FDA label].
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate is indicated for the following conditions: - Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age. - Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients. - Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age. - Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label] A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548] A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551] Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]
DB00313Valproic Acid**Indicated** for:[Label] 1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures. 2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures. 3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches. 4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder. **Off-label** uses include: 1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919] 2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934] 3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]
DB00555LamotrigineIndicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label]. Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label]. Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].
DB00564CarbamazepineCarbamazepine is indicated for the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia.[L1335] In particular, carbamazepine has shown efficacy in treating mixed seizures, partial seizures with complex symptoms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.[A180301,L1335] Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder.[L1335] Some off-label, unapproved uses of carbamazepine include the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and restless leg syndrome.[A180415,A180421]
DB00653Magnesium sulfateUsed for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.
DB00776OxcarbazepineFor use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children ages 4-16 with epilepsy.
DB00996GabapentinFor the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.
DB01080VigabatrinFor use as an adjunct in treatment resistant epilepsy, refractory complex partial seizures, and secondary generalized seizures. It is also used as monotherapy in infantile spasms in West syndrome.
DB01202LevetiracetamUsed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.
DB05541BrivaracetamUsed as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age or older.
DB06201RufinamideAdjunct therapy for treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
DB06218LacosamideLacosamide is indicated for adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in patients with epilepsy over 17 years old. Injection is indicated for short term use when oral therapy is not feasible.
DB08883PerampanelUsed in patients over 12 years old for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that may or may not occur with generalized seizures.
DB09118StiripentolIndicated for use in conjunction with clobazam and valproate as adjunctive therapy of refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI, Dravet’s syndrome) whose seizures are not adequately controlled with clobazam and valproate.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00230PregabalinExcitatory amino acid transporter 3transporter
DB00230PregabalinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00230PregabalinLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00313Valproic AcidHistone deacetylase 9target
DB00313Valproic AcidShort/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00313Valproic Acid2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSodium channel proteintarget
DB00313Valproic AcidHistone deacetylase 2target
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSerum albumincarrier
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00555LamotrigineSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineDihydrofolate reductaseenzyme
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Etarget
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A2atarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)target
DB00555LamotrigineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineRalA-binding protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00564CarbamazepineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunittarget
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ctarget
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Starget
DB00776OxcarbazepineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineSerum albumincarrier
DB00776OxcarbazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01080Vigabatrin4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB01080VigabatrinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB01080VigabatrinProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
DB01080VigabatrinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB01202LevetiracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB05541BrivaracetamSodium channel proteintarget
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB05541BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06201RufinamideMetabotropic glutamate receptor 5target
DB06201RufinamideLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB06201RufinamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB06201RufinamideSerum albumincarrier
DB06201RufinamideCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB06201RufinamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08883PerampanelGlutamate receptor 1target
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB08883PerampanelCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB09118StiripentolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09118StiripentolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09118StiripentolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09118StiripentolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB09118StiripentolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB09118StiripentolGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB09118StiripentolL-lactate dehydrogenase A chaintarget
DB09118StiripentolL-lactate dehydrogenase B chaintarget