Identification

Name
Valproic Acid
Accession Number
DB00313  (APRD00256, DB00510, APRD00066)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Valproic acid, supplied as the sodium salt valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium, is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (CAS number: 76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-n-propyl-n-valeric acid
  • 2-propyl-pentanoic acid
  • 2-Propylpentanoic Acid
  • 2-Propylvaleric Acid
  • 4-heptanecarboxylic acid
  • acide valproïque
  • ácido valproico
  • acidum valproicum
  • di-n-propylacetic acid
  • Di-n-propylessigsäure
  • Dipropylacetic acid
  • DPA
  • n-DPA
  • Valproate
  • Valproinsäure
  • VPA
External IDs
44089
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Divalproex sodium644VL95AO676584-70-8MSRILKIQRXUYCT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Valproate sodium5VOM6GYJ0D1069-66-5AEQFSUDEHCCHBT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DepaconInjection100 mg/mLIntravenousAbbvie1996-12-302019-11-01Us
DepakeneCapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1OralAbbvie1978-02-282019-10-11Us
DepakeneSolution50 mgOralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
DepakeneSolution250 mg/5mLOralAbbvie1978-02-282019-07-17Us
DepakeneCapsule, liquid filled250 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-08-31Not applicableUs
DepakeneCapsule250 mgOralBgp Pharma Ulc1978-12-312017-05-16Canada
Depakene Cap 500mgCapsule, delayed release500 mgOralAbbott1981-12-312007-05-11Canada
DepakoteTablet, extended release250 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-10Not applicableUs
DepakoteTablet, delayed release250 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2014-12-16Not applicableUs
DepakoteTablet, delayed release250 mg/1OralAbbvie1983-03-10Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-divalproexTablet, delayed release500 mgOralApotex Corporation1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproexTablet, delayed release250 mgOralApotex Corporation1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-divalproexTablet, delayed release125 mgOralApotex Corporation1999-03-24Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproicCapsule250 mgOralApotex Corporation1998-06-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-valproic SyrupSyrup50 mgOralApotex Corporation1998-07-15Not applicableCanada
Divalproex SodiumTablet, delayed release500 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Divalproex SodiumTablet, delayed release500 mg/1OralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2017-09-25Not applicableUs
Divalproex SodiumTablet, delayed release500 mg/1OralDirectrx2014-01-01Not applicableUs62756 0798 13 nlmimage10 af39d7ce
Divalproex SodiumTablet, delayed release250 mg/1OralUpsher Smith Laboratories2011-01-21Not applicableUs
Divalproex SodiumTablet, extended release250 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-03-13Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Convulex / Depakine / Deprakine / Encorate / Epilim / Valcote / Valparin
Categories
UNII
614OI1Z5WI
CAS number
99-66-1
Weight
Average: 144.2114
Monoisotopic: 144.115029756
Chemical Formula
C8H16O2
InChI Key
NIJJYAXOARWZEE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H16O2/c1-3-5-7(6-4-2)8(9)10/h7H,3-6H2,1-2H3,(H,9,10)
IUPAC Name
2-propylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

The relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For patients with epilepsy, the therapeutic range is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate. However, patients may be controlled at lower or higher doses.

Mechanism of action

Valproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.

TargetActionsOrganism
A4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
AHistone deacetylase 9
inhibitor
Human
UShort/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
U2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
USuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
USodium channel proteinNot AvailableHuman
UHistone deacetylase 2Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Rapid absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. Food has a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the Depakote tablet (increases Tmax from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of Depakote sprinkle capsules (increase Tmax from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). Furthermore, studies suggest that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control.

Volume of distribution
  • 11 L/1.73 m2 [total valproate]
  • 92 L/1.73 m2 [free valproate]
Protein binding

Concentration-dependent, from 90% at 40 µg/mL to 81.5% at 130 µg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. It may also affect the extent of protein binding of other drugs such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.

Metabolism

Valproic Acid is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30-50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15-20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine.

Route of elimination

Valproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose.

Half life

9-16 hours (following oral administration of 250 mg to 1000 mg)

Clearance
  • 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, total valproate]
  • 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m2 [plasma clearance, free valproate]
  • 4.8 ± 0.17 L/hr/1.73 m2 [males, unbound clearance]
  • 4.7 ± 0.07 L/hr/1.73 m2 [females, unbound clearance]
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 1098 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 670 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose may include coma, extreme drowsiness, and heart problems. The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
DNA polymerase subunit gamma-1A467T(A;A) / (A;G)G > AADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in POLG may indicate an increased risk of liver failure and death when treated with valproic acid.Details
DNA polymerase subunit gamma-1W748S(C;C) / (C;G)G > CADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this polymorphism in POLG may indicate an increased risk of liver failure and death when treated with valproic acid.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
3,4-DichloroisocoumarinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin.Experimental
4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl FluorideThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with 4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl Fluoride.Experimental
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AceclofenacThe metabolism of Aceclofenac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlogliptinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Alogliptin.Approved
AlosetronThe metabolism of Alosetron can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
AloxiprinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Aloxiprin.Experimental
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmineptineThe serum concentration of Amineptine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Illicit, Withdrawn
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
Aminosalicylic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
AmobarbitalThe serum concentration of Amobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Amoxapine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Antithrombin III humanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Apixaban.Approved
AprepitantThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
Arachidonic AcidThe metabolism of Arachidonic Acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ArgatrobanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Artemether can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Asunaprevir.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BalsalazideThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BarbexacloneThe serum concentration of Barbexaclone can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
BarbitalThe serum concentration of Barbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Illicit
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Batimastat.Experimental
BenazeprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzamidineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Benzamidine.Experimental
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzoic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzoic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BexaroteneThe metabolism of Bexarotene can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BiapenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Biapenem.Investigational
BivalirudinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved
BrivaracetamThe metabolism of Brivaracetam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Bromperidol.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Bupropion can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabergoline is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CabozantinibThe metabolism of Cabozantinib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CamostatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Camostat.Experimental
CandesartanThe metabolism of Candesartan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe metabolism of Candesartan cilexetil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CandoxatrilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CandoxatrilatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatrilat.Experimental
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Carbamazepine can be increased when Carbamazepine is used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Carbaspirin calciumThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Withdrawn
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental, Investigational
ChymostatinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Chymostatin.Experimental
CilastatinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Cilastatin.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CimetidineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe serum concentration of Cyclobenzaprine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
DarexabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Darexaban.Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DelanzomibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Delanzomib.Investigational
DelaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Delapril.Experimental
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
dersalazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with dersalazine.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Desipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DibenzepinThe serum concentration of Dibenzepin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolThe metabolism of Dicoumarol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DiflunisalThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Diflunisal.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergotamine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DoconexentThe metabolism of Doconexent can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoripenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Doripenem.Approved, Investigational
DorzolamideThe metabolism of Dorzolamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DosulepinThe serum concentration of Dosulepin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxepin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcabetThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ecabet.Approved, Investigational
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Edoxaban.Approved
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElafinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Elafin.Investigational
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnalkirenThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Enalkiren.Experimental
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
Epigallocatechin GallateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Epigallocatechin Gallate.Investigational
EpoprostenolThe metabolism of Epoprostenol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergonovine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ErtapenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ertapenem.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmirtazapineThe serum concentration of Esmirtazapine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
EthanolValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethyl chloride.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtodolacThe metabolism of Etodolac can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FaldaprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Faldaprevir.Investigational
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
FlurbiprofenThe metabolism of Flurbiprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosinoprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
GabexateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Gabexate.Investigational
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GavestinelThe metabolism of Gavestinel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
GeldanamycinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Geldanamycin.Experimental, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
GlimepirideThe metabolism of Glimepiride can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Glycerol PhenylbutyrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved
GM6001The serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with GM6001.Experimental
GuacetisalThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
Hemoglobin crosfumarilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe serum concentration of Hexobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
HistamineThe metabolism of Histamine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
HydrocodoneValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved
IbuprofenThe metabolism of Ibuprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
IdarubicinThe metabolism of Idarubicin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
IdraparinuxThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Idraparinux.Investigational
IfosfamideThe metabolism of Ifosfamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Imatinib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ImidaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Imipenem.Approved
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
indisulamThe metabolism of indisulam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
IndomethacinThe metabolism of Indomethacin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
IprindoleThe serum concentration of Iprindole can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ixazomib.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KetoprofenThe metabolism of Ketoprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Leflunomide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LesinuradThe metabolism of Lesinurad can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
LetaxabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Letaxaban.Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomefolic acidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Levomefolic acid.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
LicofeloneThe metabolism of Licofelone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisuride is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lithium.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofepramineThe serum concentration of Lofepramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe serum concentration of Lorazepam can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LornoxicamThe metabolism of Lornoxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibThe metabolism of Lumiracoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Valproic Acid.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidThe metabolism of Mefenamic acid can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MelagatranThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Melagatran.Experimental
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational, Withdrawn
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MeropenemThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Meropenem.Approved, Investigational
MesalazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved, Investigational
MestranolThe metabolism of Mestranol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe serum concentration of Methohexital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MethotrimeprazineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Methylphenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MetronidazoleThe metabolism of Metronidazole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MetyrosineValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Valproic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MirtazapineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Molindone.Approved
MontelukastThe metabolism of Montelukast can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-ProlineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline.Experimental
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
NaproxenThe metabolism of Naproxen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe metabolism of Netupitant can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NiclosamideThe metabolism of Niclosamide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
NitroaspirinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Norflurane.Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe serum concentration of Nortriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
OlodaterolThe metabolism of Olodaterol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OlsalazineThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
OmapatrilatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ondansetron.Approved
OpipramolThe serum concentration of Opipramol can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrineValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OtamixabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OxaprozinThe metabolism of Oxaprozin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Oxcarbazepine can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxethazaine.Approved, Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe serum concentration of Paliperidone can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParaldehydeValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParamethadioneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ParecoxibThe metabolism of Parecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Pentobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PergolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pergolide is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Withdrawn
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenprocoumonThe metabolism of Phenprocoumon can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Phenylacetic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenylacetic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved
PhenylbutazoneThe metabolism of Phenylbutazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
Phenylbutyric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenylbutyric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PhosphoramidonThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Phosphoramidon.Experimental
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PiroxicamThe metabolism of Piroxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe metabolism of Pitavastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PravastatinThe metabolism of Pravastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Primidone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PrinomastatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Prinomastat.Investigational
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe metabolism of Proguanil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Protriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with PSD502.Investigational
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
QuinaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacecadotrilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Racecadotril.Investigational
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
RemikirenThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Remikiren.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibThe metabolism of Rofecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational, Withdrawn
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
RotigotineValproic Acid may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe serum concentration of Rufinamide can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
S-3304The serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with S-3304.Investigational
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Saxagliptin.Approved
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Secobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Sitagliptin.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanThe metabolism of Sitaxentan can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SivelestatThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Sivelestat.Investigational
Sodium oxybateThe serum concentration of Sodium oxybate can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Spirapril.Approved
StiripentolThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfamoxoleThe metabolism of Sulfamoxole can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe metabolism of Sulfinpyrazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SuprofenThe metabolism of Suprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
SuvorexantValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Valproic Acid.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TemocaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemozolomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Temozolomide.Approved, Investigational
TenoxicamThe metabolism of Tenoxicam can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerfenadineThe metabolism of Terfenadine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Withdrawn
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Valproic Acid.Experimental
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetracosactideTetracosactide may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Valproic Acid.Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ThiamylalThe serum concentration of Thiamylal can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe serum concentration of Thiopental can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiorphanThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Thiorphan.Experimental
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TianeptineThe serum concentration of Tianeptine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TrabectedinThe metabolism of Trabectedin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TreprostinilThe metabolism of Treprostinil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trichloroethylene.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Trimipramine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational, Withdrawn
Trolamine salicylateThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
UbenimexThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ubenimex.Experimental, Investigational
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Experimental
UlinastatinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ulinastatin.Investigational
ValdecoxibThe metabolism of Valdecoxib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
VicrivirocThe metabolism of Vicriviroc can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Investigational
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VildagliptinThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Vildagliptin.Approved, Investigational
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VismodegibThe metabolism of Vismodegib can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VorinostatValproic Acid may increase the thrombocytopenic activities of Vorinostat.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XimelagatranThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketoneThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone.Experimental
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZaltoprofenThe metabolism of Zaltoprofen can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ZofenoprilThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take with milk.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Daniel Aubert, Francis Blanc, Henri Desmolin, Michel Morre, Lucette Sindely, "Valproic acid preparations." U.S. Patent US5017613, issued January, 1965.

US5017613
General References
  1. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356]
  2. Lehrman G, Hogue IB, Palmer S, Jennings C, Spina CA, Wiegand A, Landay AL, Coombs RW, Richman DD, Mellors JW, Coffin JM, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):549-55. [PubMed:16099290]
  3. Schwartz C, Palissot V, Aouali N, Wack S, Brons NH, Leners B, Bosseler M, Berchem G: Valproic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms in multiple myeloma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2007 Mar;30(3):573-82. [PubMed:17273758]
  4. Valentini A, Gravina P, Federici G, Bernardini S: Valproic acid induces apoptosis, p16INK4A upregulation and sensitization to chemotherapy in human melanoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 5. [PubMed:17218782]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01877
KEGG Drug
D00399
KEGG Compound
C07185
PubChem Compound
3121
PubChem Substance
46505925
ChemSpider
3009
BindingDB
50003616
ChEBI
39867
ChEMBL
CHEMBL109
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC001659
PharmGKB
PA451846
HET
2PP
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Valproic_Acid
ATC Codes
N03AG01 — Valproic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.92 — Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants
PDB Entries
1dit
FDA label
Download (1.41 MB)
MSDS
Download (77.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingPreventionHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)1
0CompletedBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
0CompletedTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)1
0RecruitingPreventionTumors, Solid1
0Unknown StatusBasic ScienceBladder Cancers / Hematuria1
1CompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
1CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Metastatic Brain Tumors / Neuroectodermal Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers7
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplams, Advanced / Neoplasms, Advanced1
1CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma1
1CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentSeizures1
1CompletedTreatmentShock, Hemorrhagic1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)1
1CompletedTreatmentTumors, Solid2
1RecruitingTreatmentAdnexal Masses / Borderline Ovarian Epithelial Tumor / Neoplasms, Ovarian / Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor / Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor / Ovarian Serous Tumor / Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
1RecruitingTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
1TerminatedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Neuroblastomas / Sarcomas / Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1TerminatedTreatmentCancers1
1TerminatedTreatmentHigh Grade Sarcoma1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Brain Tumors1
1TerminatedTreatmentShock, Hemorrhagic / Traumas1
1TerminatedTreatmentSolid Tumor Malignancies1
1Unknown StatusDiagnosticEpilepsies1
1Unknown StatusPreventionTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentDementias1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
1WithdrawnTreatmentAnaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) / Glioblastomas / Gliomas / Medulloblastomas / Pediatric Brain Tumor1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentALPS / Hypersplenism / Lymphadenopathy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Dependence, Cocaine1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLocally Advanced Sarcoma / Metastatic Sarcoma / Sarcomas / Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) / Unresectable Sarcoma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy Type I1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Melanoma1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentLocally Advanced Inoperable Non-small-lung Cancer1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentScleroderma / Sclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) / Brain Stem Gliomas / Glial Cell Tumors / Glioblastoma Multiforme / Gliomatosis Cerebri / Gliosarcoma / Malignant Gliomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlycogen Storage Disease Type V1
2CompletedPreventionPain, Neuropathic / Phantom Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome2
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
2CompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Infantile Spasms (IS)1
2CompletedTreatmentEye Disease, Hereditary / Eye Diseases / Retinal Degenerations / Retinal Diseases / Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
2CompletedTreatmentGrand Mal Status Epilepticus1
2CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Oral Cavity Cancer / Oropharyngeal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Grade Gliomas / Neoplasms, Brain1
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Explosive Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2CompletedTreatmentMixed Mania Bipolar Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentMoods Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Thyroid1
2CompletedTreatmentPediatric Epilepsy1
2CompletedTreatmentProgressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
2CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
2CompletedTreatmentRubinstein-Taybi Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)2
2CompletedTreatmentSubstance-Related Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Graft Versus Host Disease / Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukemia AML / Myelodysplastic Syndrome MDS1
2RecruitingTreatmentBrain and Nervous System / Glioblastomas / Gliomas / Malignant Gliomas / Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm / WHO Grade III Glioma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCiliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size / Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size / Iris Melanoma / Stage I Intraocular Melanoma / Stage IIA Intraocular Melanoma / Stage IIB Intraocular Melanoma / Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma / Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma / Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentGeneralized Convulsive Status Epilepticus1
2RecruitingTreatmentSpecific Phobias1
2RecruitingTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)1
2TerminatedTreatmentBipolar 1 Disorder1
2TerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndrome1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNodding Syndrome1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Autism, Early Infantile1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile1
2WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar I or II Depression and Alcohol Abuse or Dependence1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Related Disorders / Alcoholism / Moods Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion / Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Ependymoma1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentNeurocostal neuralgia / Neuropathic Peripheral Pain1
3CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / Marijuana Abuse1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)8
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder2
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder, Manic or Mixed1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Spectrum Disorder With Moderate-to- Severe Hypomania or Mild Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentChildhood Absence Epilepsy / Epilepsies / Petit Mal Epilepsy / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentCraniocerebral Injuries / Post-Traumatic Seizure Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentGrand Mal Status Epilepticus / Non-convulsive Status Epilepticus1
3CompletedTreatmentManic or Mixed Episode Associated With Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraines3
3CompletedTreatmentPTSD1
3CompletedTreatmentParaparesis Spastic Tropical1
3CompletedTreatmentPsychomotor Agitation1
3CompletedTreatmentPartial onset seizure Epilepsy1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBipolar Disorder II1
3RecruitingTreatmentBenzodiazepine Refractory Status Epilepticus1
3RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Dementias1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentPartial Seizure Disorder1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile1
3WithdrawnTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders / Toxoplasmosis1
4CompletedNot AvailableBone destruction / Convulsions / Epilepsies / Osteopenia / Seizures1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedNot AvailablePainful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN)1
4CompletedPreventionPost Cerebral Hemorrhage1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Alzheimer Type / Dementias / Senile Dementia, Alzheimer Type1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)10
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania2
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania / Substance Abuse / Substance Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Substance Abuse1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Dependence / Opiate Dependence / Substance Withdrawal Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies3
4CompletedTreatmentIrritable Aggression1
4CompletedTreatmentMania / Mixed Mania1
4CompletedTreatmentMoods Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEpilepsies1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGliomas1
4RecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
4RecruitingPreventionAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS) / Heavy Drinking / Traumas1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4SuspendedTreatmentHyperactive Delirium / Mixed Delirium1
4TerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Healthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentPTSD1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBipolar Affective Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Panic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpilepsies1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMigraine, Acute1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Behavioral Symptoms / Dementias1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCluster Headache1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElderly / Epilepsies / Seizures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPhotosensitive Epilepsy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSarcomas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSubstance Withdrawal Syndrome1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiolysis / Arterial Hypotension / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections / Convulsions / Cyanide Poisoning / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Epilepsies / Feeling Anxious / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / GYNAECOLOGICAL INFECTION / Headaches / Herpes Simplex Virus / Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia / Hypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertensive / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Opioid Addiction / Pain / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenic Disorders / Sedation therapy / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombosis / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnoxic Encephalopathy / Cardiac Arrest / Refractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGeneralized Convulsive Status Epilepticus / Intensive Care Units1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTropical Spastic Paraparesis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAdverse Effects / Epilepsies1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableRefractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBody Composition / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Catalent pharma solutions llc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Rp scherer north america div rp scherer corp
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Alpharma uspd inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • High technology pharmacal co inc
  • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, delayed releaseOral125 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral250 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg
SyrupOral50 mg
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/mL
SolutionOral50 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral250 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
CapsuleOral125 mg/1
Capsule, coated pelletsOral125 mg/1
Capsule, delayed releaseOral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral125 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral125 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral250 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed release particlesOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral250 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
SyrupOral250 mg
Capsule, delayed releaseOral500 mg
InjectionIntravenous500 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/mL
CapsuleOral250 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral250 mg/1
SolutionOral250 mg/5mL
SolutionOral500 mg/10mL
TabletOral250 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Valproic acid liquid10.2USD g
Depakene 250 mg capsule2.21USD capsule
Valproic acid 250 mg capsule0.79USD capsule
Depakene 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.66USD ml
Novo-Valproic 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid E.C. 500 mg Enteric-Coated Capsule0.54USD capsule
Apo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Mylan-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Novo-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Nu-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Pms-Valproic Acid 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Ratio-Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Sandoz Valproic 250 mg Capsule0.27USD capsule
Valproic Acid 250 mg/5ml Syrup0.16USD ml
Valproic acid 250 mg/5 ml syr0.15USD ml
Depakene 50 mg/ml Syrup0.11USD ml
Apo-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Pms-Valproic Acid 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
Ratio-Valproic 50 mg/ml Syrup0.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6713086Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6720004Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6511678Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528090Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6528091Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us
US6419953Yes1999-06-182019-06-18Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)120-130 °CNot Available
water solubility1.3 mg/mLFDA label
logP2.75SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.86ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.8FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.36 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.54ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity40.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9828
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9626
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7345
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9695
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7405
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9277
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8247
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7033
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5447
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8174
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9397
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9364
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9805
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5266
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8523
Rat acute toxicity1.8543 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9357
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9249
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.07 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0fk9-9300000000-1a0314ea63d5a3c9bba1
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-2900000000-156413e81733a6236c1f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6y-2900000000-a769cafb885b78532cac
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0gbj-7900000000-46a522b9a26459334f5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-39a45d4e3201082d9d89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-4ddd957d8c8dc2b1de03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-6ba582ae102c4721034d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-58d9ba88010f1b370c58
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-3900000000-2d1032d7e8ac58235b4f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9000000000-0d39870bc4521a42c50a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-3c4e21b69b8877d6df3e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-39a45d4e3201082d9d89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-4ddd957d8c8dc2b1de03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-6ba582ae102c4721034d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-58d9ba88010f1b370c58
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-3900000000-2d1032d7e8ac58235b4f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9000000000-0d39870bc4521a42c50a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-3c4e21b69b8877d6df3e
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-5b83f0d6c36f8249285a
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Fatty Acyls
Sub Class
Fatty acids and conjugates
Direct Parent
Methyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Methyl-branched fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
branched-chain fatty acid, branched-chain saturated fatty acid (CHEBI:39867) / Branched fatty acids (LMFA01020291)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-al...
Gene Name
ABAT
Uniprot ID
P80404
Uniprot Name
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Loscher W: Anticonvulsant and biochemical effects of inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase and valproic acid during subchronic treatment in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Mar 1;31(5):837-42. [PubMed:6805473]
  4. Ha JH, Lee DU, Lee JT, Kim JS, Yong CS, Kim JA, Ha JS, Huh K: 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde from Gastrodia elata B1. is active in the antioxidation and GABAergic neuromodulation of the rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):329-33. [PubMed:11025174]
  5. Semba J, Kuroda Y, Takahashi R: Potential antidepressant properties of subchronic GABA transaminase inhibitors in the forced swimming test in mice. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21(3):152-6. [PubMed:2559361]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356]
  7. Bruni J, Wilder BJ: Valproic acid. Review of a new antiepileptic drug. Arch Neurol. 1979 Jul;36(7):393-8. [PubMed:110294]
Details
2. Histone deacetylase 9
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC9
Uniprot ID
Q9UKV0
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 9
Molecular Weight
111296.29 Da
References
  1. Ylisastigui L, Archin NM, Lehrman G, Bosch RJ, Margolis DM: Coaxing HIV-1 from resting CD4 T cells: histone deacetylase inhibition allows latent viral expression. AIDS. 2004 May 21;18(8):1101-8. [PubMed:15166525]
  2. Michaelis M, Kohler N, Reinisch A, Eikel D, Gravemann U, Doerr HW, Nau H, Cinatl J Jr: Increased human cytomegalovirus replication in fibroblasts after treatment with therapeutical plasma concentrations of valproic acid. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1;68(3):531-8. [PubMed:15242819]
  3. Kanai H, Sawa A, Chen RW, Leeds P, Chuang DM: Valproic acid inhibits histone deacetylase activity and suppresses excitotoxicity-induced GAPDH nuclear accumulation and apoptotic death in neurons. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4(5):336-44. [PubMed:15289798]
  4. Stockhausen MT, Sjolund J, Manetopoulos C, Axelson H: Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on Notch signalling in human neuroblastoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2005 Feb 28;92(4):751-9. [PubMed:15685243]
  5. Beutler AS, Li S, Nicol R, Walsh MJ: Carbamazepine is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3107-15. [PubMed:15850602]
  6. Rosenberg G: The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric disorders: can we see the forest for the trees? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2090-103. [PubMed:17514356]
  7. Kawano T, Akiyama M, Agawa-Ohta M, Mikami-Terao Y, Iwase S, Yanagisawa T, Ida H, Agata N, Yamada H: Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation. Int J Oncol. 2010 Oct;37(4):787-95. [PubMed:20811699]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function
Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such...
Gene Name
ACADSB
Uniprot ID
P45954
Uniprot Name
Short/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47485.035 Da
References
  1. Ito M, Ikeda Y, Arnez JG, Finocchiaro G, Tanaka K: The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 May 16;1034(2):213-8. [PubMed:2112956]
  2. Bazinet RP, Weis MT, Rapoport SI, Rosenberger TA: Valproic acid selectively inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to arachidonoyl-CoA by brain microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: relevance to bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan;184(1):122-9. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [PubMed:16344985]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehy...
Gene Name
OGDH
Uniprot ID
Q02218
Uniprot Name
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
115934.37 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID
P51649
Uniprot Name
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Johannessen CU, Johannessen SI: Valproate: past, present, and future. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Summer;9(2):199-216. [PubMed:12847559]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...

Components:
References
  1. Farber NB, Jiang XP, Heinkel C, Nemmers B: Antiepileptic drugs and agents that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels prevent NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(7):726-33. [PubMed:12192617]
Details
7. Histone deacetylase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC2
Uniprot ID
Q92769
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 2
Molecular Weight
55363.855 Da
References
  1. Kramer OH, Zhu P, Ostendorff HP, Golebiewski M, Tiefenbach J, Peters MA, Brill B, Groner B, Bach I, Heinzel T, Gottlicher M: The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid selectively induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 1;22(13):3411-20. [PubMed:12840003]
  2. Gottlicher M: Valproic acid: an old drug newly discovered as inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Ann Hematol. 2004;83 Suppl 1:S91-2. [PubMed:15124690]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Szalowska E, van der Burg B, Man HY, Hendriksen PJ, Peijnenburg AA: Model steatogenic compounds (amiodarone, valproic acid, and tetracycline) alter lipid metabolism by different mechanisms in mouse liver slices. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 29;9(1):e86795. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086795. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24489787]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-lin...
Gene Name
PPARD
Uniprot ID
Q03181
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Molecular Weight
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Szalowska E, van der Burg B, Man HY, Hendriksen PJ, Peijnenburg AA: Model steatogenic compounds (amiodarone, valproic acid, and tetracycline) alter lipid metabolism by different mechanisms in mouse liver slices. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 29;9(1):e86795. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086795. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24489787]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Szalowska E, van der Burg B, Man HY, Hendriksen PJ, Peijnenburg AA: Model steatogenic compounds (amiodarone, valproic acid, and tetracycline) alter lipid metabolism by different mechanisms in mouse liver slices. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 29;9(1):e86795. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086795. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24489787]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID
P22310
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4
Molecular Weight
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW9
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8
Molecular Weight
59741.035 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID
Q9HAW8
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10
Molecular Weight
59809.075 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID
P19224
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6
Molecular Weight
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Krishnaswamy S, Hao Q, Al-Rohaimi A, Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Court MH: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):1340-6. Epub 2005 Mar 10. [PubMed:15761113]
  2. Argikar UA, Remmel RP: Effect of aging on glucuronidation of valproic acid in human liver microsomes and the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022426. Epub 2008 Oct 6. [PubMed:18838507]
  3. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Chung JY, Cho JY, Yu KS, Kim JR, Lim KS, Sohn DR, Shin SG, Jang IJ: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):595-600. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [PubMed:17687269]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Dasgupta A, Emerson L: Interaction of valproic acid with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs mefenamic acid and fenoprofen in normal and uremic sera: lack of interaction in uremic sera due to the presence of endogenous factors. Ther Drug Monit. 1996 Dec;18(6):654-9. [PubMed:8946661]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. [PubMed:9228014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729]
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID
Q9Y694
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [PubMed:12065749]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34