Magnesium sulfate

Identification

Name
Magnesium sulfate
Accession Number
DB00653  (APRD01080)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Magnesium sulfate (1:1)
  • Magnesium sulfate anhydrous
  • Magnesium sulphate
  • magnesium(II) sulfate
  • Magnesiumsulfat
  • MgSO4
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrateSK47B8698T10034-99-8WRUGWIBCXHJTDG-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Magnesium cationionicT6V3LHY83822537-22-0JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
ManganeseionicH6EP7W54577439-96-5WAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
MagnesiumunknownI38ZP9992A7439-95-4RSHAOIXHUHAZPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Sulfate ionionic7IS9N8KPMG14808-79-8QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
50% Magnesium Sulfate Injection USPSolution500 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2000-08-08Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousFresenius Kabi2016-01-29Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution4 g/50mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-03-31Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousRemedy Repack2018-01-11Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2000-08-08Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution4 g/100mLIntravenousA-S Medication Solutions1994-06-24Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.2015-09-16Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2000-08-08Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution4 g/100mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-08-22Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
50% Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-25Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-12-12Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi Norge As2017-08-02Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-11-28Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution500 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousREMEDYREPACK INC.2018-10-29Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2016-03-15Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection20 g/500mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2018-01-09Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection1 g/100mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-03-08Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2016-03-15Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateInjection2 g/50mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2018-01-09Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Assured Epsom SaltGranule100 g/100gOralHefei Yatai Daily Chemical Products Co., Ltd.2016-03-30Not applicableUs
Assured Epsom SaltGranule100 g/100gOralGreenbrier International, Inc.2016-06-14Not applicableUs
EpsalOintment400 mg/1gTopicalPress Chemical And Pharmaceutical Laboratories1957-01-15Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule1 g/1gOral; TopicalChain Drug Consortium2017-08-31Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule, for solution1 g/1gOral; TopicalTOPCO ASSOCIATES, LLC1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule, for solution1 g/1gOral; TopicalGeiss, Destin and Dunn, Inc1992-07-15Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule, for solution1 g/1gOral; TopicalShopko Stores Operating Co., LLC2009-06-05Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule1 g/1gOral; TopicalSunmark (Mckesson)2014-08-18Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule100 kg/100kgOralWestern Family1998-06-05Not applicableUs
Epsom SaltGranule, for solution1 g/1gOralCVS PHARMACY1998-07-15Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Calcium Lactate Et Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate (65 mg) + Calcium lactate (260 mg)TabletOralBio Vita1987-12-312005-07-20Canada
ColPrep KitMagnesium sulfate (1.6 g/22.7g) + Potassium sulfate (3.13 g/22.7g) + Sodium sulfate decahydrate (17.5 g/22.7g)Powder, for solutionOralKvk Tech,Inc2016-12-27Not applicableUs
Eau Purgative RigaMagnesium sulfate (2.4 g) + Sodium sulfate (1.056 g)LiquidOralGlendale Agencies1978-12-311996-11-29Canada
Elliotts BMagnesium sulfate (3 mg/10mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (2 mg/10mL) + D-glucose (8 mg/10mL) + Potassium Chloride (3 mg/10mL) + Sodium Chloride (73 mg/10mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (19 mg/10mL) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic (2 mg/10mL)InjectionIntrathecalQOL Medical, LLC.2006-09-27Not applicableUs
Elliotts BMagnesium sulfate (3 mg/10mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (2 mg/10mL) + D-glucose (8 mg/10mL) + Potassium Chloride (3 mg/10mL) + Sodium Chloride (73 mg/10mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (19 mg/10mL) + Sodium phosphate, monobasic (2 mg/10mL)InjectionIntrathecalLukare Medical, Llc2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ellis TonicMagnesium sulfate (0.7 mg/15mL) + Cyanocobalamin (2 ug/15mL) + Dexpanthenol (3 mg/15mL) + Manganese sulfate (0.7 mg/15mL) + Nicotinamide (7 mg/15mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.7 mg/15mL) + Riboflavin (0.6 mg/15mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/15mL) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (5 mg/15mL)LiquidOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2001-01-012011-11-01Us
Formule 1705 - LiqMagnesium sulfate (250 mg) + Ox bile extract (1.56 mg)LiquidOralBio Vita1993-12-312003-07-16Canada
KabivenMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (96 mg/100mL) + Calcium chloride dihydrate (29 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (9.8 g/100mL) + Glutamic Acid (164 mg/100mL) + Glycine (231 mg/100mL) + Histidine (199 mg/100mL) + L-Alanine (467 mg/100mL) + L-Arginine (330 mg/100mL) + L-Aspartic Acid (99 mg/100mL) + L-Isoleucine (164 mg/100mL) + L-Leucine (231 mg/100mL) + L-Lysine hydrochloride (263 mg/100mL) + L-Phenylalanine (231 mg/100mL) + L-Threonine (164 mg/100mL) + L-Tryptophan (55 mg/100mL) + L-Tyrosine (6.7 mg/100mL) + L-Valine (213 mg/100mL) + Methionine (164 mg/100mL) + Potassium Chloride (174 mg/100mL) + Proline (199 mg/100mL) + Serine (131 mg/100mL) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (239 mg/100mL) + Sodium glycerophosphate (147 mg/100mL) + Soybean oil (3.9 g/100mL)Injection, emulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2014-08-25Not applicableUs
Magnesium CapMagnesium sulfate (111 mg) + Magnesium oxide (82 mg)CapsuleOralAlsi Cie Ltee1983-12-312002-06-12Canada
Magnesium Sulfate In 5% Dextrose Inj(20mg/ml)Magnesium sulfate (20 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1996-12-30Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CentratexMagnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (106 mg/1) + Manganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (30 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (6 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (200 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (10 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs2009-06-14Not applicableUs
Concept DHAMagnesium sulfate (5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (25 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12.5 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (53.5 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (38 mg/1) + Niacin (1.8 mg/1) + Omega-3-acid ethyl esters (200 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (10 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-06-24Not applicableUs
Concept OBMagnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (210 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (800 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (130 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (92.4 mg/1) + Manganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (7 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (5 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (5 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-01-01Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-08-012013-01-01Us
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate (20 g/500mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-02-21Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302013-03-13Us
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2000-08-082016-10-31Us
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate (20 g/250mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-07-25Not applicableUs
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302013-03-01Us
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (500 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-302012-08-01Us
Categories
UNII
ML30MJ2U7I
CAS number
7487-88-9
Weight
Average: 120.368
Monoisotopic: 119.936771076
Chemical Formula
MgO4S
InChI Key
CSNNHWWHGAXBCP-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/Mg.H2O4S/c;1-5(2,3)4/h;(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+2;/p-2
IUPAC Name
magnesium(2+) ion sulfate
SMILES
[Mg++].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Magnesium sulfate is a small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. Magnesium sulfate is gaining popularity as an initial treatment in the management of various dysrhythmias, particularly torsades de pointes, and dyrhythmias secondary to TCA overdose or digitalis toxicity.

Mechanism of action

Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Additionally, Magnesium inhibits Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent channels. This accounts for much of its relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle.

TargetActionsOrganism
UVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunitNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1CNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1SNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

25-30%

Metabolism

None

Route of elimination

Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.

Half life

43.2 hours (for newborns)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 = 1200 mg/kg (rat, subcutaneous). May be harmful if swallowed. May act as an irritant. Adverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5The serum concentration of Magnesium sulfate can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Magnesium sulfate is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl DiphosphateMagnesium sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineMagnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
6-O-benzylguanineMagnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 6-O-benzylguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Shinichi Yamamoto, Akifumi Sekitani, "BASIC MAGNESIUM SULFATE GRANULE, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF." U.S. Patent US20110042297, issued February 24, 2011.

US20110042297
General References
  1. Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH: Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):337-44. [PubMed:16002955]
  2. Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y, Koike Y, Kawamata R, Uehara R, Kono Y, Honma Y, Momoi MY: Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010 Mar;86(3):187-91. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.02.007. Epub 2010 Mar 12. [PubMed:20226604]
  3. Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK, Whitsett JA: Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J Perinatol. 2006 Jun;26(6):371-4. [PubMed:16724078]
  4. Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, Naassan GR, Usta IM: Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of magnesium sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(9):1099-103. [PubMed:16929415]
  5. Malaeb SN, Rassi AI, Haddad MC, Seoud MA, Yunis KA: Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour. Pediatr Radiol. 2004 May;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18. [PubMed:14985884]
  6. Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, Sakamoto H, Masaoka N, Takada M, Sato K: Effect of magnesium sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8. [PubMed:9286718]
  7. Schanler RJ, Smith LG Jr, Burns PA: Effects of long-term maternal intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41. [PubMed:9194621]
  8. Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL: Magnesium sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994 Mar-Apr;14(2):249-53. [PubMed:8188843]
  9. Holcomb WL Jr, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH: Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities: a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Oct;78(4):611-4. [PubMed:1923163]
  10. Cumming WA, Thomas VJ: Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989 May;152(5):1071-2. [PubMed:2705341]
  11. Lamm CI, Norton KI, Murphy RJ, Wilkins IA, Rabinowitz JG: Congenital rickets associated with magnesium sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988 Dec;113(6):1078-82. [PubMed:3193315]
  12. McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, Pitkin RM: Effects of magnesium sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Nov;56(5):595-600. [PubMed:7432730]
  13. Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, Hurt H: The effects of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J Perinatol. 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6 Pt 1):449-54. [PubMed:9848759]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014791
KEGG Drug
D01108
PubChem Compound
24083
PubChem Substance
46508411
ChemSpider
22515
ChEBI
32599
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2021423
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000201
PharmGKB
PA450302
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Magnesium_sulfate
ATC Codes
V04CC02 — Magnesium sulfateA06AD04 — Magnesium sulfateA12CC02 — Magnesium sulfateD11AX05 — Magnesium sulfateB05XA05 — Magnesium sulfate
AHFS Codes
  • 56:12.00 — Cathartics and Laxatives
  • 28:12.92 — Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedDiagnosticPremature Births1
1CompletedPreventionPaclitaxel-induced Neuropathy1
1CompletedSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentCraniotomy / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStroke, Acute1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
1, 2RecruitingNot AvailableLack of Drug Action1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentEpstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Infection and Neoplasia / X-linked Immunodeficiency With Magnesium Defect1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
2CompletedPreventionAnalgesia1
2CompletedSupportive CareIdiopathic Scoliosis1
2CompletedTreatmentBronchiolitis / Magnesium, Abnormal Blood Level1
2CompletedTreatmentHand, Foot, and Mouth Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
2RecruitingDiagnosticPain NOS1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCerebral Palsy (CP) / Premature Labour1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCesarean Section; Shivering1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPerinatal Anoxic-ischemic Brain Injury1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost Partum Severe Preeclampsia / Severe Pre-eclampsia Postpartum1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSevere Pre-eclampsia With Postnatal Complication1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS) / Lactic Acidosis / Magnesium Deficiency / Vitamin B1 deficiency / Wernicke's encephalopathy1
2, 3WithdrawnPreventionChronic Hypertension / Gestational Hypertension / Preeclampsia / Pregnancy associated hypertension / Superimposed Preeclampsia1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentHeadaches1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCerebral Palsy (CP)1
3CompletedPreventionCerebral Palsy (CP) / Intraventricular Hemorrhage / Periventricular Leukomalacia / Premature separation of placenta / Pulmonary Edemas1
3CompletedPreventionIncreased Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP)1
3CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Brain / Seizures (Incl Subtypes)1
3CompletedPreventionSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
3CompletedPreventionProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
3CompletedSupportive CareChemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity / Colorectal Cancers / Neurologic toxicity / Neuropathy1
3CompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers / Neurologic toxicity1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury / Concussion, Brain / Craniocerebral Injuries1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedTreatmentParents2
3CompletedTreatmentPerinatal Asphyxia , Moderate to Severe HIE1
3CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentThrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)1
3RecruitingPreventionPost-ERCP Pancreatitis1
3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3TerminatedPreventionTransient Neurologic Syndrome1
3TerminatedSupportive CareNeuropathy / Pain NOS / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBrain Injury / Cerebral Palsy (CP)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionModerate Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy / Severe Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy1
4CompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Morbidity / Intubation Complications1
4CompletedPreventionHemorrhage1
4CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionLiving Donor Liver Transplantation / Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionNeoplasm, Gastric1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Intra-articular Injection / Magnesium Sulfate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareLumbar Spine Disc Herniation1
4CompletedSupportive CarePreeclampsia1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypocalcemia / Infections, Cytomegalovirus1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Intravenous Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade3
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPre-eclampsia Aggravated1
4CompletedTreatmentPreeclampsia1
4CompletedTreatmentSupratentorial Brain Tumor1
4Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticColonoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticPreeclampsia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Surgery--Complications1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSevere Preeclampsia1
4RecruitingPreventionArrythmias1
4RecruitingPreventionPain in Pediatric Patients1
4RecruitingPreventionPreterm Labor Without Delivery1
4RecruitingPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
4RecruitingSupportive CareChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareMalnutrition1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeep Neuromuscular Blockade / Magnesium Sulfate / Neuromuscular Blockade / Rocuronium1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Arthroplasty, Total / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentSevere Preeclampsia1
4TerminatedPreventionPreeclampsia1
4TerminatedPreventionPremature Labour1
4TerminatedSupportive CareArthritis Knee / Dexmedetomidine / Magnesium Sulfate1
4TerminatedTreatmentMagnesium Sulphate / Pain NOS / Post Pulmonary Resection1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableEmergence Agitation in Children / Emergence Delirium / Postopertive Delirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Agitation / Pediatric Disorder1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherPregnancy associated hypertension / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAsthma Bronchial / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEasy of Laryngoscopy Manipulation / Heart Rate / Mean Arterial Pressure / Patient Reaction to Intubation and Cuff Inflation / Vocal Cord Position or Movement1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubating Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMagnesium Sulfate Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePreeclampsia / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSevere Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBasic Science Study of the Mechanisms of Attentional Enhancement by Compounds Acting on the Nicotinic Receptor1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBreast Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBenign muscle neoplasm1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Pain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOpioid Use, Unspecified, Uncomplicated / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Sore Throat1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlagille Syndrome / Biliary Atresia / Cholestasis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntubation Conditions / Observation of Neuromuscular Block / Surgical Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentObstetric Labour, Premature1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPremature separation of placenta1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRadius Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentWheezy Bronchitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailablePreeclampsia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionGynecologic Diseases1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionMagnesium Level / Pre-Eclampsia, Severe1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionProstatic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Acute / Asthma in Children1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Epidural Analgesia, Fracture Ribs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostpartum Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIschemia, Brain / Strokes1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPremature Labour1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPremature Births / Premature Labour1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPreterm Premature Rupture of Membranes1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPrimary Hypomagnesemia (Disorder)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCerebral Aneurysms1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHallux Valgus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain NOS2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAcute Severe Asthma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
  • Denison Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Gallipot
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • QOL Medical
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Vi-Jon Laboratories Inc.
  • Walgreen Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
GranuleOral100 g/100g
TabletOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
LiquidOral
InjectionIntrathecal
OintmentTopical400 mg/1g
CrystalOral; Topical1 g/1g
GranuleOral1 g/1g
GranuleOral100 kg/100kg
GranuleOral; Topical1.81 kg/100kg
Granule, for solutionOral; Topical1 g/1g
Granule, for solutionOral; Topical100 g/100g
GranuleOral; Topical1 g/1g
Powder, for solutionOral100 %
PowderTopical12 g/1g
GranuleTopical2.72 kg/2.72kg
GranuleOral; Topical100 g/100g
PowderOral
PowderOral100 %
Granule, for solutionOral1 g/1g
Powder, for solutionOral1000 mg/1g
CapsuleOral
InjectionIntravenous1 g/100mL
InjectionIntravenous2 g/50mL
InjectionIntravenous20 g/500mL
InjectionIntravenous4 g/100mL
InjectionIntravenous4 g/50mL
InjectionIntravenous40 g/1000mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 g/250mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 g/500mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 g/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous80 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical45 %
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 g/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous200 mg
LiquidIntramuscular500 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
Granule, for solutionOral; Topical1 kg/1kg
LiquidIntravenous
PowderTopical10 g/10g
CrystalOral; Topical100 g/100g
For solutionTopical1 kg/1kg
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
GranuleOral3.63 kg/3.63kg
Granule, for solutionOral1 kg/1kg
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionOral
KitOral
Solution, concentrateOral
IrrigantIrrigation
SolutionIrrigation
LiquidIrrigation
SolutionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Elliotts b solution ampule4.71USD ml
Magnesium Sulfate 50% Solution 2ml Vial0.92USD vial
Magnesium sulfate powder0.29USD g
Magnesium-ns 6 g/50 ml bag0.29USD ml
Magnesium-ns 4 g/50 ml bag0.27USD ml
Magnesium-ns 3 g/50 ml bag0.26USD ml
Magnesium sulfate-ns 2 gm bag0.25USD ml
Magnesium sulfate-ns 1 gm bag0.24USD ml
Magnesium-d5w 1 gm/100 ml soln0.07USD ml
Magnesium-lr 20 g/500 ml0.03USD ml
Magnesium-lr 40 g/500 ml bag0.03USD ml
Magnesium-lr 50 g/500 ml bag0.02USD ml
Epsom salt 100% powder0.01USD g
Magnesium sulf 4% iv soln0.01USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946149No2005-09-202023-03-07Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1124 °C (decomposition)Not Available
water solubility710 mg/mLNot Available
logP-0.91Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7487
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9646
Caco-2 permeable-0.6267
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9137
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9194
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9904
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9521
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8775
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8213
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7007
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7767
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7602
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9115
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7547
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9759
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9577
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5773
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.8111
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.943
Rat acute toxicity2.4160 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7988
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9446
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkaline earth metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkaline earth metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Alkaline earth metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Alkaline earth metal sulfates
Direct Parent
Alkaline earth metal sulfates
Alternative Parents
Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Alkaline earth metal sulfate / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
magnesium salt, metal sulfate (CHEBI:32599)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only...
Gene Name
CACNG1
Uniprot ID
Q06432
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit
Molecular Weight
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-...
Gene Name
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID
P54289
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1
Molecular Weight
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB1
Uniprot ID
Q02641
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB2
Uniprot ID
Q08289
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID
Q13698
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
Molecular Weight
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 18, 2018 09:09