Identification

Name
Reboxetine
Accession Number
DB00234  (APRD00198)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Reboxetine is an antidepressant drug used in the treatment of clinical depression, panic disorder and ADD/ADHD. Its mesylate (i.e. methanesulfonate) salt is sold under tradenames including Edronax, Norebox, Prolift, Solvex, Davedax or Vestra. Reboxetine has two chiral centers, but it only exists as two enantiomers, (R,R)-(-)- and (S,S)-(+)-reboxetine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Reboxetine mesilateL94J81YNNY98769-84-7CGTZMJIMMUNLQD-STYNFMPRSA-N
International/Other Brands
Davedax / Edronax / Norebox / Prolift / Solvex / Vestra
Categories
UNII
947S0YZ36I
CAS number
71620-89-8
Weight
Average: 313.397
Monoisotopic: 313.167793605
Chemical Formula
C19H23NO3
InChI Key
CBQGYUDMJHNJBX-RTBURBONSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H23NO3/c1-2-21-16-10-6-7-11-17(16)23-19(15-8-4-3-5-9-15)18-14-20-12-13-22-18/h3-11,18-20H,2,12-14H2,1H3/t18-,19-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-[(R)-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)(phenyl)methyl]morpholine
SMILES
[H][[email protected]@](OC1=CC=CC=C1OCC)(C1=CC=CC=C1)[[email protected]@]1([H])CNCCO1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of clinical depression.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Reboxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NaRI), the first drug of new antidepressant class. Reboxetine is an a-ariloxybenzyl derivative of morpholine. Reboxetine is primarily used to treat depression but has also been found useful in the treatment of narcolepsy and panic disorders.

Mechanism of action

Reboxetine is a selective inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake. It inhibits noradrenaline reuptake in vitro to a similar extent to the tricyclic antidepressant desmethylimipramine. Reboxetine does not affect dopamine or serotonin reuptake and it has low in vivo and in vitro affinity for adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Reboxetine is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

98%

Metabolism

Reboxetine is metabolized by dealkylation, hydroxylation and oxidation followed by glucuronide or sulphate conjugation. It is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 CYP isoenzyme 3A4.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

12.5 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Reports of seizures (rare) have been reported

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Reboxetine.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Reboxetine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SildenafilThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Withdrawn
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Reboxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Reboxetine.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Fleishaker JC: Clinical pharmacokinetics of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of patients with depression. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Dec;39(6):413-27. [PubMed:11192474]
  2. Edwards DM, Pellizzoni C, Breuel HP, Berardi A, Castelli MG, Frigerio E, Poggesi I, Rocchetti M, Dubini A, Strolin Benedetti M: Pharmacokinetics of reboxetine in healthy volunteers. Single oral doses, linearity and plasma protein binding. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1995 Aug;16(6):443-60. [PubMed:7579027]
  3. Wienkers LC, Allievi C, Hauer MJ, Wynalda MA: Cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of the individual enantiomers of the antidepressant agent reboxetine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Nov;27(11):1334-40. [PubMed:10534319]
  4. Kasper S, el Giamal N, Hilger E: Reboxetine: the first selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 May;1(4):771-82. [PubMed:11249515]
External Links
PubChem Compound
127151
PubChem Substance
46504845
ChemSpider
112870
ChEBI
135342
ChEMBL
CHEMBL383921
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000720
PharmGKB
PA144614921
HET
41X
Wikipedia
Reboxetine
ATC Codes
N06AX18 — Reboxetine
PDB Entries
4xnx

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedSupportive CareBone Mineral Density Quantitative Trait Locus 71
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebral Stroke1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCognitive Performance in Major Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)170-171 °C (Mesylate salt)Not Available
water solubility8 mg/mL (Mesylate salt)Not Available
logP3.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0223 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.06ALOGPS
logP3.28ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area39.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity89.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9968
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable+0.575
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7914
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8825
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5968
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5581
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8237
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5402
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8063
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5687
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6318
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5218
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9141
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9083
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9372
Rat acute toxicity2.0972 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.7754
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.717
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenol ethers
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / Morpholines / Oxacyclic compounds / Dialkylamines / Dialkyl ethers / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Morpholine / Oxazinane / Dialkyl ether / Secondary aliphatic amine / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Rauhut AS, Mullins SN, Dwoskin LP, Bardo MT: Reboxetine: attenuation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Nov;303(2):664-72. [PubMed:12388649]
  2. Wilson AA, Johnson DP, Mozley D, Hussey D, Ginovart N, Nobrega J, Garcia A, Meyer J, Houle S: Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of novel radiotracers for the in vivo imaging of the norepinephrine transporter. Nucl Med Biol. 2003 Feb;30(2):85-92. [PubMed:12623106]
  3. Lin KS, Ding YS, Kim SW, Kil KE: Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Biol. 2005 May;32(4):415-22. [PubMed:15878511]
  4. Spivak B, Strous RD, Shaked G, Shabash E, Kotler M, Weizman A: Reboxetine versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a double-blind, fixed-dosage, controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Apr;26(2):152-6. [PubMed:16633143]
  5. Mitchell HA, Ahern TH, Liles LC, Javors MA, Weinshenker D: The effects of norepinephrine transporter inactivation on locomotor activity in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1046-52. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16893531]
  6. Kasper S, el Giamal N, Hilger E: Reboxetine: the first selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 May;1(4):771-82. [PubMed:11249515]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. [PubMed:12649369]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 01, 2017 17:17