Identification

Name
Protriptyline
Accession Number
DB00344  (APRD00441)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Protriptyline hydrochloride is a dibenzocycloheptene-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, protriptyline does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, protriptyline exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. In addition, TCAs down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Protriptyline may be used for the treatment of depression.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-(5H-dibenzo[a,d][7]annulen-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-1-amine
  • 3-(5H-Dibenzo[a,D]cyclohepten-5-yl)-N-methyl-1-propanamine
  • 5-(3-Methylaminopropyl)-5H-dibenzo[a,D]cycloheptene
  • 7-(3-Methylaminopropyl)-1,2:5,6-dibenzocycloheptatriene
  • Amimetilina
  • N-Methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,D]cycloheptene-5-propanamine
  • N-Methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,D]cycloheptene-5-propylamine
  • Protriptilina
  • Protriptylin
  • Protriptyline
  • Protriptylinum
External IDs
MK 240 / MK-240
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Protriptyline hydrochloride44665V00O81225-55-4OGQDIIKRQRZXJH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Triptil Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1966-12-312001-01-25Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories2008-12-232013-06-30Us
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralEpic Pharma, LLC2013-01-09Not applicableUs
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet5 mg/1OralWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.2008-09-16Not applicableUs
Protriptyline hydrochlorideTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2013-10-28Not applicableUs
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories2008-12-232013-06-30Us
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralEpic Pharma, LLC2013-01-09Not applicableUs
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet10 mg/1OralWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.2008-09-16Not applicableUs
Protriptyline HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Protriptyline hydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2013-10-28Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Triptil / Vivactil (Odyssey)
Categories
UNII
4NDU154T12
CAS number
438-60-8
Weight
Average: 263.3767
Monoisotopic: 263.167399677
Chemical Formula
C19H21N
InChI Key
BWPIARFWQZKAIA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H21N/c1-20-14-6-11-19-17-9-4-2-7-15(17)12-13-16-8-3-5-10-18(16)19/h2-5,7-10,12-13,19-20H,6,11,14H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
methyl(3-{tricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(15),3,5,7,9,11,13-heptaen-2-yl}propyl)amine
SMILES
CNCCCC1C2=CC=CC=C2C=CC2=CC=CC=C12

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of depression.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Protriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant. It was thought that tricyclic antidepressants work by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by nerve cells. However, this response occurs immediately, yet mood does not lift for approximately two weeks. It is now thought that changes occur in receptor sensitivity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, a part of the brain involved in emotions. Presynaptic receptors are affected: α1 and β1 receptors are sensitized, α2 receptors are desensitised (leading to increased noradrenaline production). Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain. A precise mechanism for their analgesic action is unknown, but it is thought that they modulate anti-pain opioid systems in the CNS via an indirect serotonergic route. They are also effective in migraine prophylaxis, but not in abortion of acute migraine attack. The mechanism of their anti-migraine action is also thought to be serotonergic.

Mechanism of action

Protriptyline acts by decreasing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT).

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Cumulative urinary excretion during 16 days accounted for approximately 50% of the drug. The fecal route of excretion did not seem to be important.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects include anxiety, blood disorders, confusion, decreased libido, dizziness, flushing, headache, impotence, insomnia, low blood pressure, nightmares, rapid or irregular heartbeat, rash, seizures, sensitivity to sunlight, stomach and intestinal discomfort, sedation, hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, postural hypotension, tachycardia, hypertension, ECG changes, heart failure, impaired memory and delirium, and precipitation of hypomanic or manic episodes in bipolar depression. Withdrawal symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety, and insomnia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneProtriptyline may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia and CNS stimulation can be increased when 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid is combined with Protriptyline.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014488
KEGG Compound
C07408
PubChem Compound
4976
PubChem Substance
46505128
ChemSpider
4805
BindingDB
50176062
ChEBI
8597
ChEMBL
CHEMBL668
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000863
PharmGKB
PA451168
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Protriptyline
ATC Codes
N06AA11 — Protriptyline

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Pfizer laboratories div pfizer inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sigmapharm laboratories llc
  • Odyssey pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Duramed
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxane Labs
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tofranil-PM 30 125 mg capsule Bottle588.33USD bottle
Tofranil-PM 30 150 mg capsule Bottle588.33USD bottle
Tofranil-PM 30 75 mg capsule Bottle588.33USD bottle
Tofranil 30 50 mg tablet Bottle185.09USD bottle
Tofranil-pm 100 mg capsule19.23USD capsule
Tofranil-pm 150 mg capsule18.86USD capsule
Tofranil-pm 75 mg capsule18.86USD capsule
Tofranil-pm 125 mg capsule18.68USD capsule
Anafranil 25 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 50 mg capsule13.51USD capsule
Anafranil 75 mg capsule13.24USD capsule
Tofranil 50 mg tablet6.64USD tablet
Norpramin 150 mg tablet6.23USD tablet
Surmontil 100 mg capsule5.92USD capsule
Tofranil 25 mg tablet4.97USD tablet
Tofranil 10 mg tablet4.73USD tablet
Norpramin 100 mg tablet4.27USD tablet
Surmontil 50 mg capsule4.15USD capsule
Vivactil 10 mg tablet4.05USD tablet
Norpramin 75 mg tablet3.27USD tablet
Protriptyline hcl 10 mg tablet3.07USD tablet
Vivactil 5 mg tablet2.86USD tablet
Norpramin 50 mg tablet2.59USD tablet
Surmontil 25 mg capsule2.49USD capsule
Protriptyline hcl 5 mg tablet2.12USD tablet
Norpramin 25 mg tablet1.4USD tablet
Norpramin 10 mg tablet1.16USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)169-171 °C (Protriptyline HCl)Not Available
water solubility1.04 mg/LNot Available
logP4.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000231 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.65ALOGPS
logP4.5ChemAxon
logS-6.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity87.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9862
Caco-2 permeable+0.7821
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7406
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8563
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5597
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6622
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7206
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.9034
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5285
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7595
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8933
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.641
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7512
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9322
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7732
Rat acute toxicity3.0087 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.736
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8132
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-006x-8910000000-ec599ee02d998905757e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzocycloheptenes. These are compounds containing a dibenzocycloheptene moiety, which consists of two benzene rings connected by a cycloheptene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Dibenzocycloheptenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Dibenzocycloheptenes
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dibenzocycloheptene / Aralkylamine / Secondary amine / Secondary aliphatic amine / Organic nitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organonitrogen compound / Amine / Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organic tricyclic compound (CHEBI:8597)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  4. Cheetham SC, Viggers JA, Butler SA, Prow MR, Heal DJ: [3H]nisoxetine--a radioligand for noradrenaline reuptake sites: correlation with inhibition of [3H]noradrenaline uptake and effect of DSP-4 lesioning and antidepressant treatments. Neuropharmacology. 1996 Jan;35(1):63-70. [PubMed:8684598]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. McDougle CJ, Epperson CN, Price LH, Gelernter J: Evidence for linkage disequilibrium between serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) and obsessive compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 1998 May;3(3):270-3. [PubMed:9672904]
  2. Rouillon F, Blachier C, Dreyfus JP, Bouhassira M, Allicar MP: [Pharmaco-epidemiologic study of the use of antidepressant drugs in the general population]. Encephale. 1996 May;22 Spec No 1:39-48. [PubMed:8767026]
  3. Frazer A, Daws LC: Serotonin transporter function in vivo: assessment by chronoamperometry. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Dec 15;861:217-29. [PubMed:9928259]
  4. Daws LC, Toney GM, Gerhardt GA, Frazer A: In vivo chronoamperometric measures of extracellular serotonin clearance in rat dorsal hippocampus: contribution of serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Aug;286(2):967-76. [PubMed:9694957]
  5. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821]
  6. Kovachich GB, Aronson CE, Brunswick DJ: Effect of repeated administration of antidepressants on serotonin uptake sites in limbic and neocortical structures of rat brain determined by quantitative autoradiography. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1992 Dec;7(4):317-24. [PubMed:1476595]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Ibrahim S, Peggins J, Knapton A, Licht T, Aszalos A: Influence of antipsychotic, antiemetic, and Ca(2+) channel blocker drugs on the cellular accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin: P-glycoprotein modulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Dec;295(3):1276-83. [PubMed:11082465]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 14, 2018 16:24