Identification

Name
Minoxidil
Accession Number
DB00350  (APRD00086, DB08225)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
  • 6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
  • Alostil
  • Apo-gain
  • Lonolox
  • Minossidile
  • Minoxidil
  • Minoxidilum
  • Minoximen
  • Normoxidil
  • Regaine
  • Tricoxidil
External IDs
U-10,858 / U-10858
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Loniten 10mgTablet10 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Loniten 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-05-182017-02-15Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2007-07-30Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1995-12-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-10-16Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralDoh Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralActavis Pharma Company2009-10-26Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-03-202017-02-18Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical1988-11-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-08-21Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gain Liq 20mg/mlSolution20 mgTopicalApotex Corporation1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Basic Care Hair RegrowthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalL. Perrigo Company2017-08-10Not applicableUs
Boost Regrowth for WomenLiquid2 g/100mLTopicalSHELBY PROFESSIONAL, INC.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For MenLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For WomenLiquid20 mg/mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Capillus Hair Regrowth TreatmentLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalCapillus, Llc2017-01-24Not applicableUs
Careone Hair Regrowth TreatmentAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalAmerican Sales Company2012-07-27Not applicableUs
CareOne Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra StrengthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalAmerican Sales Company2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Cerafill RetaliateSolution20 mg/mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Cerafill Retaliate Extra Strength For MenSolution50 mg/mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
GETTIK Hair Regrowth TreatmentLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalGettik International Llc2017-10-01Not applicableUs
HimsLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalClubroom, Inc.2017-11-01Not applicableUs
KeepsLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalThirty Madison Inc2017-11-15Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Alostil (McNeil) / Apo-Gain (Apotex) / Avogain / Lipogaine / Loniten (Pfizer) / Lonolox (Pfizer) / Minodyl / Minoxigaine / Minoximen (Menarini) / Mintop (Dr. Reddy's) / Regaine (McNeil) / Rogaine (Johnson & Johnson) / Theroxidil (Ei) / Tricoxidil / Vanarex
Categories
UNII
5965120SH1
CAS number
38304-91-5
Weight
Average: 209.2483
Monoisotopic: 209.127660127
Chemical Formula
C9H15N5O
InChI Key
ZFMITUMMTDLWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H15N5O/c10-7-6-8(12-9(11)14(7)15)13-4-2-1-3-5-13/h6H,1-5,10H2,(H2,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidin-1-ium-1-olate
SMILES
NC1=CC(=NC(N)=[N+]1[O-])N1CCCCC1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Minoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.

Mechanism of action

Minoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.

TargetActionsOrganism
AATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
inducer
Human
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inducer
Human
UReninNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Minoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Minoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Approximately 90% of the administered drug is metabolized, predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid at the N-oxide position in the pyrimidine ring, but also by conversion to more polar products. Known metabolites exert much less pharmacologic effect than minoxidil itself.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4.2 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Acebutolol.Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Illicit
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
AvanafilAvanafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
BepridilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
BietaserpineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bietaserpine.Experimental
BimatoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Bisoprolol.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BosentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Minoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BupranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CadralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cadralazine.Experimental
CafedrineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandoxatrilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Candoxatril.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
CicletanineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Clonidine.Approved
CloranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
CryptenamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cryptenamine.Approved
CyclopenthiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclosporine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclothiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclothiazide.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Investigational
DebrisoquinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Experimental
DeserpidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved
diethylnorspermineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DihydralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Investigational
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DorzolamideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DuloxetineMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Endralazine.Experimental
EpanololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Eprosartan.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
Ferulic acidMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanabenzMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanabenz.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanadrel.Approved
GuanazodineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
HexamethoniumMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
IloprostIloprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Minoxidil.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
KetanserinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LatanoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Latanoprost.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Losartan.Approved
MacitentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
ManidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MethoserpidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MirodenafilMirodenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
MuzolimineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nadolol.Approved
NaftopidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NiguldipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nimodipine.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
ObinutuzumabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
OxprenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Papaverine.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
PhentolamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
PinacidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Withdrawn
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Pindolol.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
RemikirenMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Remikiren.Approved
RescinnamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
RilmenidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RituximabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropinirole is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
SaprisartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Saprisartan.Experimental
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Sotalol.Approved
SpiraprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TalinololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerlipressinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TetrahydropalmatineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheodrenalineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Withdrawn
TiboloneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicrynafenMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Timolol.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolazolineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Withdrawn
TolonidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
TravoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Travoprost.Approved
TreprostinilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TrichlormethiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved
UrapidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Urapidil.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XipamideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ZofenoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Paul S. Uster, Yolanda P. Quinn, "Non-crystalline minoxidil composition, its production and application." U.S. Patent US4828837, issued March, 1985.

US4828837
General References
  1. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, Miller J, Hordinsky M, Wanser R, Zhang P, Kohut B: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):767-74. Epub 2007 Aug 29. [PubMed:17761356]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14494
KEGG Drug
D00418
PubChem Compound
4201
PubChem Substance
46508344
ChemSpider
10438564
ChEBI
6942
ChEMBL
CHEMBL802
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000143
PharmGKB
PA450521
IUPHAR
4254
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
MXD
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Minoxidil
ATC Codes
D11AX01 — MinoxidilC02DC01 — Minoxidil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.20 — Direct Vasodilators
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
PDB Entries
3b6h / 4k7a
FDA label
Download (145 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingOtherBioavailability1
1CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdverse Effects / Objective (Goal) / Self-Assessment1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia2
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Hair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss1
2CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentWilliams Beuren Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemale Pattern Baldness / Hair Thinning1
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia3
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1
3CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFemale Pattern Alopecia1
4CompletedTreatmentBeard Enhancement1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChest Hair Enhancement1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFemale Androgenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableFemale Pattern Hair Loss / Hair Thinning1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTreatment Induced Hypertension1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Perrigo co
  • Sight pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Avacor products llc
  • L perrigo co
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Harmony laboratories
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Royce laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical20 mg/mL
LiquidTopical2 %
SolutionTopical3 g/60mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical20 mg
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/mL
SolutionTopical2 %
Aerosol, foamTopical5 g/100g
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
LiquidTopical50 mg/mL
Aerosol, foamTopical50 mg/g
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
SolutionTopical20 g/mL
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical.02 g/mL
Aerosol, foamTopical5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rogaine ex-str starter kit28.32USD kit
Minoxidil powder2.07USD g
Loniten 10 mg Tablet1.52USD tablet
Minoxidil 10 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Minoxidil 2.5 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
Loniten 2.5 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Rogaine 5 % foam0.27USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946120No1999-04-202019-04-20Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)248 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.61MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility19.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.24ALOGPS
logP1.3ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9496
Caco-2 permeable+0.7214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.596
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8959
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8453
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5721
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8761
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6099
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6999
Ames testAMES toxic0.5253
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9006
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9616
Rat acute toxicity2.2308 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.678
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7016
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-6953000000-742e0f214f512eecd184
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9432000000-6fff92eb2f75daf5b772
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-674539ce0a58d8d1138e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-9680000000-8c6bee8b5f24585d8926
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9610000000-44aa7ff70200e0521eef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9100000000-77920bdc992ad8a2f9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-4d4c7019be9b77462d2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-86dd850029e96dce7cb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0950000000-f76a21fbbfffb939b270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-9609dde96093ce0602dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3900000000-f5138ae7a1ba6d04c54a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9800000000-1a8a598ebb2e2427f97f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0920000000-226902b0b5e18eaca083
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2960000000-6ce9f8facf6478d7f7ea

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Dialkylarylamines
Alternative Parents
Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Piperidines / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dialkylarylamine / Aminopyrimidine / Imidolactam / Pyrimidine / Piperidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, aminopyrimidine, pyrimidine N-oxide (CHEBI:6942)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than...
Gene Name
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID
P48048
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B: Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Jun;34(6):457-82. [PubMed:9646008]
  4. Evans JM, Allan AK, Davies SA, Dow JA: Sulphonylurea sensitivity and enriched expression implicate inward rectifier K+ channels in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;208(Pt 19):3771-83. [PubMed:16169954]
  5. Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Binding of K(ATP) channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1395-402. [PubMed:9579735]
  6. Bray KM, Quast U: A specific binding site for K+ channel openers in rat aorta. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11689-92. [PubMed:1601843]
  7. Black KL, Yin D, Konda BM, Wang X, Hu J, Ko MK, Bayan JA, Sacapano MR, Espinoza AJ, Ong JM, Irvin D, Shu Y: Different effects of KCa and KATP agonists on brain tumor permeability between syngeneic and allogeneic rat models. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 28;1227:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.046. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18602898]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Kurbel S, Kurbel B, Zanic-Matanic D: Minoxidil and male-pattern alopecia: a potential role for a local regulator of sebum secretion with vasoconstrictive effects? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Nov;53(5):402-6. [PubMed:10616041]
  2. Gaffar A, Scherl D, Afflitto J, Coleman EJ: The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Jun;22(6):480-4. [PubMed:7560228]
  3. Michelet JF, Commo S, Billoni N, Mahe YF, Bernard BA: Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Feb;108(2):205-9. [PubMed:9008235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of b...
Gene Name
REN
Uniprot ID
P00797
Uniprot Name
Renin
Molecular Weight
45057.125 Da
References
  1. Werning C: The effect of minoxidil on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in patients with essential and renal hypertension. Klin Wochenschr. 1976 Aug 1;54(15):727-34. [PubMed:790007]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18