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Accession Number
DB00350  (APRD00086, DB08225)
Small Molecule
Approved, Investigational

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure.

  • 2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
  • 6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
  • Minossidile
  • Minoxidil
  • Minoxidilum
External IDs
U-10,858 / U-10858
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LonitenTablet10 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1979-11-012005-06-30Us
LonitenTablet2.5 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1979-11-012005-10-31Us
Loniten 10mgTabletOralPfizer Canada Ulc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Loniten 2.5mgTabletOralPfizer Canada Ulc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.1988-11-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2012-08-212013-11-30Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralDoh Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs53489 0386 01 nlmimage10 46452379
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-09-13Not applicableUs54868 346720180907 15195 16ftvby
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-08-212018-05-22Us69189 038720180907 15195 1y2niu
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralAvKARE, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.1988-11-14Not applicableUs49884 0257 01 nlmimage10 2b4a15d0
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1995-12-14Not applicableUs53489 0387 01 nlmimage10 3e451f28
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-10-16Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
5% Minoxidil Topical SolutionSolution5 g/100mLTopicalAVACOR PRODUCTS, LLC2019-04-01Not applicableUs
Apo-gain Liq 20mg/mlSolutionTopicalApotex Corporation1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
AxelofeinSolution / drops2 g/100mLTopicalTRILOGIC, LTD2019-07-10Not applicableUs
Azelomax ForteSolution / drops5 g/100mLTopicalTRILOGIC LTD2019-07-10Not applicableUs
Barbiux balsamic tonic 5%Solution0.05 mg/1mLTopicalIncredible Products, S.A. de C.V.2019-07-03Not applicableUs
Basic Care Hair RegrowthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalL. Perrigo Company2017-08-10Not applicableUs
Basic Care Hair Regrowth TreatmentAerosol, foam50 mg/1gTopicalL. Perrigo Company2019-02-14Not applicableUs
Basic Care Hair Regrowth TreatmentSolution2 g/100mLTopicalL. Perrigo Company2019-02-06Not applicableUs
Basic Care Hair Regrowth TreatmentAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalL. Perrigo Company2019-02-06Not applicableUs
Berkley and Jensen MinoxidilAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalBJWC2018-11-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bakumokon 5% MinoxidilMinoxidil (5 mg/100mg) + Dutasteride (0.1 mg/100mg) + Oxytocin (0.01 mg/100mg)LiquidTopicalDS LABORATORIES, INC.2015-02-092017-10-19Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.05% / Minoxidil 5%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Betamethasone dipropionate (0.05 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUs
Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.05% / Minoxidil 5% / Niacinamide 2% / Pentoxifylline 0.5%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Betamethasone dipropionate (0.05 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Pentoxifylline (2 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Betamethasone Diproprionate 0.05% / Minoxidil 7%Minoxidil (7 g/100g) + Betamethasone dipropionate (0.05 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-10Not applicableUs
Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate 0.1% / Finasteride 0.1% / Minoxidil 5%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.1 g/100g) + Finasteride (0.1 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate 0.1% / Finasteride 0.1% / Minoxidil 5% / Tretinoin 0.025%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.1 g/100g) + Finasteride (0.1 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Finasteride 0.1% / Minoxidil 5%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Finasteride (0.1 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Finasteride 0.1% / Minoxidil 7%Minoxidil (7 g/100g) + Finasteride (0.1 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUs
Finasteride 0.1% / Minoxidil 7% / Tretinoin 0.025%Minoxidil (7 g/100g) + Finasteride (0.1 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-11Not applicableUs
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.01% / Minoxidil 5% / Tretinoin 0.025%Minoxidil (5 g/100g) + Fluocinolone acetonide (0.01 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUs
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.01% / Minoxidil 7% / Progesterone 0.1%Minoxidil (7 g/100g) + Fluocinolone acetonide (0.01 g/100g) + Progesterone (0.1 g/100g)SolutionTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-09Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Alostil (McNeil) / Apo-Gain (Apotex) / Avogain / Lipogaine / Lonolox (Pfizer) / Minodyl / Minoximen (Menarini) / Mintop (Dr. Reddy's) / Normoxidil / Regaine (McNeil) / Rogaine (Johnson & Johnson) / Theroxidil (Ei) / Tricoxidil / Vanarex
CAS number
Average: 209.2483
Monoisotopic: 209.127660127
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.

Associated Conditions

Minoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.

Mechanism of action

Minoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.

AATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
UReninNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Minoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Minoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.


Approximately 90% of the administered drug is metabolized, predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid at the N-oxide position in the pyrimidine ring, but also by conversion to more polar products. Known metabolites exert much less pharmacologic effect than minoxidil itself.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4.2 hours

Not Available

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
1-benzylimidazole1-benzylimidazole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
AbediterolAbediterol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.
AcebutololThe therapeutic efficacy of Acebutolol can be increased when used in combination with Minoxidil.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity

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Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.


Synthesis Reference

Paul S. Uster, Yolanda P. Quinn, "Non-crystalline minoxidil composition, its production and application." U.S. Patent US4828837, issued March, 1985.

General References
  1. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, Miller J, Hordinsky M, Wanser R, Zhang P, Kohut B: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):767-74. Epub 2007 Aug 29. [PubMed:17761356]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
D11AX01 — MinoxidilC02DC01 — Minoxidil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.20 — Direct Vasodilators
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
PDB Entries
3b6h / 4k7a
FDA label
Download (145 KB)
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0RecruitingTreatmentPermanent Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAlopecia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdverse Effects / Objective (Goal) / Self-Assessment1
2CompletedTreatmentAlopecia / Androgenetic Alopecia1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia2
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia (AGA) / Female Pattern Hair Loss / Ludwig Type 1 / Ludwig Type 21
2CompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss1
2CompletedTreatmentWilliams Beuren Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlopecia Areata (AA) / Alopecia Totalis (AT) / Alopecia Universalis (AU)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlopecia / Female Pattern Baldness1
2RecruitingTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Male Pattern Hair Loss1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia3
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFemale Pattern Alopecia1
4CompletedTreatmentAlopecia Areata (AA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBeard Enhancement1
4CompletedTreatmentEyebrow Hypotrichosis / Thinning Eyebrows1
4CompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss1
4CompletedTreatmentHypotrichosis of Eyebrows / Thinning Eyebrows1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChest Hair Enhancement1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFemale Androgenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Fissures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss, Androgenic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMale Pattern of Hair Loss, Androgenic Alopecia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTreatment Induced Hypertension1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1


  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
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  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
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  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Avacor products llc
  • L perrigo co
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Harmony laboratories
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
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  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
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  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
Solution / dropsTopical2 g/100mL
Solution / dropsTopical5 g/100mL
SolutionTopical0.05 mg/1mL
SprayTopical5 g/100g
SolutionTopical2 %
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
SprayTopical2 g/100mL
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical50 mg/1g
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical3 g/60mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
SolutionTopical20 g/1mL
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical5 g/100g
SolutionTopical5 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical2 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical0.02 g/1mL
SprayTopical5 g/100mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100g
SolutionTopical5 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rogaine ex-str starter kit28.32USD kit
Minoxidil powder2.07USD g
Loniten 10 mg Tablet1.52USD tablet
Minoxidil 10 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Minoxidil 2.5 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
Loniten 2.5 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Rogaine 5 % foam0.27USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)248 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.61MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility19.9 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.11 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9496
Caco-2 permeable+0.7214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.596
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8959
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8453
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5721
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8761
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6099
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6999
Ames testAMES toxic0.5253
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9616
Rat acute toxicity2.2308 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.678
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7016
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-6953000000-742e0f214f512eecd184
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9432000000-6fff92eb2f75daf5b772
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-674539ce0a58d8d1138e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-9680000000-8c6bee8b5f24585d8926
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9610000000-44aa7ff70200e0521eef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9100000000-77920bdc992ad8a2f9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-4d4c7019be9b77462d2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-86dd850029e96dce7cb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0950000000-f76a21fbbfffb939b270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-9609dde96093ce0602dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3900000000-f5138ae7a1ba6d04c54a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9800000000-1a8a598ebb2e2427f97f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0920000000-226902b0b5e18eaca083
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2960000000-6ce9f8facf6478d7f7ea


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Piperidines / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Dialkylarylamine / Aminopyrimidine / Imidolactam / Pyrimidine / Piperidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, aminopyrimidine, pyrimidine N-oxide (CHEBI:6942)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
44794.6 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B: Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Jun;34(6):457-82. [PubMed:9646008]
  4. Evans JM, Allan AK, Davies SA, Dow JA: Sulphonylurea sensitivity and enriched expression implicate inward rectifier K+ channels in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;208(Pt 19):3771-83. [PubMed:16169954]
  5. Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Binding of K(ATP) channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1395-402. [PubMed:9579735]
  6. Bray KM, Quast U: A specific binding site for K+ channel openers in rat aorta. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11689-92. [PubMed:1601843]
  7. Black KL, Yin D, Konda BM, Wang X, Hu J, Ko MK, Bayan JA, Sacapano MR, Espinoza AJ, Ong JM, Irvin D, Shu Y: Different effects of KCa and KATP agonists on brain tumor permeability between syngeneic and allogeneic rat models. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 28;1227:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.046. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18602898]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
  1. Kurbel S, Kurbel B, Zanic-Matanic D: Minoxidil and male-pattern alopecia: a potential role for a local regulator of sebum secretion with vasoconstrictive effects? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Nov;53(5):402-6. [PubMed:10616041]
  2. Gaffar A, Scherl D, Afflitto J, Coleman EJ: The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Jun;22(6):480-4. [PubMed:7560228]
  3. Michelet JF, Commo S, Billoni N, Mahe YF, Bernard BA: Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Feb;108(2):205-9. [PubMed:9008235]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of b...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Molecular Weight
45057.125 Da
  1. Werning C: The effect of minoxidil on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in patients with essential and renal hypertension. Klin Wochenschr. 1976 Aug 1;54(15):727-34. [PubMed:790007]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
  1. Uchaipichat V, Mackenzie PI, Guo XH, Gardner-Stephen D, Galetin A, Houston JB, Miners JO: Human udp-glucuronosyltransferases: isoform selectivity and kinetics of 4-methylumbelliferone and 1-naphthol glucuronidation, effects of organic solvents, and inhibition by diclofenac and probenecid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):413-23. doi: 10.1124/dmd.32.4.413. [PubMed:15039294]
  2. Canadian DPD Label - LONITEN (minoxidil) [File]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 15, 2019 02:02