Identification

Name
Minoxidil
Accession Number
DB00350  (APRD00086, DB08225)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
  • 6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
  • Alostil
  • Apo-gain
  • Lonolox
  • Minossidile
  • Minoxidil
  • Minoxidilum
  • Minoximen
  • Normoxidil
  • Regaine
  • Tricoxidil
External IDs
U-10,858 / U-10858
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Loniten 10mgTablet10 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Loniten 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2007-07-30Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-05-182017-02-15Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1995-12-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralDoh Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-10-16Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-03-202017-02-18Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralActavis Pharma Company2009-10-26Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-08-21Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical1988-11-14Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gain Liq 20mg/mlSolution20 mgTopicalApotex Corporation1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Basic Care Hair RegrowthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalL. Perrigo Company2017-08-10Not applicableUs
Boost Regrowth for WomenLiquid2 g/100mLTopicalSHELBY PROFESSIONAL, INC.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For MenLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For WomenLiquid20 mg/mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Capillus Hair Regrowth TreatmentLiquid50 mg/mLTopicalCapillus, Llc2017-01-24Not applicableUs
Careone Hair Regrowth TreatmentAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalAmerican Sales Company2012-07-27Not applicableUs
CareOne Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra StrengthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalAmerican Sales Company2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Cerafill RetaliateSolution20 mg/mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-282017-12-22Us
Cerafill Retaliate Extra Strength For MenSolution50 mg/mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-28Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Alostil (McNeil) / Apo-Gain (Apotex) / Avogain / Lipogaine / Loniten (Pfizer) / Lonolox (Pfizer) / Minodyl / Minoxigaine / Minoximen (Menarini) / Mintop (Dr. Reddy's) / Regaine (McNeil) / Rogaine (Johnson & Johnson) / Theroxidil (Ei) / Tricoxidil / Vanarex
Categories
UNII
5965120SH1
CAS number
38304-91-5
Weight
Average: 209.2483
Monoisotopic: 209.127660127
Chemical Formula
C9H15N5O
InChI Key
ZFMITUMMTDLWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H15N5O/c10-7-6-8(12-9(11)14(7)15)13-4-2-1-3-5-13/h6H,1-5,10H2,(H2,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidin-1-ium-1-olate
SMILES
NC1=CC(=NC(N)=[N+]1[O-])N1CCCCC1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Minoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.

Mechanism of action

Minoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.

TargetActionsOrganism
AATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
inducer
Human
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inducer
Human
UReninNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Minoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Minoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Approximately 90% of the administered drug is metabolized, predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid at the N-oxide position in the pyrimidine ring, but also by conversion to more polar products. Known metabolites exert much less pharmacologic effect than minoxidil itself.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4.2 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
AcebutololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Illicit
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Minoxidil.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AvanafilAvanafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved, Investigational
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Illicit
BarnidipineMinoxidil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Barnidipine.Approved
BenazeprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
BepridilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
BietaserpineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bietaserpine.Experimental
BimatoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BosentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Minoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
BupranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CadralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cadralazine.Experimental
CafedrineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandoxatrilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Candoxatril.Experimental
CaptoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
CarteololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CicletanineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Clevidipine.Approved, Investigational
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.Approved
CloranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
CryptenamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cryptenamine.Approved
CyclopenthiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclosporine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclothiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclothiazide.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Investigational
DebrisoquinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Experimental
DeserpidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved, Investigational
DiethylnorspermineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DihydralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DorzolamideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DoxazosinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.Approved
DuloxetineMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Endralazine.Experimental
EpanololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved, Investigational
FelodipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
Ferulic acidMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanabenzMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanabenz.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanadrel.Approved
GuanazodineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanfacineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
HexamethoniumMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
HydralazineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
IndapamideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
IrbesartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
KetanserinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
LabetalolMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LatanoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Latanoprost.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.Approved
MacitentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
ManidipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
MecamylamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.Approved, Investigational
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MethoserpidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
MethyldopaMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MetipranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MirodenafilMirodenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.Approved
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
MuzolimineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
NadololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NaftopidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NebivololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
NicardipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NiguldipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nimodipine.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
ObinutuzumabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved, Investigational
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
OlmesartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
OxprenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Papaverine.Approved, Investigational
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PenbutololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PentoliniumMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
PhentolamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
PinacidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Approved
PindololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved, Investigational
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
RamiprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
RemikirenMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Remikiren.Approved
RescinnamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
RilmenidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RituximabMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropinirole is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Withdrawn
SaprisartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Saprisartan.Experimental
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Sotalol.Approved
SpiraprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TalinololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerlipressinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TetrahydropalmatineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheodrenalineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Withdrawn
TiboloneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicrynafenMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Tizanidine.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Withdrawn
TolonidineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
TorasemideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.Approved
TrandolaprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Travoprost.Approved
TreprostinilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TrichlormethiazideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostoneMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved, Investigational
UrapidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Urapidil.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Minoxidil can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincamineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XipamideMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolineMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved, Investigational
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ZofenoprilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Paul S. Uster, Yolanda P. Quinn, "Non-crystalline minoxidil composition, its production and application." U.S. Patent US4828837, issued March, 1985.

US4828837
General References
  1. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, Miller J, Hordinsky M, Wanser R, Zhang P, Kohut B: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):767-74. Epub 2007 Aug 29. [PubMed:17761356]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014494
KEGG Drug
D00418
PubChem Compound
4201
PubChem Substance
46508344
ChemSpider
10438564
ChEBI
6942
ChEMBL
CHEMBL802
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000143
PharmGKB
PA450521
IUPHAR
4254
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
MXD
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Minoxidil
ATC Codes
D11AX01 — MinoxidilC02DC01 — Minoxidil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.20 — Direct Vasodilators
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
PDB Entries
3b6h / 4k7a
FDA label
Download (145 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingOtherBioavailability1
1CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Cholesterol Level1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdverse Effects / Objective (Goal) / Self-Assessment1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia2
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Hair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss1
2CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentWilliams Beuren Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFemale Pattern Baldness / Hair Thinning1
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia3
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1
3CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFemale Pattern Alopecia1
4CompletedTreatmentBeard Enhancement1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChest Hair Enhancement1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFemale Androgenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableFemale Pattern Hair Loss / Hair Thinning1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTreatment Induced Hypertension1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Perrigo co
  • Sight pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Avacor products llc
  • L perrigo co
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Harmony laboratories
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Royce laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical20 mg/mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/mL
LiquidTopical2 %
SolutionTopical3 g/60mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical20 mg
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/mL
SolutionTopical2 %
Aerosol, foamTopical5 g/100g
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
LiquidTopical50 mg/mL
Aerosol, foamTopical50 mg/g
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
SolutionTopical20 g/mL
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical.02 g/mL
Aerosol, foamTopical5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rogaine ex-str starter kit28.32USD kit
Minoxidil powder2.07USD g
Loniten 10 mg Tablet1.52USD tablet
Minoxidil 10 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Minoxidil 2.5 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
Loniten 2.5 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Rogaine 5 % foam0.27USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946120No1999-04-202019-04-20Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)248 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.61MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility19.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.24ALOGPS
logP1.3ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9496
Caco-2 permeable+0.7214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.596
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8959
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8453
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5721
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8761
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6099
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6999
Ames testAMES toxic0.5253
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9006
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9616
Rat acute toxicity2.2308 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.678
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7016
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-6953000000-742e0f214f512eecd184
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9432000000-6fff92eb2f75daf5b772
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-674539ce0a58d8d1138e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-9680000000-8c6bee8b5f24585d8926
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9610000000-44aa7ff70200e0521eef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9100000000-77920bdc992ad8a2f9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-4d4c7019be9b77462d2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-86dd850029e96dce7cb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0950000000-f76a21fbbfffb939b270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-9609dde96093ce0602dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3900000000-f5138ae7a1ba6d04c54a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9800000000-1a8a598ebb2e2427f97f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0920000000-226902b0b5e18eaca083
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2960000000-6ce9f8facf6478d7f7ea

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Dialkylarylamines
Alternative Parents
Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Piperidines / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dialkylarylamine / Aminopyrimidine / Imidolactam / Pyrimidine / Piperidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, aminopyrimidine, pyrimidine N-oxide (CHEBI:6942)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than...
Gene Name
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID
P48048
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B: Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Jun;34(6):457-82. [PubMed:9646008]
  4. Evans JM, Allan AK, Davies SA, Dow JA: Sulphonylurea sensitivity and enriched expression implicate inward rectifier K+ channels in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;208(Pt 19):3771-83. [PubMed:16169954]
  5. Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Binding of K(ATP) channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1395-402. [PubMed:9579735]
  6. Bray KM, Quast U: A specific binding site for K+ channel openers in rat aorta. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11689-92. [PubMed:1601843]
  7. Black KL, Yin D, Konda BM, Wang X, Hu J, Ko MK, Bayan JA, Sacapano MR, Espinoza AJ, Ong JM, Irvin D, Shu Y: Different effects of KCa and KATP agonists on brain tumor permeability between syngeneic and allogeneic rat models. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 28;1227:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.046. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18602898]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Kurbel S, Kurbel B, Zanic-Matanic D: Minoxidil and male-pattern alopecia: a potential role for a local regulator of sebum secretion with vasoconstrictive effects? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Nov;53(5):402-6. [PubMed:10616041]
  2. Gaffar A, Scherl D, Afflitto J, Coleman EJ: The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Jun;22(6):480-4. [PubMed:7560228]
  3. Michelet JF, Commo S, Billoni N, Mahe YF, Bernard BA: Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Feb;108(2):205-9. [PubMed:9008235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of b...
Gene Name
REN
Uniprot ID
P00797
Uniprot Name
Renin
Molecular Weight
45057.125 Da
References
  1. Werning C: The effect of minoxidil on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in patients with essential and renal hypertension. Klin Wochenschr. 1976 Aug 1;54(15):727-34. [PubMed:790007]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 13, 2018 09:34