Identification

Name
Minoxidil
Accession Number
DB00350  (APRD00086, DB08225)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (vasodilator agents) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in blood pressure. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2,4-Diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide
  • 6-Piperidin-1-ylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine 3-oxide
  • Alostil
  • Apo-gain
  • Lonolox
  • Minossidile
  • Minoxidil
  • Minoxidilum
  • Minoximen
  • Normoxidil
  • Regaine
  • Tricoxidil
External IDs
U-10,858 / U-10858
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LonitenTablet10 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1979-11-012005-06-30Us
LonitenTablet2.5 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1979-11-012005-10-31Us
Loniten 10mgTablet10 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Loniten 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralPfizer1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1988-11-14Not applicableUs54569 198320180907 15195 8d4uhd
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1995-12-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1988-11-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralDoh Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs53489 0386 01 nlmimage10 46452379
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2007-07-05Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical1988-11-14Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2012-07-202013-10-30Us
MinoxidilTablet10 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-04-062018-06-15Us
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralActavis Pharma Company2009-10-26Not applicableUs
MinoxidilTablet2.5 mg/1OralCardinal Health2007-07-302018-07-20Us
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gain Liq 20mg/mlSolution20 mgTopicalApotex Corporation1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Basic Care Hair RegrowthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalL. Perrigo Company2017-08-10Not applicableUs
Berkley and Jensen MinoxidilAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalBJWC2018-11-01Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For MenLiquid50 mg/1mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
BOSLEY PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH HAIR REGROWTH TREATMENT Regular Strength For WomenLiquid20 mg/1mLTopicalPure Source, Llc2013-08-15Not applicableUs
Capillus Hair Regrowth TreatmentLiquid50 mg/1mLTopicalCapillus, Llc2017-01-24Not applicableUs
Careone Hair Regrowth TreatmentAerosol, foam5 g/100gTopicalAmerican Sales Company2012-07-272018-10-26Us
CareOne Hair Regrowth Treatment Extra StrengthSolution3 g/60mLTopicalAmerican Sales Company2009-12-152017-12-01Us
Cerafill RetaliateSolution20 mg/1mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-282017-07-31Us
Cerafill Retaliate Extra Strength For MenSolution50 mg/1mLTopicalL'oreal2014-04-282018-04-30Us
International/Other Brands
Alostil (McNeil) / Apo-Gain (Apotex) / Avogain / Lipogaine / Loniten (Pfizer) / Lonolox (Pfizer) / Minodyl / Minoxigaine / Minoximen (Menarini) / Mintop (Dr. Reddy's) / Regaine (McNeil) / Rogaine (Johnson & Johnson) / Theroxidil (Ei) / Tricoxidil / Vanarex
Categories
UNII
5965120SH1
CAS number
38304-91-5
Weight
Average: 209.2483
Monoisotopic: 209.127660127
Chemical Formula
C9H15N5O
InChI Key
ZFMITUMMTDLWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H15N5O/c10-7-6-8(12-9(11)14(7)15)13-4-2-1-3-5-13/h6H,1-5,10H2,(H2,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidin-1-ium-1-olate
SMILES
NC1=CC(=NC(N)=[N+]1[O-])N1CCCCC1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Minoxidil is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia. Microcirculatory blood flow in animals is enhanced or maintained in all systemic vascular beds. In man, forearm and renal vascular resistance decline; forearm blood flow increases while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are preserved. The predominant site of minoxidil action is arterial. Venodilation does not occur with minoxidil; thus, postural hypotension is unusual with its administration. The antihypertensive activity of minoxidil is due to its sulphate metabolite, minoxidil sulfate.

Mechanism of action

Minoxidil is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. This vasodilation may also improve the viability of hair cells or hair follicles.

TargetActionsOrganism
AATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
inducer
Human
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inducer
Human
UReninNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Minoxidil is at least 90% absorbed from the GI tract in experimental animals and man.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Minoxidil does not bind to plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Approximately 90% of the administered drug is metabolized, predominantly by conjugation with glucuronic acid at the N-oxide position in the pyrimidine ring, but also by conversion to more polar products. Known metabolites exert much less pharmacologic effect than minoxidil itself.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4.2 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg. Side effects include cardiovascular effects associated with hypotension such as sudden weight gain, rapid heart beat, faintness or dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Alclofenac.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Minoxidil.
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Aliskiren.
AlminoprofenThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Alminoprofen.
AlprenololMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Paul S. Uster, Yolanda P. Quinn, "Non-crystalline minoxidil composition, its production and application." U.S. Patent US4828837, issued March, 1985.

US4828837
General References
  1. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, Miller J, Hordinsky M, Wanser R, Zhang P, Kohut B: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):767-74. Epub 2007 Aug 29. [PubMed:17761356]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014494
KEGG Drug
D00418
PubChem Compound
4201
PubChem Substance
46508344
ChemSpider
10438564
ChEBI
6942
ChEMBL
CHEMBL802
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000143
PharmGKB
PA450521
IUPHAR
4254
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
MXD
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Minoxidil
ATC Codes
D11AX01 — MinoxidilC02DC01 — Minoxidil
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.20 — Direct Vasodilators
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
PDB Entries
3b6h / 4k7a
FDA label
Download (145 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingOtherBioavailability1
1CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol1
1CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHair Thinning1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdverse Effects / Objective (Goal) / Self-Assessment1
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia2
2CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Hair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentFemale Pattern Hair Loss1
2CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
2CompletedTreatmentWilliams Beuren Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentFemale Pattern Baldness / Hair Thinning1
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia3
3CompletedTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1
3CompletedTreatmentHair Thinning1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFemale Pattern Alopecia1
4CompletedTreatmentBeard Enhancement1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChest Hair Enhancement1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFemale Androgenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFemale Pattern Hair Loss / Hair Thinning1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAndrogenetic Alopecia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnal Fissures1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTreatment Induced Hypertension1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAndrogenetic Alopecia / Female Pattern Hair Loss1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Johnson and johnson group consumer companies
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Copley pharmaceutical inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Perrigo co
  • Sight pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Avacor products llc
  • L perrigo co
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Harmony laboratories
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Royce laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Johnson & Johnson Healthcare
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical2 %
SprayTopical5 g/100g
SolutionTopical20 mg
SolutionTopical2 %
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical50 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical50 mg/1g
SolutionTopical2 g/100mL
SolutionTopical3 g/60mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral2.5 mg/1
SolutionTopical20 g/1mL
SolutionTopical5 g/100mL
LiquidTopical2 g/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical5 g/100g
SolutionTopical0.02 g/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical2 g/100g
SolutionTopical5 g/100g
Aerosol, foamTopical5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rogaine ex-str starter kit28.32USD kit
Minoxidil powder2.07USD g
Loniten 10 mg Tablet1.52USD tablet
Minoxidil 10 mg tablet1.32USD tablet
Minoxidil 2.5 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
Loniten 2.5 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
Rogaine 5 % foam0.27USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6946120No1999-04-202019-04-20Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)248 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/LMERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa4.61MERCK INDEX (2001)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility19.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.24ALOGPS
logP1.3ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.63 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9496
Caco-2 permeable+0.7214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.596
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8959
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8453
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5721
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8761
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6099
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6999
Ames testAMES toxic0.5253
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9006
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9616
Rat acute toxicity2.2308 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.678
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7016
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-6953000000-742e0f214f512eecd184
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9432000000-6fff92eb2f75daf5b772
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-674539ce0a58d8d1138e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-9680000000-8c6bee8b5f24585d8926
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9610000000-44aa7ff70200e0521eef
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4j-9100000000-77920bdc992ad8a2f9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-4d4c7019be9b77462d2e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-86dd850029e96dce7cb4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-0950000000-f76a21fbbfffb939b270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-9609dde96093ce0602dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3900000000-f5138ae7a1ba6d04c54a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-9800000000-1a8a598ebb2e2427f97f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0920000000-226902b0b5e18eaca083
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2960000000-6ce9f8facf6478d7f7ea

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylarylamines. These are aliphatic aromatic amines in which the amino group is linked to two aliphatic chains and one aromatic group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Amines
Direct Parent
Dialkylarylamines
Alternative Parents
Aminopyrimidines and derivatives / Piperidines / Imidolactams / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Dialkylarylamine / Aminopyrimidine / Imidolactam / Pyrimidine / Piperidine / Heteroaromatic compound / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, aminopyrimidine, pyrimidine N-oxide (CHEBI:6942)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than...
Gene Name
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID
P48048
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B: Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Jun;34(6):457-82. [PubMed:9646008]
  4. Evans JM, Allan AK, Davies SA, Dow JA: Sulphonylurea sensitivity and enriched expression implicate inward rectifier K+ channels in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct;208(Pt 19):3771-83. [PubMed:16169954]
  5. Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Binding of K(ATP) channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(7):1395-402. [PubMed:9579735]
  6. Bray KM, Quast U: A specific binding site for K+ channel openers in rat aorta. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11689-92. [PubMed:1601843]
  7. Black KL, Yin D, Konda BM, Wang X, Hu J, Ko MK, Bayan JA, Sacapano MR, Espinoza AJ, Ong JM, Irvin D, Shu Y: Different effects of KCa and KATP agonists on brain tumor permeability between syngeneic and allogeneic rat models. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 28;1227:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.06.046. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18602898]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Kurbel S, Kurbel B, Zanic-Matanic D: Minoxidil and male-pattern alopecia: a potential role for a local regulator of sebum secretion with vasoconstrictive effects? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Nov;53(5):402-6. [PubMed:10616041]
  2. Gaffar A, Scherl D, Afflitto J, Coleman EJ: The effect of triclosan on mediators of gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Jun;22(6):480-4. [PubMed:7560228]
  3. Michelet JF, Commo S, Billoni N, Mahe YF, Bernard BA: Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Feb;108(2):205-9. [PubMed:9008235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of b...
Gene Name
REN
Uniprot ID
P00797
Uniprot Name
Renin
Molecular Weight
45057.125 Da
References
  1. Werning C: The effect of minoxidil on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in patients with essential and renal hypertension. Klin Wochenschr. 1976 Aug 1;54(15):727-34. [PubMed:790007]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:41