Identification

Name
Tretinoin
Accession Number
DB00755  (NUTR00051, APRD00362)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

Tretinoin, also known as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), is a naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A (retinol). Retinoids such as tretinoin are important regulators of cell reproduction, proliferation, and differentiation and are used to treat acne and photodamaged skin and to manage keratinization disorders such as ichthyosis and keratosis follicularis. Tretinoin also represents the class of anticancer drugs called differentiating agents and is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (all-E)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraenoic acid
  • 3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraenoic acid (ECL)
  • Acide retinoique
  • all trans Retinoic acid
  • all trans-Retinoic acid
  • all-(E)-Retinoic acid
  • all-trans-beta-Retinoic acid
  • all-trans-Retinoic acid
  • all-trans-Tretinoin
  • all-trans-Vitamin A acid
  • all-trans-Vitamin A1 acid
  • ATRA
  • beta-Retinoic acid
  • Retinoic acid
  • Retionic acid
  • trans-Retinoic acid
  • Tretin M
  • Tretinoin
  • Tretinoina
  • Trétinoïne
  • Tretinoinum
  • Vitamin A acid
External IDs
AGN 100335 / NSC-122758 / Ro 1-5488
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AltrenoLotion0.5 mg/1gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC2018-08-24Not applicableUs
AtralinGel0.05 g/100gTopicalCoria Laboratories2007-07-26Not applicableUs
AvitaGel0.25 mg/1gTopicalMylan Pharmaceuticals1998-03-18Not applicableUs
AvitaCream0.25 mg/1gTopicalMylan Bertek Pharmaceuticals2015-11-012015-11-19Us
AvitaCream0.25 mg/1gTopicalMylan Pharmaceuticals1997-06-01Not applicableUs
Rejuva-ACream0.025 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1997-11-042014-05-01Canada
RenovaCream0.05 g/100gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-02-012011-05-31Us
RenovaCream0.2 mg/1gTopicalRebel Distributors2011-10-18Not applicableUs
RenovaCream0.05 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1995-12-312014-07-30Canada
RenovaCream0.2 mg/1gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Janssen Pharmaceutical2011-10-182015-10-31Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ObagiCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalYS PLUS CORPORATION2014-10-012015-12-31Us
ObagiCream1 mg/1gTopicalYS PLUS CORPORATION2014-10-012015-12-31Us
RefissaCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalObagi Medical Products, Inc.2010-02-222016-05-01Us
RefissaCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalSuneva Medical, Inc.2009-06-17Not applicableUs
RefissaCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products2009-06-172014-07-31Us
RefissaCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalCoria Laboratories2011-02-012016-05-01Us
Refissa Tretinoin (Emollient)Cream0.5 mg/1gTopicalZo Skin Health Inc2017-04-03Not applicableUs
Tretin-XGel0.25 mg/1gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-08-012015-07-31Us
Tretin-XCream0.5 mg/1gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-04-012015-07-31Us
Tretin-XGel0.1 mg/1gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-04-012015-07-31Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Biacna Topical GelTretinoin (0.025 %) + Clindamycin phosphate (1.200 %)GelTopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2011-05-16Not applicableCanada
Clindamycin Phosphate and TretinionTretinoin (0.25 mg/1g) + Clindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrasco, Laboratories2018-06-28Not applicableUs
Clindamycin Phosphate and TretinoinTretinoin (0.25 mg/1g) + Clindamycin phosphate (12 mg/1g)GelTopicalActavis Pharma Company2016-07-05Not applicableUs
Dermapak PlusTretinoin (0.25 mg/1g) + Menthol (0.44 g/100g) + Zinc oxide (20.6 g/100g)KitTotal Pharmacy Supply, Inc.2015-09-082015-10-21Us
Dermawerx Zmt PakTretinoin (0.25 mg/1g) + Menthol (0.44 g/100g) + Zinc oxide (20.6 g/100g)KitPatchwerx Labs2015-09-08Not applicableUs
Retisol-ATretinoin (0.1 %) + Avobenzone (2 %) + Octinoxate (7.5 %)CreamTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312015-07-03Canada
Retisol-ATretinoin (0.01 %) + Avobenzone (2 %) + Octinoxate (7.5 %)CreamTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312015-07-03Canada
Retisol-ATretinoin (0.025 %) + Avobenzone (2 %) + Octinoxate (7.5 %)CreamTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312015-07-03Canada
Retisol-ATretinoin (0.05 %) + Avobenzone (2 %) + Octinoxate (7.5 %)CreamTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312015-07-03Canada
SolagéTretinoin (0.01 %) + Mequinol (2 %)SolutionTopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-01-022014-03-04Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AvitaTretinoin (0.25 mg/1g)GelTopicalBERTEK PHARMACEUTICALS INC.2007-04-272007-04-27Us
CenoviaTretinoin (0.025 g/0.025g) + Fluticasone propionate (0.025 g/0.025g) + Hydroquinone (2 g/2g)KitAccumix Pharmaceuticals2014-12-152015-07-17Us
Dr. Throwers HydrotetTretinoin (0.05 g/100g) + Hydrocortisone (1 g/100g)CreamTopicalDr. Thrower's Skincare, Inc.2015-05-15Not applicableUs
Dr. Throwers Pbc No. 1Tretinoin (0.1 g/100g) + Betamethasone dipropionate (0.5 g/100g) + Hydroquinone (12 g/100g)CreamTopicalDr. Thrower's Skincare, Inc.2015-05-15Not applicableUs
Retin-ATretinoin (0.5 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalOrtho Dermatological2006-10-062006-10-06Us
International/Other Brands
Aberel (Janssen) / Aberela (Janssen) / Airol (Pierre Fabre Dermo) / Dermairol (Roche) / Eudyna (Zydus) / Kétrel (Bailleul) / Renova / Retin-a / Retisol-A (Stiefel) / Solage / Sotret (Ranbaxy Laboratories Inc.) / Stieva-A (Stiefel) / Vesanoid / Vitinoin
Categories
UNII
5688UTC01R
CAS number
302-79-4
Weight
Average: 300.442
Monoisotopic: 300.208930142
Chemical Formula
C20H28O2
InChI Key
SHGAZHPCJJPHSC-YCNIQYBTSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H28O2/c1-15(8-6-9-16(2)14-19(21)22)11-12-18-17(3)10-7-13-20(18,4)5/h6,8-9,11-12,14H,7,10,13H2,1-5H3,(H,21,22)/b9-6+,12-11+,15-8+,16-14+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C(/C)=C/C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the the induction of remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), French-American-British (FAB) classification M3 (including the M3 variant); For the topical treatment of acne vulgaris, flat warts and other skin conditions (psoriasis, ichthyosis congenita, icthyosis vulgaris, lamellar icthyosis, keratosis palmaris et plantaris, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, senile comedones, senile keratosis, keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease), and basal cell carcinomas.); For palliative therapy to improve fine wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, roughness associated with photodamage.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Tretinoin, also known as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), is a naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A (retinol). Retinoids such as tretinoin are important regulators of cell reproduction, proliferation, and differentiation and are used to treat acne and photodamaged skin and to manage keratinization disorders such as ichthyosis and keratosis follicularis. Tretinoin also represents the class of anticancer drugs called differentiating agents and is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

Mechanism of action

Tretinoin binds to alpha, beta, and gamma retinoic acid receptors (RARs). RAR-alpha and RAR-beta have been associated with the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia and squamous cell cancers, respectively. RAR-gamma is associated with retinoid effects on mucocutaneous tissues and bone. Although the exact mechanism of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that the effectiveness of tretinoin in acne is due primarily to its ability to modify abnormal follicular keratinization. Comedones form in follicles with an excess of keratinized epithelial cells. Tretinoin promotes detachment of cornified cells and the enhanced shedding of corneocytes from the follicle. By increasing the mitotic activity of follicular epithelia, tretinoin also increases the turnover rate of thin, loosely-adherent corneocytes. Through these actions, the comedo contents are extruded and the formation of the microcomedo, the precursor lesion of acne vulgaris, is reduced. Tretinoin is not a cytolytic agent but instead induces cytodifferentiation and decreased proliferation of APL cells in culture and in vivo. When Tretinoin is given systemically to APL patients, tretinoin treatment produces an initial maturation of the primitive promyelocytes derived from the leukemic clone, followed by a repopulation of the bone marrow and peripheral blood by normal, polyclonal hematopoietic cells in patients achieving complete remission (CR). The exact mechanism of action of tretinoin in APL is unknown.

TargetActionsOrganism
ARetinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
agonist
Human
ARetinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
agonist
Human
ARetinoic acid receptor gamma
agonist
Human
URetinal dehydrogenase 1Not AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid-induced protein 3Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1Not AvailableHuman
URetinal dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor responder protein 1
agonist
Human
URetinoic acid receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor betaNot AvailableHuman
ULipocalin-1Not AvailableHuman
UOdorant-binding protein 2aNot AvailableHuman
URetinol-binding protein 4Not AvailableHuman
U[Pyruvate dehydrogenase [lipoamide]] kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphaNot AvailableHuman
UCytochrome P450 26A1Not AvailableHuman
UCytochrome P450 26B1Not AvailableHuman
UCytochrome P450 26C1Not AvailableHuman
UHematopoietic prostaglandin D synthaseNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

1-31% (topical)

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

> 95%

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

0.5-2 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Vitamin A DeficiencyDisease
Retinol MetabolismMetabolic
Retinol MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Tretinoin.
2-MethoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with 2-Methoxyethanol.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Tretinoin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Tretinoin.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Tretinoin.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Tretinoin.
9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with 9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Huang ME, Ye YC, Chen SR, Chai JR, Lu JX, Zhoa L, Gu LJ, Wang ZY: Use of all-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 1988 Aug;72(2):567-72. [PubMed:3165295]
  2. Castaigne S, Chomienne C, Daniel MT, Ballerini P, Berger R, Fenaux P, Degos L: All-trans retinoic acid as a differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. I. Clinical results. Blood. 1990 Nov 1;76(9):1704-9. [PubMed:2224119]
  3. Sanz MA: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2006:147-55. [PubMed:17124054]
  4. Mao JT, Goldin JG, Dermand J, Ibrahim G, Brown MS, Emerick A, McNitt-Gray MF, Gjertson DW, Estrada F, Tashkin DP, Roth MD: A pilot study of all-trans-retinoic acid for the treatment of human emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Mar 1;165(5):718-23. [PubMed:11874821]
  5. Roth MD, Connett JE, D'Armiento JM, Foronjy RF, Friedman PJ, Goldin JG, Louis TA, Mao JT, Muindi JR, O'Connor GT, Ramsdell JW, Ries AL, Scharf SM, Schluger NW, Sciurba FC, Skeans MA, Walter RE, Wendt CH, Wise RA: Feasibility of retinoids for the treatment of emphysema study. Chest. 2006 Nov;130(5):1334-45. [PubMed:17099008]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001852
KEGG Drug
D00094
KEGG Compound
C00777
PubChem Compound
5538
PubChem Substance
46504843
ChemSpider
392618
BindingDB
31883
ChEBI
15367
ChEMBL
CHEMBL38
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000117
PharmGKB
PA164746900
HET
REA
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Tretinoin
ATC Codes
L01XX14 — TretinoinD10AD51 — Tretinoin, combinationsD10AD01 — Tretinoin
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
  • 84:16.00 — Cell Stimulants and Proliferants
PDB Entries
1cbr / 1cbs / 1fem / 1g5y / 1gx9 / 1n4h / 1rlb / 2acl / 2fr3 / 2g78
show 11 more
FDA label
Download (42.8 KB)
MSDS
Download (29.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedOtherMelasma1
0CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris2
0CompletedTreatmentCollagen Fibril Alteration1
0Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceCentral Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdult Solid Neoplasm1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1CompletedNot AvailableAcne Vulgaris1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome2
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Intraocular Lymphoma / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Small Intestine Lymphoma / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma / Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
1CompletedTreatmentChildhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3) / Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor / Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma / Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma / Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases1
1CompletedTreatmentLocalized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
1CompletedTreatmentRelapsed Multiple Myeloma1
1CompletedTreatmentSclerosing Cholangitis1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas1
1SuspendedTreatmentRecurrent Neuroblastoma / Refractory Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma1
1TerminatedTreatmentAdult Anaplastic Astrocytoma / Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma / Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Adult Glioblastoma / Adult Gliosarcoma / Adult Mixed Glioma / Adult Oligodendroglioma / Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor1
1TerminatedTreatmentLeukemia, Myelocytic, Acute1
1TerminatedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
1TerminatedTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Melanoma / Stage III Melanoma / Stage IV Melanoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Solid Tumors and Hematologic Malignancy1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)2
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentRenal Cell Cancer, Recurrent / Stage III Renal Cell Cancer / Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma1
2CompletedPreventionMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema / Lung Diseases, Obstructive1
2CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias3
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2CompletedTreatmentFacial fine wrinkling / Photodamaged Skin1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Neuroblastoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentRosaceas1
2CompletedTreatmentBenign facial lentigines1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Prostate Neoplasms / Prostatic Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentSclerosing Cholangitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentLeukemias1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemia in Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLung Cancers2
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPhotodamage / Solar Elastosis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAnti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentRosaceas1
2, 3SuspendedTreatmentMelasma1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3) / Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLocalized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentAcne3
3CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris2
3CompletedTreatmentAcne / Acne Vulgaris1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12) / Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3) / Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3) / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies1
3CompletedTreatmentBasal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) / Skin Neoplasms / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemias1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms2
3CompletedTreatmentLocalized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4 Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
3CompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
3CompletedTreatmentPhotodamage / Solar Elastosis1
3CompletedTreatmentSolar Elastosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)3
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia With PML-RARA / Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA / Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Childhood Myeloid Neoplasm1
3RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Ganglioneuroblastoma / Childhood Neuroblastoma / INRG Stage L2 / INRG Stage M / INRG Stage MS / NMYC Gene Amplification / Recurrent Neuroblastoma1
3SuspendedTreatmentAnaplastic Medulloblastoma / Medulloblastomas / Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma / Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma / Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
3TerminatedTreatmentRosaceas1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentLeukemias1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentLeukemias / Neutropenias1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentIdiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) / Purpura1
3WithdrawnTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris6
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)2
4CompletedTreatmentMelasma1
4CompletedTreatmentStriae Distensae / Treatments1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAcne Vulgaris1
4RecruitingTreatmentAPL1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)1
4RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4TerminatedTreatmentMelasma1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAcne1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMedulloblastomas / Pinealoblastoma / Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified / Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma / Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma / Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableImmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura ( ITP )1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCervical Cancers / Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSolar Lentigines1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDisseminated Neuroblastoma / Ganglioneuroblastoma / Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma / Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma / Regional Neuroblastoma / Stage 4S Neuroblastoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMild to severe acne vulgaris1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSkin Aging1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionMedication Reaction1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Mylan bertek pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ortho dermatologics
  • Johnson and johnson consumer companies inc
  • Spear pharmaceuticals inc
  • Triax pharmaceuticals llc
  • Dow pharmaceutical sciences inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Ameri-Pac Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Contract Pharm
  • Coria Laboratories
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DPT Laboratories Ltd.
  • Draxis Specialty Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Galderma Laboratories
  • Genesis Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Hill Laboratories Inc.
  • Medicis Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Obagi Medical Products Inc.
  • Ortho Mcneil Janssen Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Rouses Point Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Spear Dermatology Products Inc.
  • Stiefel Labs
  • Triax Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical0.5 mg/1g
GelTopical
Kit
CreamTopical0.05 g/100g
CreamTopical0.2 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.1 mg/1g
LiquidTopical0.5 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.04 %
GelTopical0.1 %
GelTopical0.4 mg/1g
GelTopical0.6 mg/1g
GelTopical1 mL/1g
GelTopical400 mL/1g
CreamTopical
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical.05 %
CreamTopical0.01 %
CreamTopical0.025 %
CreamTopical0.05 %
SolutionTopical0.025 %
GelTopical.01 %
CreamTopical0.375 mg/1g
GelTopical0.1 mg/1g
GelTopical0.25 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.75 mg/1g
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CreamTopical0.025 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.05 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.25 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical1 mg/1g
CreamTopical1.0 mg/1g
GelTopical0.01 mg/1g
GelTopical0.025 mg/1g
GelTopical0.04 mg/1g
GelTopical0.05 g/100g
GelTopical0.8 mg/1g
GelTopical1 mg/1g
Kit0.25 mg/1g
Kit0.5 mg/1g
Kit1 mg/1g
CapsuleOral10 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral10 mg/1
GelTopical0.01 %
GelTopical0.025 %
GelTopical0.05 %
CreamTopical0.1 %
CreamTopical.025 %
CreamTopical.05 %
CreamTopical.1 %
GelTopical.025 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tretinoin (Emollient) 0.05% Cream 60 gm Tube200.07USD tube
Tri-Luma 0.01-4-0.05% Cream 30 gm Tube199.99USD tube
Solage 2-0.01% Solution 30ml Bottle168.67USD bottle
Tretinoin (Emollient) 0.05% Cream 40 gm Tube135.99USD tube
Tretinoin 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube114.16USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube99.64USD tube
Tretinoin 0.01% Gel 45 gm Tube98.85USD tube
Tretinoin 0.05% Cream 45 gm Tube97.94USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube83.97USD tube
Tretinoin acid powder74.21USD g
Tretinoin 0.1% Cream 20 gm Tube60.96USD tube
Tretinoin 0.05% Cream 20 gm Tube52.23USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube44.36USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Gel 15 gm Tube42.26USD tube
Tretinoin 0.01% Gel 15 gm Tube35.99USD tube
Vesanoid 10 mg capsule30.32USD capsule
Accutane 40 mg capsule27.62USD capsule
Tretinoin 10 mg capsule27.29USD capsule
Accutane 20 mg capsule23.77USD capsule
Amnesteem 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Claravis 40 mg capsule21.73USD capsule
Accutane 10 mg capsule20.05USD capsule
Amnesteem 20 mg capsule19.45USD capsule
Claravis 20 mg capsule18.7USD capsule
Claravis 30 mg capsule16.78USD capsule
Amnesteem 10 mg capsule16.4USD capsule
Claravis 10 mg capsule15.77USD capsule
Sotret 40 mg capsule10.08USD capsule
Sotret 20 mg capsule8.67USD capsule
Sotret 30 mg capsule8.44USD capsule
Sotret 10 mg capsule7.31USD capsule
Tri-luma cream6.4USD g
Retin-a micro 0.04% gel5.65USD g
Retin-a micro 0.1% gel5.65USD g
Solage topical solution5.59USD ml
Retin-a micro pump 0.04% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a micro pump 0.1% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a 0.05% cream4.64USD g
Retin-a 0.1% cream4.51USD g
Renova 0.02% cream4.46USD g
Renova pump 0.02% cream4.28USD g
Retin-a 0.025% cream4.14USD g
Refissa 0.05% cream3.6USD g
Tretinoin 0.05% emollient crm3.38USD g
Avita 0.025% cream3.19USD g
Tretinoin 0.1% cream2.36USD g
Tretinoin 0.025% cream2.17USD g
Tretinoin 0.05% cream2.02USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5470567No1993-03-192010-03-19Us
US5955109No1996-09-212016-09-21Us
US6353029No2000-08-242020-08-24Us
US6531141No2000-03-072020-03-07Us
US8247395No2002-10-222022-10-22Us
US8653053No2002-10-252022-10-25Us
US7939516No2005-05-042025-05-04Us
US7915243No2006-03-222026-03-22Us
US6387383No2000-08-032020-08-03Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)181 °CPhysProp
water solubility<0.1 g/100 mLNot Available
logP6.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00477 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.66ALOGPS
logP5.01ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.85 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9311
Caco-2 permeable+0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8088
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8831
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9252
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7081
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5554
Rat acute toxicity2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRB
Uniprot ID
P28702
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
Molecular Weight
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Stafslien DK, Vedvik KL, De Rosier T, Ozers MS: Analysis of ligand-dependent recruitment of coactivator peptides to RXRbeta in a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):82-9. Epub 2006 Dec 20. [PubMed:17184907]
  2. Redfern CP: Enhancing enhancers: new complexities in the retinoid regulation of gene expression. Biochem J. 2004 Oct 1;383(Pt 1):e1-2. [PubMed:15379735]
  3. Nagasawa H, Takahashi S, Kobayashi A, Tazawa H, Tashima Y, Sato K: Effect of retinoic acid on murine preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Oct;51(5):311-8. [PubMed:16392701]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438]
  5. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRG
Uniprot ID
P48443
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
Molecular Weight
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Koda T, Imai H, Morita M: Antiestrogenic activity of vitamin A in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Life Sci. 2007 Feb 13;80(10):945-9. Epub 2006 Nov 22. [PubMed:17161848]
  2. He JC, Lu TC, Fleet M, Sunamoto M, Husain M, Fang W, Neves S, Chen Y, Shankland S, Iyengar R, Klotman PE: Retinoic acid inhibits HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation through the cAMP pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jan;18(1):93-102. Epub 2006 Dec 20. [PubMed:17182884]
  3. Day RM, Lee YH, Park AM, Suzuki YJ: Retinoic acid inhibits airway smooth muscle cell migration. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;34(6):695-703. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16456186]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438]
  5. Wang J, Yen A: A novel retinoic acid-responsive element regulates retinoic acid-induced BLR1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Mar;24(6):2423-43. [PubMed:14993281]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARG
Uniprot ID
P13631
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Reddy AP, Chen JY, Zacharewski T, Gronemeyer H, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ: Characterization and purification of human retinoic acid receptor-gamma 1 overexpressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. Biochem J. 1992 Nov 1;287 ( Pt 3):833-40. [PubMed:1332684]
  4. Kamei Y, Kawada T, Kazuki R, Sugimoto E: Retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 gene expression is up-regulated by retinoic acid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Biochem J. 1993 Aug 1;293 ( Pt 3):807-12. [PubMed:8394693]
  5. Borger DR, Mi Y, Geslani G, Zyzak LL, Batova A, Engin TS, Pirisi L, Creek KE: Retinoic acid resistance at late stages of human papillomavirus type 16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes arises despite intact retinoid signaling and is due to a loss of sensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta. Virology. 2000 May 10;270(2):397-407. [PubMed:10792999]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID
P00352
Uniprot Name
Retinal dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Mic FA, Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G: Raldh2 expression in optic vesicle generates a retinoic acid signal needed for invagination of retina during optic cup formation. Dev Dyn. 2004 Oct;231(2):270-7. [PubMed:15366004]
  2. Everts HB, King LE Jr, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Hair cycle-specific immunolocalization of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 indicate complex regulation. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Aug;123(2):258-63. [PubMed:15245423]
  3. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. [PubMed:16837774]
  4. Matt N, Dupe V, Garnier JM, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, Ghyselinck NB: Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005 Nov;132(21):4789-800. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16207763]
  5. Kim H, Lapointe J, Kaygusuz G, Ong DE, Li C, van de Rijn M, Brooks JD, Pollack JR: The retinoic acid synthesis gene ALDH1a2 is a candidate tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8118-24. [PubMed:16166285]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
Orphan receptor. Could be involved in modulating differentiation and maintaining homeostasis of epithelial cells. This retinoic acid-inducible GPCR provide evidence for a possible interaction betwe...
Gene Name
GPRC5A
Uniprot ID
Q8NFJ5
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid-induced protein 3
Molecular Weight
40250.69 Da
References
  1. Xu J, Tian J, Shapiro SD: Normal lung development in RAIG1-deficient mice despite unique lung epithelium-specific expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005 May;32(5):381-7. Epub 2005 Jan 27. [PubMed:15677768]
  2. Inoue S, Nambu T, Shimomura T: The RAIG family member, GPRC5D, is associated with hard-keratinized structures. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Mar;122(3):565-73. [PubMed:15086536]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Orphan nuclear receptor. Component of a cascade required for the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis. Acts as a coregulatory protein that inhibits the transcriptional act...
Gene Name
NR0B1
Uniprot ID
P51843
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1
Molecular Weight
51717.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal...
Gene Name
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID
O94788
Uniprot Name
Retinal dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Mic FA, Sirbu IO, Duester G: Retinoic acid synthesis controlled by Raldh2 is required early for limb bud initiation and then later as a proximodistal signal during apical ectodermal ridge formation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26698-706. Epub 2004 Apr 6. [PubMed:15069081]
  2. Bordelon T, Montegudo SK, Pakhomova S, Oldham ML, Newcomer ME: A disorder to order transition accompanies catalysis in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type II. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):43085-91. Epub 2004 Aug 7. [PubMed:15299009]
  3. Mic FA, Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G: Raldh2 expression in optic vesicle generates a retinoic acid signal needed for invagination of retina during optic cup formation. Dev Dyn. 2004 Oct;231(2):270-7. [PubMed:15366004]
  4. Doxakis E, Davies AM: Retinoic acid negatively regulates GDNF and neurturin receptor expression and responsiveness in embryonic chicken sympathetic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 Aug;29(4):617-27. [PubMed:15950488]
  5. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [PubMed:15950969]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Inhibitor of the cytoplasmic carboxypeptidase AGBL2, may regulate the alpha-tubulin tyrosination cycle.
Gene Name
RARRES1
Uniprot ID
P49788
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 1
Molecular Weight
33284.865 Da
References
  1. Youssef EM, Chen XQ, Higuchi E, Kondo Y, Garcia-Manero G, Lotan R, Issa JP: Hypermethylation and silencing of the putative tumor suppressor Tazarotene-induced gene 1 in human cancers. Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;64(7):2411-7. [PubMed:15059893]
  2. Zirn B, Samans B, Spangenberg C, Graf N, Eilers M, Gessler M: All-trans retinoic acid treatment of Wilms tumor cells reverses expression of genes associated with high risk and relapse in vivo. Oncogene. 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5246-51. [PubMed:15897880]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARA
Uniprot ID
P10276
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Vollberg TM Sr, Nervi C, George MD, Fujimoto W, Krust A, Jetten AM: Retinoic acid receptors as regulators of human epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 1992 May;6(5):667-76. [PubMed:1318502]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARB
Uniprot ID
P10826
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor beta
Molecular Weight
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Steidl U, Schroeder T, Steidl C, Kobbe G, Graef T, Bork S, Pechtel S, Kliszewski S, Kuendgen A, Rohr UP, Fenk R, Schroeder M, Haase D, Haas R, Kronenwett R: Distinct gene expression pattern of malignant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in polycythemia vera. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1044:94-108. [PubMed:15958702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Could play a role in taste reception. Could be necessary for the concentration and delivery of sapid molecules in the gustatory system. Can bind various ligands, with chemical structures ranging fr...
Gene Name
LCN1
Uniprot ID
P31025
Uniprot Name
Lipocalin-1
Molecular Weight
19249.845 Da
References
  1. Breustedt DA, Schonfeld DL, Skerra A: Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):161-73. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16461020]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Odorant binding
Specific Function
Probably binds and transports small hydrophobic volatile molecules with a higher affinity for aldehydes and large fatty acids.
Gene Name
OBP2A
Uniprot ID
Q9NY56
Uniprot Name
Odorant-binding protein 2a
Molecular Weight
19318.245 Da
References
  1. Breustedt DA, Schonfeld DL, Skerra A: Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):161-73. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16461020]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinol transporter activity
Specific Function
Delivers retinol from the liver stores to the peripheral tissues. In plasma, the RBP-retinol complex interacts with transthyretin, this prevents its loss by filtration through the kidney glomeruli.
Gene Name
RBP4
Uniprot ID
P02753
Uniprot Name
Retinol-binding protein 4
Molecular Weight
23009.8 Da
References
  1. Breustedt DA, Schonfeld DL, Skerra A: Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):161-73. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16461020]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity
Specific Function
Kinase that plays a key role in regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate de...
Gene Name
PDK4
Uniprot ID
Q16654
Uniprot Name
[Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
46468.79 Da
References
  1. Kwon HS, Huang B, Ho Jeoung N, Wu P, Steussy CN, Harris RA: Retinoic acids and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induce human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Mar-Apr;1759(3-4):141-51. Epub 2006 Apr 27. [PubMed:16757381]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRA
Uniprot ID
P19793
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha
Molecular Weight
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Mizuguchi Y, Wada A, Nakagawa K, Ito M, Okano T: Antitumoral activity of 13-demethyl or 13-substituted analogues of all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid in the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1803-9. [PubMed:16946489]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
Plays a key role in retinoic acid metabolism. Acts on retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA. Capable of both 4-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation. Responsi...
Gene Name
CYP26A1
Uniprot ID
O43174
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 26A1
Molecular Weight
56198.11 Da
References
  1. Helvig C, Taimi M, Cameron D, Jones G, Petkovich M: Functional properties and substrate characterization of human CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1 expressed by recombinant baculovirus in insect cells. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2011 Nov-Dec;64(3):258-63. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.005. Epub 2011 Aug 31. [PubMed:21906690]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Involved in the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA), rendering this classical morphogen inactive through oxidation. Involved in the specific inactivation of all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA), with a preference for the following substrates: all-trans-RA > 9-cis-RA > 13-cis-RA. Generates several hydroxylated forms of RA, including 4-OH-RA, 4-oxo-RA, and 18-OH-RA. Essential for postnatal survival. Plays a central role in germ cell development: acts by degrading RA in the developing testis, preventing STRA8 expression, thereby leading to delay of meiosis. Required for the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of male germ cells during embryonic development in Sertoli cells, inducing arrest in G0 phase of the cell cycle and preventing meiotic entry. Plays a role in skeletal development, both at the level of patterning and in the ossification of bone and the establishment of some synovial joints.
Specific Function
Heme binding
Gene Name
CYP26B1
Uniprot ID
Q9NR63
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 26B1
Molecular Weight
57512.075 Da
References
  1. Helvig C, Taimi M, Cameron D, Jones G, Petkovich M: Functional properties and substrate characterization of human CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1 expressed by recombinant baculovirus in insect cells. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2011 Nov-Dec;64(3):258-63. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.005. Epub 2011 Aug 31. [PubMed:21906690]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a role in retinoic acid metabolism. Acts on retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA (preferred substrate).
Specific Function
Heme binding
Gene Name
CYP26C1
Uniprot ID
Q6V0L0
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 26C1
Molecular Weight
57110.385 Da
References
  1. Helvig C, Taimi M, Cameron D, Jones G, Petkovich M: Functional properties and substrate characterization of human CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1 expressed by recombinant baculovirus in insect cells. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2011 Nov-Dec;64(3):258-63. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2011.08.005. Epub 2011 Aug 31. [PubMed:21906690]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme which catalyzes both the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and the con...
Gene Name
HPGDS
Uniprot ID
O60760
Uniprot Name
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase
Molecular Weight
23343.65 Da
References
  1. Fujimori K, Fukuhara A, Inui T, Allhorn M: Prevention of paraquat-induced apoptosis in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. J Neurochem. 2012 Jan;120(2):279-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07570.x. Epub 2011 Nov 24. [PubMed:22043816]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Maiti TK, Ghosh KS, Debnath J, Dasgupta S: Binding of all-trans retinoic acid to human serum albumin: fluorescence, FT-IR and circular dichroism studies. Int J Biol Macromol. 2006 May 30;38(3-5):197-202. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16569428]
  2. N'soukpoe-Kossi CN, Sedaghat-Herati R, Ragi C, Hotchandani S, Tajmir-Riahi HA: Retinol and retinoic acid bind human serum albumin: stability and structural features. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007 Apr 10;40(5):484-90. Epub 2006 Nov 24. [PubMed:17184834]
  3. Karnaukhova E: Interactions of human serum albumin with retinoic acid, retinal and retinyl acetate. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 15;73(6):901-10. Epub 2006 Dec 2. [PubMed:17217919]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Cytosolic CRABPs may regulate the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name
CRABP1
Uniprot ID
P29762
Uniprot Name
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
15565.45 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390]
  2. Donato LJ, Noy N: Fluorescence-based technique for analyzing retinoic acid. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:177-87. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-325-1_10. [PubMed:20552429]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Transports retinoic acid to the nucleus. Regulates the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name
CRABP2
Uniprot ID
P29373
Uniprot Name
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight
15692.925 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390]
  2. Ohnishi K: PML-RARalpha inhibitors (ATRA, tamibaroten, arsenic troxide) for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Int J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct;12(5):313-7. Epub 2007 Oct 22. [PubMed:17929112]
  3. Donato LJ, Noy N: Fluorescence-based technique for analyzing retinoic acid. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:177-87. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-325-1_10. [PubMed:20552429]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 25, 2018 17:45