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Identification
NameTretinoin
Accession NumberDB00755  (NUTR00051, APRD00362)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
DescriptionTretinoin, also known as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), is a naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A (retinol). Retinoids such as tretinoin are important regulators of cell reproduction, proliferation, and differentiation and are used to treat acne and photodamaged skin and to manage keratinization disorders such as ichthyosis and keratosis follicularis. Tretinoin also represents the class of anticancer drugs called differentiating agents and is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(all-e)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraenoic acid
3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraenoic acid (ecl)
Acide retinoique (french) (dsl)
AGN 100335
All Trans Retinoic Acid
All Trans-Retinoic Acid
all-(e)-Retinoic acid
all-trans-beta-Retinoic acid
all-trans-Retinoic acid
all-trans-Tretinoin
all-trans-Vitamin a acid
all-trans-Vitamin a1 acid
ATRA
beta-Retinoic acid
Eudyna
Renova
Retin-a
RETINOIC acid
Retionic Acid
Retisol-a
Ro 1-5488
Solage
Stieva-a
trans-Retinoic acid
Tretin m
Tretinoin
Tretinoina
Trétinoïne
Tretinoine (french) (einecs)
Tretinoinum
Vesanoid
Vitamin A acid
Vitinoin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtralinGel.05 g/100gTopicalCoria Laboratories2007-07-26Not applicableUs
AvitaGel.25 mg/gTopicalMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1998-03-18Not applicableUs
AvitaCream.25 mg/gTopicalMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-06-01Not applicableUs
ObagiCream.5 mg/gTopicalYS PLUS CORPORATION2014-10-01Not applicableUs
ObagiCream1 mg/gTopicalYS PLUS CORPORATION2014-10-01Not applicableUs
Rejuva-ACream0.025 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1997-11-042014-05-01Canada
RenovaCream0.05 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1995-12-312014-07-30Canada
RenovaCream.2 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-10-182015-10-31Us
RenovaCream.2 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp2011-10-18Not applicableUs
RenovaCream.2 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC2000-08-31Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.5 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals1974-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-AGel.25 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-05-25Not applicableUs
Retin-AGel0.01 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-ACream1 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1973-04-30Not applicableUs
Retin-AGel.25 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals1975-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.5 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions Llc1974-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream0.01 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-AGel.25 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1975-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.25 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-05-28Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream0.1 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-AGel.1 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals1979-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.5 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-01-01Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream0.025 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-ACream0.05 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-AGel.1 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1979-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.25 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1988-10-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.1 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-08-21Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream.25 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals1988-10-30Not applicableUs
Retin-ACream1 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals1973-04-30Not applicableUs
Retin-AGel0.025 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Retin-ACream.5 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1974-07-30Not applicableUs
Retin-AGel.1 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1993-05-25Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel400 mL/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-01-24Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel.1 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals2011-05-01Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel0.1 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2001-08-01Not applicableCanada
Retin-A MicroGel.4 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC2002-05-10Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel1 mL/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-08-08Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel.4 mg/gTopicalOrtho Mc Neil Pharmaceuticals2011-05-01Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel1 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC1997-02-07Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel.8 mg/gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC2014-01-28Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel.1 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-01-23Not applicableUs
Retin-A MicroGel0.04 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2005-08-30Not applicableCanada
Retin-A MicroGel.4 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-06-21Not applicableUs
Stie Vaa Sol 0.05%Liquid.05 %TopicalStiefel Canada Ulc1980-12-312005-04-20Canada
Stieva-A CreamCream0.025 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
Stieva-A CreamCream0.01 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Stieva-A CreamCream0.05 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Stieva-A CreamCream0.1 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Stieva-A GelGel0.025 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1983-12-312012-07-03Canada
Stieva-A GelGel0.05 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1985-12-312012-02-21Canada
Stieva-A SolutionSolution0.025 %TopicalGlaxosmithkline Inc1983-12-312011-12-22Canada
Stievaa Gel 0.01%Gel.01 %TopicalStiefel Canada Ulc1983-12-312007-08-31Canada
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-04-072016-10-13Us
TretinoinGel.05 g/100gTopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2007-07-26Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.25 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.05 g/100gTopicalValeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC2009-08-012016-05-31Us
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1998-05-01Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.025 mg/gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2005-12-012015-12-31Us
TretinoinCream.025 mg/gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2006-01-052015-12-31Us
TretinoinGel.4 mg/gTopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2013-03-14Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-03-102016-10-13Us
TretinoinCream.1 mg/gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2005-12-012015-12-31Us
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions1998-05-01Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalTriax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-03-162016-10-13Us
TretinoinCream.05 mg/gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2006-01-052015-12-31Us
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.05 g/100gTopicalOMP, INC.2014-06-19Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.1 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel1 mg/gTopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2013-03-14Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-02-06Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.01 mg/gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc2005-12-022015-12-31Us
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions2014-02-06Not applicableUs
Tretinoin CreamCream.25 mg/gTopicalOMP, INC.1988-09-16Not applicableUs
Tretinoin CreamCream1 mg/gTopicalOMP, INC.1973-01-26Not applicableUs
Tretinoin CreamCream.5 mg/gTopicalOMP, INC.1974-07-19Not applicableUs
Tretinoin Gel MicrosphereGel.4 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-10-01Not applicableUs
Tretinoin Gel MicrosphereGel1 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products Inc2014-10-01Not applicableUs
VesanoidCapsule10 mgOralCheplapharm Arzneimittel Gmbh Germany1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A Acid 0.01% CreamCream0.01 %TopicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1989-12-312008-08-04Canada
Vitamin A Acid 0.01% GelGel0.01 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A Acid 0.025% CreamCream0.025 %TopicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1989-12-312008-08-04Canada
Vitamin A Acid 0.025% GelGel0.025 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A Acid 0.05% CreamCream0.05 %TopicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1980-12-312008-08-04Canada
Vitamin A Acid 0.05% GelGel0.05 %TopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A Acid 0.1% CreamCream0.1 %TopicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1989-12-312008-08-04Canada
Vitinoin - Crm 0.025%Cream.025 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Vitinoin - Crm 0.05%Cream.05 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Vitinoin - Crm 0.1%Cream.1 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Vitinoin Gel - 0.025%Gel.025 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1995-12-312001-08-17Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RefissaCream.5 mg/gTopicalObagi Medical Products, Inc.2010-02-222016-05-01Us
RefissaCream.5 mg/gTopicalCoria Laboratories, LTD2011-02-012016-05-01Us
RefissaCream.5 mg/gTopicalSuneva Medical, Inc.2009-06-17Not applicableUs
Tretin.xCream.5 mg/gTopicalOnset Dermatologics LLC2013-04-02Not applicableUs
Tretin.xCream1 mg/gTopicalOnset Dermatologics LLC2013-04-02Not applicableUs
Tretin.xCream.75 mg/gTopicalOnset Dermatologics LLC2013-04-02Not applicableUs
Tretin.xCream.25 mg/gTopicalOnset Dermatologics LLC2013-04-02Not applicableUs
Tretin.xCream.375 mg/gTopicalOnset Dermatologics LLC2013-04-02Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.04 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products2013-07-31Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.05 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-06-16Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2011-02-01Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalRouses Point Pharm1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCapsule10 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2012-10-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.25 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp2000-02-22Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCapsule, liquid filled10 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories Inc.2007-06-26Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.1 mg/gTopicalRouses Point Pharm2002-06-11Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.1 mg/gTopicalPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-04-22Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.1 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-10-17Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-03-292016-10-13Us
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalRouses Point Pharm1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalOMP, INC.2013-10-012016-08-31Us
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalClinical Solutions Wholesale1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCapsule10 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2016-09-02Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.025 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-01-05Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.5 mg/gTopicalPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-03-292016-10-13Us
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalRouses Point Pharm1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalOMP, INC.2013-10-01Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.1 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.025 mg/gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-09Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.1 mg/gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products2013-07-31Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.25 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalA S Medication Solutions1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream1 mg/gTopicalDispensing Solutions, Inc.1998-12-24Not applicableUs
TretinoinGel.25 mg/gTopicalRouses Point Pharm2000-02-22Not applicableUs
TretinoinCapsule10 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-18Not applicableUs
TretinoinCream.05 mg/gTopicalRebel Distributors Corp2006-01-05Not applicableUs
Tretinoin CreamCream.25 mg/gTopicalYS PLUS CORPORATION2014-10-01Not applicableUs
Tretinoin GelGel.05 g/100gTopicalSpear Dermatology Products2015-09-01Not applicableUs
TretinxKitTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2013-06-032016-03-01Us
TretinxKitOnset Dermatologics, LLC2013-06-03Not applicableUs
TretinxKitTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2013-06-032016-03-01Us
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AberelJanssen
AberelaJanssen
AirolPierre Fabre Dermo
DermairolRoche
EudynaZydus
KétrelBailleul
Retisol-AStiefel
SotretRanbaxy Laboratories Inc.
Stieva-AStiefel
VitinoinNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Biacna Topical GelValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.
Clindamycin Phosphate and TretinoinActavis Pharma, Inc.
Dr. Throwers HydrotetDr. Thrower's Skincare, Inc.
Dr. Throwers Pbc No. 1Dr. Thrower's Skincare, Inc.
Retisol-AGlaxosmithkline Inc
SolagéGlaxosmithkline Inc
Stievamycin ForteGlaxosmithkline Inc
Stievamycin MildGlaxosmithkline Inc
Stievamycin RegularGlaxosmithkline Inc
Tri-lumaGalderma Laboratories, L.P.
VeltinStiefel Laboratories Inc
ZianaMedicis Pharmaceutical Corp
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII5688UTC01R
CAS number302-79-4
WeightAverage: 300.4351
Monoisotopic: 300.20893014
Chemical FormulaC20H28O2
InChI KeySHGAZHPCJJPHSC-YCNIQYBTSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H28O2/c1-15(8-6-9-16(2)14-19(21)22)11-12-18-17(3)10-7-13-20(18,4)5/h6,8-9,11-12,14H,7,10,13H2,1-5H3,(H,21,22)/b9-6+,12-11+,15-8+,16-14+
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid
SMILES
CC(C=CC1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=CC=CC(C)=CC(O)=O
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the the induction of remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), French-American-British (FAB) classification M3 (including the M3 variant); For the topical treatment of acne vulgaris, flat warts and other skin conditions (psoriasis, ichthyosis congenita, icthyosis vulgaris, lamellar icthyosis, keratosis palmaris et plantaris, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, senile comedones, senile keratosis, keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease), and basal cell carcinomas.); For palliative therapy to improve fine wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, roughness associated with photodamage.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsTretinoin, also known as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), is a naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A (retinol). Retinoids such as tretinoin are important regulators of cell reproduction, proliferation, and differentiation and are used to treat acne and photodamaged skin and to manage keratinization disorders such as ichthyosis and keratosis follicularis. Tretinoin also represents the class of anticancer drugs called differentiating agents and is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
Mechanism of actionTretinoin binds to alpha, beta, and gamma retinoic acid receptors (RARs). RAR-alpha and RAR-beta have been associated with the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia and squamous cell cancers, respectively. RAR-gamma is associated with retinoid effects on mucocutaneous tissues and bone. Although the exact mechanism of action of tretinoin is unknown, current evidence suggests that the effectiveness of tretinoin in acne is due primarily to its ability to modify abnormal follicular keratinization. Comedones form in follicles with an excess of keratinized epithelial cells. Tretinoin promotes detachment of cornified cells and the enhanced shedding of corneocytes from the follicle. By increasing the mitotic activity of follicular epithelia, tretinoin also increases the turnover rate of thin, loosely-adherent corneocytes. Through these actions, the comedo contents are extruded and the formation of the microcomedo, the precursor lesion of acne vulgaris, is reduced. Tretinoin is not a cytolytic agent but instead induces cytodifferentiation and decreased proliferation of APL cells in culture and in vivo. When Tretinoin is given systemically to APL patients, tretinoin treatment produces an initial maturation of the primitive promyelocytes derived from the leukemic clone, followed by a repopulation of the bone marrow and peripheral blood by normal, polyclonal hematopoietic cells in patients achieving complete remission (CR). The exact mechanism of action of tretinoin in APL is unknown.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-betaProteinyes
agonist
HumanP28702 details
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gammaProteinyes
agonist
HumanP48443 details
Retinoic acid receptor gammaProteinyes
agonist
HumanP13631 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00352 details
Retinoic acid-induced protein 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8NFJ5 details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP51843 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO94788 details
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 1Proteinunknown
agonist
HumanP49788 details
Related Articles
Absorption1-31% (topical)
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding> 95%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Tretinoin
4-Hydroxyretinoic acidDetails
Tretinoin
18-Hydroxyretinoic acidDetails
Tretinoin
5,6-Epoxyretinoic acidDetails
Tretinoin
4-Oxoretinoic acidDetails
Tretinoin
Not Available
Retinoyl b-glucuronideDetails
Tretinoin
Not Available
Retinyl beta-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life0.5-2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Retinol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00074
Vitamin A DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00336
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aliskiren is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
ALT-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with ALT-110.Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Aminocaproic AcidTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Aminocaproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amyl Nitrite is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Investigational
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BcgThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Investigational
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bretylium is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canagliflozin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
CDX-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with CDX-110.Investigational
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlortetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlortetracycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clevidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapagliflozin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DemeclocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Demeclocycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DienestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienogest can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dinutuximab is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipyridamole is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxycycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
DuloxetineTretinoin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Empagliflozin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe therapeutic efficacy of Estramustine can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe therapeutic efficacy of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethynodiol diacetate can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Etonogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
FelodipineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
FingolimodTretinoin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
G17DTThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with G17DT.Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GestodeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gestodene can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
GI-5005The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with GI-5005.Investigational
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
HexestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexestrol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Withdrawn
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydralazine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Tretinoin.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Tretinoin.Withdrawn
INGN 201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with INGN 201.Investigational
INGN 225The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with INGN 225.Investigational
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxsuprine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lacidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
LapatinibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lercanidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
LevodopaTretinoin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofexidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LynestrenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Lynestrenol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Medroxyprogesterone acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
MenadioneTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Menadione.Approved, Nutraceutical
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mestranol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
MethallenestrilThe therapeutic efficacy of Methallenestril can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Experimental
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MinocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minocycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moxonidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nebivolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nesiritide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifedipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nilvadipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
NorelgestrominThe therapeutic efficacy of Norelgestromin can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Norgestimate can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
NorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Norgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Obinutuzumab is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
OlaparibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
OxytetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxytetracycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxybenzamine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentolamine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PhylloquinoneTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Phylloquinone.Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.Approved, Investigational
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Rabies vaccine.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Riociguat is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
RisperidoneTretinoin may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tretinoin.Approved
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropinirole is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SRP 299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with SRP 299.Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe therapeutic efficacy of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TeriflunomideThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracycline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
TG4010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with TG4010.Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Tretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofacitinibTretinoin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolazoline is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Vet Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Withdrawn
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
Tranexamic AcidTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Tranexamic Acid.Approved
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Tretinoin.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Vitamin AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
Vitamin kTretinoin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Vitamin k.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Huang ME, Ye YC, Chen SR, Chai JR, Lu JX, Zhoa L, Gu LJ, Wang ZY: Use of all-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 1988 Aug;72(2):567-72. [PubMed:3165295 ]
  2. Castaigne S, Chomienne C, Daniel MT, Ballerini P, Berger R, Fenaux P, Degos L: All-trans retinoic acid as a differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. I. Clinical results. Blood. 1990 Nov 1;76(9):1704-9. [PubMed:2224119 ]
  3. Sanz MA: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2006:147-55. [PubMed:17124054 ]
  4. Mao JT, Goldin JG, Dermand J, Ibrahim G, Brown MS, Emerick A, McNitt-Gray MF, Gjertson DW, Estrada F, Tashkin DP, Roth MD: A pilot study of all-trans-retinoic acid for the treatment of human emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Mar 1;165(5):718-23. [PubMed:11874821 ]
  5. Roth MD, Connett JE, D'Armiento JM, Foronjy RF, Friedman PJ, Goldin JG, Louis TA, Mao JT, Muindi JR, O'Connor GT, Ramsdell JW, Ries AL, Scharf SM, Schluger NW, Sciurba FC, Skeans MA, Walter RE, Wendt CH, Wise RA: Feasibility of retinoids for the treatment of emphysema study. Chest. 2006 Nov;130(5):1334-45. [PubMed:17099008 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01XX14D10AD01D10AD51
AHFS Codes
  • 84:16.00
  • 92:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (42.8 KB)
MSDSDownload (29.1 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9925
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9311
Caco-2 permeable+0.7603
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6144
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8912
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8088
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8639
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8221
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6025
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8831
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9301
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9252
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7081
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5554
Rat acute toxicity2.1455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9562
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Mylan bertek pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ortho dermatologics
  • Johnson and johnson consumer companies inc
  • Spear pharmaceuticals inc
  • Triax pharmaceuticals llc
  • Dow pharmaceutical sciences inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical.25 mg/g
GelTopical.25 mg/g
CreamTopical.5 mg/g
CreamTopical.2 mg/g
CreamTopical0.01 %
CreamTopical0.025 %
CreamTopical0.05 %
CreamTopical0.1 %
GelTopical0.025 %
GelTopical.4 mg/g
GelTopical.8 mg/g
GelTopical0.04 %
GelTopical0.1 %
GelTopical1 mL/g
GelTopical1 mg/g
GelTopical400 mL/g
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical.05 %
SolutionTopical0.025 %
GelTopical.01 %
CreamTopical.375 mg/g
CreamTopical.75 mg/g
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral10 mg/1
CreamTopical.025 mg/g
CreamTopical.05 mg/g
CreamTopical.1 mg/g
CreamTopical1 mg/g
GelTopical.01 mg/g
GelTopical.025 mg/g
GelTopical.04 mg/g
GelTopical.05 g/100g
GelTopical.1 mg/g
Kit
KitTopical
CreamTopical
GelTopical
CapsuleOral10 mg
GelTopical0.01 %
GelTopical0.05 %
CreamTopical.025 %
CreamTopical.05 %
CreamTopical.1 %
GelTopical.025 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tretinoin (Emollient) 0.05% Cream 60 gm Tube200.07USD tube
Tri-Luma 0.01-4-0.05% Cream 30 gm Tube199.99USD tube
Solage 2-0.01% Solution 30ml Bottle168.67USD bottle
Tretinoin (Emollient) 0.05% Cream 40 gm Tube135.99USD tube
Tretinoin 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube114.16USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube99.64USD tube
Tretinoin 0.01% Gel 45 gm Tube98.85USD tube
Tretinoin 0.05% Cream 45 gm Tube97.94USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube83.97USD tube
Tretinoin acid powder74.21USD g
Tretinoin 0.1% Cream 20 gm Tube60.96USD tube
Tretinoin 0.05% Cream 20 gm Tube52.23USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube44.36USD tube
Tretinoin 0.025% Gel 15 gm Tube42.26USD tube
Tretinoin 0.01% Gel 15 gm Tube35.99USD tube
Vesanoid 10 mg capsule30.32USD capsule
Accutane 40 mg capsule27.62USD capsule
Tretinoin 10 mg capsule27.29USD capsule
Accutane 20 mg capsule23.77USD capsule
Amnesteem 40 mg capsule22.6USD capsule
Claravis 40 mg capsule21.73USD capsule
Accutane 10 mg capsule20.05USD capsule
Amnesteem 20 mg capsule19.45USD capsule
Claravis 20 mg capsule18.7USD capsule
Claravis 30 mg capsule16.78USD capsule
Amnesteem 10 mg capsule16.4USD capsule
Claravis 10 mg capsule15.77USD capsule
Sotret 40 mg capsule10.08USD capsule
Sotret 20 mg capsule8.67USD capsule
Sotret 30 mg capsule8.44USD capsule
Sotret 10 mg capsule7.31USD capsule
Tri-luma cream6.4USD g
Retin-a micro 0.04% gel5.65USD g
Retin-a micro 0.1% gel5.65USD g
Solage topical solution5.59USD ml
Retin-a micro pump 0.04% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a micro pump 0.1% gel4.74USD g
Retin-a 0.05% cream4.64USD g
Retin-a 0.1% cream4.51USD g
Renova 0.02% cream4.46USD g
Renova pump 0.02% cream4.28USD g
Retin-a 0.025% cream4.14USD g
Refissa 0.05% cream3.6USD g
Tretinoin 0.05% emollient crm3.38USD g
Avita 0.025% cream3.19USD g
Tretinoin 0.1% cream2.36USD g
Tretinoin 0.025% cream2.17USD g
Tretinoin 0.05% cream2.02USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5470567 No1993-03-192010-03-19Us
US5955109 No1996-09-212016-09-21Us
US6353029 No2000-08-242020-08-24Us
US6387383 No2000-08-032020-08-03Us
US6531141 No2000-03-072020-03-07Us
US7915243 No2006-03-222026-03-22Us
US7939516 No2005-05-042025-05-04Us
US8247395 No2002-10-222022-10-22Us
US8653053 No2002-10-252022-10-25Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point181 °CPhysProp
water solubility<0.1 g/100 mLNot Available
logP6.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00477 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.66ALOGPS
logP5.01ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Retinoid skeleton
  • Diterpenoid
  • Carbocyclic fatty acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically bin...
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Stafslien DK, Vedvik KL, De Rosier T, Ozers MS: Analysis of ligand-dependent recruitment of coactivator peptides to RXRbeta in a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):82-9. Epub 2006 Dec 20. [PubMed:17184907 ]
  2. Redfern CP: Enhancing enhancers: new complexities in the retinoid regulation of gene expression. Biochem J. 2004 Oct 1;383(Pt 1):e1-2. [PubMed:15379735 ]
  3. Nagasawa H, Takahashi S, Kobayashi A, Tazawa H, Tashima Y, Sato K: Effect of retinoic acid on murine preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Oct;51(5):311-8. [PubMed:16392701 ]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438 ]
  5. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXR...
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Koda T, Imai H, Morita M: Antiestrogenic activity of vitamin A in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Life Sci. 2007 Feb 13;80(10):945-9. Epub 2006 Nov 22. [PubMed:17161848 ]
  2. He JC, Lu TC, Fleet M, Sunamoto M, Husain M, Fang W, Neves S, Chen Y, Shankland S, Iyengar R, Klotman PE: Retinoic acid inhibits HIV-1-induced podocyte proliferation through the cAMP pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jan;18(1):93-102. Epub 2006 Dec 20. [PubMed:17182884 ]
  3. Day RM, Lee YH, Park AM, Suzuki YJ: Retinoic acid inhibits airway smooth muscle cell migration. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;34(6):695-703. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16456186 ]
  4. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten EA, Mey J: Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jan;23(2):285-95. [PubMed:16420438 ]
  5. Wang J, Yen A: A novel retinoic acid-responsive element regulates retinoic acid-induced BLR1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Mar;24(6):2423-43. [PubMed:14993281 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts m...
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Reddy AP, Chen JY, Zacharewski T, Gronemeyer H, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ: Characterization and purification of human retinoic acid receptor-gamma 1 overexpressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. Biochem J. 1992 Nov 1;287 ( Pt 3):833-40. [PubMed:1332684 ]
  4. Kamei Y, Kawada T, Kazuki R, Sugimoto E: Retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 gene expression is up-regulated by retinoic acid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Biochem J. 1993 Aug 1;293 ( Pt 3):807-12. [PubMed:8394693 ]
  5. Borger DR, Mi Y, Geslani G, Zyzak LL, Batova A, Engin TS, Pirisi L, Creek KE: Retinoic acid resistance at late stages of human papillomavirus type 16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes arises despite intact retinoid signaling and is due to a loss of sensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta. Virology. 2000 May 10;270(2):397-407. [PubMed:10792999 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular Weight:
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Mic FA, Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G: Raldh2 expression in optic vesicle generates a retinoic acid signal needed for invagination of retina during optic cup formation. Dev Dyn. 2004 Oct;231(2):270-7. [PubMed:15366004 ]
  2. Everts HB, King LE Jr, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Hair cycle-specific immunolocalization of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 indicate complex regulation. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Aug;123(2):258-63. [PubMed:15245423 ]
  3. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. [PubMed:16837774 ]
  4. Matt N, Dupe V, Garnier JM, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, Ghyselinck NB: Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005 Nov;132(21):4789-800. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16207763 ]
  5. Kim H, Lapointe J, Kaygusuz G, Ong DE, Li C, van de Rijn M, Brooks JD, Pollack JR: The retinoic acid synthesis gene ALDH1a2 is a candidate tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8118-24. [PubMed:16166285 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor. Could be involved in modulating differentiation and maintaining homeostasis of epithelial cells. This retinoic acid-inducible GPCR provide evidence for a possible interaction between retinoid and G-protein signaling pathways. Functions as a negative modulator of EGFR signaling (By similarity). May act as a lung tumor suppressor (PubMed:18000218).
Gene Name:
GPRC5A
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFJ5
Molecular Weight:
40250.69 Da
References
  1. Xu J, Tian J, Shapiro SD: Normal lung development in RAIG1-deficient mice despite unique lung epithelium-specific expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005 May;32(5):381-7. Epub 2005 Jan 27. [PubMed:15677768 ]
  2. Inoue S, Nambu T, Shimomura T: The RAIG family member, GPRC5D, is associated with hard-keratinized structures. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Mar;122(3):565-73. [PubMed:15086536 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Orphan nuclear receptor. Component of a cascade required for the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis. Acts as a coregulatory protein that inhibits the transcriptional activity of other nuclear receptors through heterodimeric interactions. May also have a role in the development of the embryo and in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NR0B1
Uniprot ID:
P51843
Molecular Weight:
51717.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Molecular Weight:
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Mic FA, Sirbu IO, Duester G: Retinoic acid synthesis controlled by Raldh2 is required early for limb bud initiation and then later as a proximodistal signal during apical ectodermal ridge formation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26698-706. Epub 2004 Apr 6. [PubMed:15069081 ]
  2. Bordelon T, Montegudo SK, Pakhomova S, Oldham ML, Newcomer ME: A disorder to order transition accompanies catalysis in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type II. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):43085-91. Epub 2004 Aug 7. [PubMed:15299009 ]
  3. Mic FA, Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G: Raldh2 expression in optic vesicle generates a retinoic acid signal needed for invagination of retina during optic cup formation. Dev Dyn. 2004 Oct;231(2):270-7. [PubMed:15366004 ]
  4. Doxakis E, Davies AM: Retinoic acid negatively regulates GDNF and neurturin receptor expression and responsiveness in embryonic chicken sympathetic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 Aug;29(4):617-27. [PubMed:15950488 ]
  5. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [PubMed:15950969 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Inhibitor of the cytoplasmic carboxypeptidase AGBL2, may regulate the alpha-tubulin tyrosination cycle.
Gene Name:
RARRES1
Uniprot ID:
P49788
Molecular Weight:
33284.865 Da
References
  1. Youssef EM, Chen XQ, Higuchi E, Kondo Y, Garcia-Manero G, Lotan R, Issa JP: Hypermethylation and silencing of the putative tumor suppressor Tazarotene-induced gene 1 in human cancers. Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;64(7):2411-7. [PubMed:15059893 ]
  2. Zirn B, Samans B, Spangenberg C, Graf N, Eilers M, Gessler M: All-trans retinoic acid treatment of Wilms tumor cells reverses expression of genes associated with high risk and relapse in vivo. Oncogene. 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5246-51. [PubMed:15897880 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular Weight:
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG: Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;58(6):1341-8. [PubMed:11093772 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cytosolic CRABPs may regulate the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name:
CRABP1
Uniprot ID:
P29762
Molecular Weight:
15565.45 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
  2. Donato LJ, Noy N: Fluorescence-based technique for analyzing retinoic acid. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:177-87. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-325-1_10. [PubMed:20552429 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports retinoic acid to the nucleus. Regulates the access of retinoic acid to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors.
Gene Name:
CRABP2
Uniprot ID:
P29373
Molecular Weight:
15692.925 Da
References
  1. Hoegberg P, Schmidt CK, Fletcher N, Nilsson CB, Trossvik C, Gerlienke Schuur A, Brouwer A, Nau H, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Hakansson H: Retinoid status and responsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking retinoid binding protein or retinoid receptor forms. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Sep 10;156(1):25-39. [PubMed:16109390 ]
  2. Ohnishi K: PML-RARalpha inhibitors (ATRA, tamibaroten, arsenic troxide) for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Int J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct;12(5):313-7. Epub 2007 Oct 22. [PubMed:17929112 ]
  3. Donato LJ, Noy N: Fluorescence-based technique for analyzing retinoic acid. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:177-87. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-325-1_10. [PubMed:20552429 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 09, 2016 02:39