Accession Number
DB00121  (NUTR00019)
Small Molecule
Approved, Nutraceutical

A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. [PubChem]

  • (+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valeric acid
  • (3AS,4S,6ar)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-valeric acid
  • 5-(2-Oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoic acid
  • Biotin
  • Biotina
  • Biotine
  • Biotinum
  • cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valeric acid
  • cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4)imidazole-4-valeric acid
  • cis-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-D)imidazoline-4-valeric acid
  • Coenzyme R
  • D-(+)-Biotin
  • D-Biotin
  • D(+)-Biotin
  • Vitamin B7
  • Vitamin H
External IDs
Not Available
Product Ingredients
Not Available
Product Images
Approved Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Generic Prescription Products
Not Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-biotin 300 Caplet 300mcgTablet300 mcgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Biotin 300mcgTablet300 mcgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Biotin 300 Mcg - TabletTablet300 mcgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1996-10-222002-07-18Canada
Biotin 300 Mcg TabletTablet300 mcgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada
Biotin 500mcgTablet500 mcgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2001-10-202006-08-03Canada
Biotin Cap 500mcgCapsule500 mcgOralThorne Research Inc.1985-12-312001-06-22Canada
Biotin Ctr Srt 1000mcgTablet, extended release1 mgOralBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Biotin Tab 250mcgTablet250 mcgOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312002-07-31Canada
Biotin Tab 300mcgTablet300 mcgOralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada
Biotin Tab 300mcgTablet300 mcgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1986-12-312007-08-07Canada
Biotin Tab 300mcgTablet300 mcgOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
D-biotin Tab 5mcg A CroquerTablet5 mcgOralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Biona-vit Controls and Prevents Hair LossLiquid.01 mL/100mLTopicalSpai Sons Pharmaceutical International Cosmetics2012-06-30Not applicableUs
Bonogen Activator hair loss treatmentLiquid.002 mL/mLTopicalBonogen Co., Ltd2010-04-25Not applicableUs
HairQ-PlusShampoo.06 mL/100mLTopicalCresson2012-05-23Not applicableUs
HairQ-PlusSolution.06 mL/100mLTopicalCresson2012-05-25Not applicableUs
Spai-sons ProcapellLiquid.01 mL/100mLTopicalSpai Sons Pharmaceutical International Cosmetics2012-06-30Not applicableUs
Spai-sons Prolac-vitLiquid.01 mg/100mLTopicalSpai Sons Pharmaceutical International Cosmetics2012-08-06Not applicableUs
Tk-naxLiquid.01 mL/100mLTopicalSpai Sons Pharmaceutical International Cosmetics2012-06-30Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Appearex / Biodermatin / Biotin Forte / Meribin / Nail-ex
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Am CapsCapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals Company1998-10-012002-11-20Canada
B 50 CapsulesCapsuleOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1987-12-312007-07-26Canada
B Complex 25mg Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-08-312000-06-07Canada
B Complex 50 Vitamin CapCapsuleOralBioforce Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-07-22Canada
B Complex 50+ CapletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1994-12-312002-07-18Canada
B Complex W Vit C W Non-med Yeast&liver TabTabletOralPharmavite1991-12-311997-09-04Canada
B Compound 50mg TabTabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1987-12-312009-09-28Canada
B-100 CapsCapsuleOralNow Foods2005-05-192008-07-11Canada
B-100 Complex TabletsTablet, extended releaseOralViva Pharmaceutical Inc.2001-06-052009-12-18Canada
B-100 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabTabletOralNatrol, Inc.1994-12-312009-05-07Canada
B-100 Vitamin SupplementTablet, extended releaseOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-222000-06-07Canada
B-50 ComplexTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1977-12-312004-07-26Canada
B-50 Complex TabTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1988-12-311998-07-22Canada
B-50 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabTabletOralNatrol, Inc.1994-12-312006-09-26Canada
B-complexTabletOralEnrich International1999-11-112001-09-28Canada
B-complex 100TabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
B-complex 50TabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
B-complex TabTabletOralNatures Sunshine Products, Inc.1995-12-312009-08-07Canada
B-complex TabletsTabletOralShaklee Corporation1983-12-312000-01-24Canada
B-complex With Vitamin C, Biotin, Folic AcidTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-11-232009-09-28Canada
B-complex-50 TabTabletOralJr Carlson Labs Inc1998-10-252005-09-15Canada
B-plexTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1999-10-202000-01-28Canada
B-plus - TabTabletOralChampion's Choice Advanced Nutrition Inc.1997-06-111999-08-28Canada
B50 B Complex TabTabletOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1983-12-311996-09-09Canada
B50 ComplexCapsuleOralPreferred Nutrition Inc.2003-10-292005-08-04Canada
BacminTablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUs
Balanced B 125 SrtTablet, extended releaseOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Balanced B-100 Timed ReleaseTabletOralPharmavite2000-10-242005-07-15Canada
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins TabTabletOralPharmavite1995-12-312000-08-24Canada
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins, Timed ReleTabletOralPharmavite1995-12-312006-07-05Canada
Balanced B-50 ComplexTabletOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Balanced B100TabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Balanced B50 ComplexTabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Bev 29 TabTabletOralBeverly International Nutrition1987-12-311998-08-01Canada
Bev B-150TabletOralBeverly International Nutrition1986-12-311998-08-01Canada
Bonnoir Hair MediShampooTopicalCellinbio Co Ltd2011-07-27Not applicableUs
C-B ComplexTabletOralAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1984-12-311996-09-09Canada
Carbassist TabletsTabletOralWyeth Ltd.1978-12-312006-07-24Canada
Carione RgShampooTopicalCell Activation Research Institute Co., Ltd2016-07-31Not applicableUs
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexCapsuleOralRx Vitamins Inc.2006-08-012007-10-25Canada
Central-vite 18 EssentialTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-04-242002-07-31Canada
Century CompleteTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-03-172002-07-31Canada
Chela-chromium 200TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1986-12-312000-03-03Canada
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-03-012001-07-18Canada
Complete Mega BTabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1985-12-312001-07-26Canada
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals for ChildrenTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products2001-01-312004-06-29Canada
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals Tablets Timed ReleaseTablet, extended releaseOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-07-262009-07-30Canada
Complex-75CapsuleOralFrega Inc.1990-12-311999-08-06Canada
Complexe B 75mgTabletOralPharmalab Inc.1994-12-312001-07-30Canada
Complexe B Compose 75TabletOralLes Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.1983-12-311996-09-10Canada
Complexe B-75TabletOralFrega Inc.1998-06-292008-02-13Canada
Concept DHACapsule, liquid filledOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-06-24Not applicableUs
Concept OBCapsuleOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-01-01Not applicableUs
Derma-forceCapsuleOralPrairie Naturals1997-04-012006-09-20Canada
Dia-viteTabletOralR & D Laboratories Inc.1997-08-132003-07-16Canada
DiaplexTabletOralNephro Tech, Inc.2002-07-102004-07-23Canada
DivistaCapsuleOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2010-07-10Not applicableUs
Doll LashLiquidTopicalHanbit Korea2010-11-06Not applicableUs
Dong Sung MonelynShampooTopicalDaolcosmetic Co.,ltd2016-03-30Not applicableUs
Efferlife Multivitamins and MineralsTablet, effervescentOralNaturale Science Inc.2001-10-012006-10-10Canada
Enviroflex - TabTabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1997-09-151999-07-26Canada
EscaviteTablet, chewableOralGm Pharmaceuticals2012-02-01Not applicableUs
Essential B TabletsTabletOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182006-08-03Canada
Extra P.N. Vitamin-mineral Drink MixPowderOralChanges InternationalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Extra-Virt Plus DHACapsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2012-12-28Not applicableUs
FeRivaCapsuleOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2012-12-30Not applicableUs
FeRiva FACapsule, gelatin coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-12-18Not applicableUs
FeRivaFACapsule, gelatin coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-01-02Not applicableUs
FlorivaTablet, chewableOralBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
Floriva PlusSolution / dropsOralBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-12-28Not applicableUs
Folcaps Care OneCapsule, gelatin coatedOralMidlothian Laboratories2009-05-01Not applicableUs
Formula O-care Vitamin and Mineral SupplementTabletOralFor Mor International Inc.2000-03-252002-06-25Canada
Formula Pro-BCapsuleOralBalance Plus, Inc.2000-03-082004-08-17Canada
Forty Plus Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-10-162000-06-07Canada
Gentle TherapyShampooTopicalSoleo2017-08-28Not applicableUs
Harvest Of Values All B Complex TabTabletOralHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa1997-09-242009-09-22Canada
healthy mamaBE WELL ROUNDED BE WELL ROUNDEDTablet, film coatedOralMATERNAL SCIENCE, LLC2013-07-09Not applicableUs
HemeNatal OBTabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2012-03-08Not applicableUs
Hi Potency B Complex W Chelated MineralsTabletOralKlaire Labs Inc.1984-12-312004-01-19Canada
Hi Potency B52 B Complex TabTabletOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada
Hi Potency Balanced B-100 Complex - TabTabletOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Hi Potency Stress B Tension With CTabletOralLee Adams Laboratories1982-12-312010-08-05Canada
Hill.viteTabletOralHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa2001-11-142009-09-22Canada
Hypo Vites TabTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1977-12-312006-07-27Canada
Infuvite Adult Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Insur-all Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-10-162000-06-07Canada
Integra PlusCapsuleOralUs Pharmaceutical Corporation2009-04-27Not applicableUs
Iron 25mg With Vit B-cmplx, Vit C, Cu & MoCapsuleOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1996-07-232002-07-29Canada
Kanga Sport Vitamins B & C Plus MineralsTablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-B Vitamin B Group + CTablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralTablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Kanga-V Multivitamins & MineralsTablet, effervescentOralLacombe Drugs (1992) LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
KindervitesSolution / dropsOralHerbalife International Of America1984-12-312002-09-17Canada
Lancell hair loss prevention hair grower clean formulaLiquidTopicalMicell Bio Co., Ltd2011-04-08Not applicableUs
Leritone JuniorCapsuleOralInstitut De Recherche Biologique Yves Ponroy Canada Inc.1998-12-072004-12-23Canada
Lipo-B-C TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1989-12-311996-10-02Canada
Liqui B ComplexLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Liqui B Complex PlusLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Liqui VitaLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Liquid B Complex 50LiquidOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1985-12-311997-08-13Canada
Low Potency B Complex TabTabletOralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.1983-12-311999-10-18Canada
M.V.I. 12LiquidIntravenousAventis Pharma Ltd.1992-12-312002-07-29Canada
M.V.I. PaediatricLiquidIntravenousAventis Pharma Ltd.1988-12-312002-07-29Canada
M.V.I. PediatricInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenousHospira Worldwide, Inc.1983-04-06Not applicableUs
MaxFeTabletOralPronova Corporation2014-06-01Not applicableUs
Medi Msm (methyl Sulfonyl Methane)PowderTopicalMbg Inc (Korea Institute of Science Development)2016-09-162017-09-16Us
Mega 13 Multivitamin FormulaCapsuleOralVita Health Products Inc1988-12-311998-07-22Canada
Mini-B TabTabletOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
MoReturn HairShampooTopicalMoreand Co., Ltd.2013-12-20Not applicableUs
MoReturn Hair TonicSprayTopicalMoreand Co., Ltd.2013-12-20Not applicableUs
MoRreturn Hair CareShampooTopicalMoreand Co., Ltd.2013-12-20Not applicableUs
Multi - N.T.O.x Formula - TabTabletOralAbundance Naturally LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Multi 12 InjectionLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Multi BTabletOralSeroyal International Inc.1988-12-312009-07-06Canada
Multi Nt-OXTabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012001-07-10Canada
Multi Vitamin - MineralTabletOralEnrich International1999-11-112001-09-28Canada
Multi Vitamins & MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-01-122001-04-12Canada
Multi-11SolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2002-01-28Not applicableCanada
Multi-12 PediatricLiquidIntravenousSabex Inc1998-04-092009-11-26Canada
Multi-12/k1 PediatricLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-11-07Not applicableCanada
Multi-vitamins With MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-04-122009-09-28Canada
Multivitamines Et Mineraux Reguliers / Regular Multivitamins and MineralsTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-10-062004-07-26Canada
Multivitamins and Minerals - CompleteTabletOralVita Health Products Inc2000-02-012006-07-31Canada
Multivitamins and Multiminerals Formula Regular TabletTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.2001-11-222009-07-30Canada
Myhephron Dialysis and Stress SupplementCapsuleOralMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceu2016-08-01Not applicableUs
Mynephrocaps Dialysis/stress Vitamin SupplementCapsuleOralMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-12-16Not applicableUs
Nata KompleteTabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2011-06-252016-12-06Us
Ndm ScalpShampooTopicalDamomedical Ltd.2014-10-27Not applicableUs
NephrocapsCapsule, liquid filledOralCardinal Health2010-01-14Not applicableUs
Nexa PlusCapsuleOralUpsher Smith Laboratories2012-08-01Not applicableUs
Nioxin Recharging ComplexCapsuleOralNioxin Research Laboratories, Inc.2002-06-192008-06-20Canada
Nutrilite Double XTabletOralNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc2002-12-152008-06-24Canada
Nutrol-B-complexTabletOralRolmex International Inc.1999-06-282008-07-09Canada
OnccorTabletOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
One A Day Advance AdultsTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care2002-09-122007-08-02Canada
One A Day Advance Adults 50+TabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care2002-09-122007-08-02Canada
One A Day TabTabletOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada
Original Bioscal Forte Multi-vitamin Supplement CapsulesCapsuleOralCarram Inc.1997-05-071999-07-30Canada
Orti BCapsuleOralSeroyal International Inc.1983-12-312008-10-09Canada
P.N.P. Vitamin DrinkLiquidOralChanges InternationalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pediatric Infuvite Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2001-02-21Not applicableUs
Pediatric Infuvite Multiple Vitamins for InfusionInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2001-02-21Not applicableUs
Phytopecia Hair TonicLiquidTopicalPhytos Co., Ltd.2015-12-18Not applicableUs
PNV-SelectTablet, film coatedOralAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-11-02Not applicableUs
Polymine Avec Zinc Et CuivreTabletOralLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.1985-12-312007-07-12Canada
Prefera OB plus DHATabletOralAlaven Pharmaceutical2009-04-01Not applicableUs
PreferaOBTablet, coatedOralMeda Pharmaceuticals Ltd2015-04-28Not applicableUs
PreferaOB ONECapsule, liquid filledOralMeda Pharmaceuticals Ltd2015-04-28Not applicableUs
PreferaOB plus DHATabletOralAlaven Pharmaceutical2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantTabletOralUsana Health Services, Inc.2012-04-11Not applicableUs
Prenate EliteTablet, coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2012-08-06Not applicableUs
PRENATE EnhanceCapsule, gelatin coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2013-09-17Not applicableUs
Prenate EssentialCapsule, gelatin coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-07-18Not applicableUs
Prenate PixieTablet, film coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-08-14Not applicableUs
PRENATE RestoreCapsule, gelatin coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2013-09-17Not applicableUs
Prenate StarTablet, coatedOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-06-05Not applicableUs
Q.T. Vitamin and Mineral Drink MixPowderOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Reno CapsCapsuleOralNnodum Pharmaceuticals2008-11-30Not applicableUs63044 0622 01 nlmimage10 7d3cbea5
ReplaviteTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1999-10-202002-07-31Canada
Revitex Ampoules Et ComprimesLiquid; TabletOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1988-12-312005-06-29Canada
Right Choice A.M. Multi Formula - CapletTabletOralBody Wise International LlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Scalp ScalingShampooTopicalZaol2017-01-10Not applicableUs
Se-Natal OneTabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-04-162016-10-13Us
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementTabletOralBiotech Corporation2002-08-262007-06-25Canada
Silica-calcium With Biotin CapsulesCapsuleOralNaka Sales Ltd.2002-05-152009-07-29Canada
Sincera - TabletsTabletOralScandinavian Formulas Inc.1997-04-082005-02-16Canada
Spectrum 2 CapCapsuleOralNf Formulas Inc.1988-12-312008-06-26Canada
Stom #2CapsuleOralMorinda Canada1999-12-202001-07-23Canada
Stress B & C CapletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1995-12-311998-08-25Canada
Stress B Capsules With Vitamin CCapsuleOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1987-12-312007-07-26Canada
Stress B Complex With C, E & IronTabletOralPharmavite1999-10-312005-07-15Canada
Stress B With 1000 Mg Vitamin CTabletOralHolista Health (Canada) Inc.2002-11-132008-07-17Canada
Stress B&c TabTabletOralBioforce Canada Inc.1985-12-311997-04-04Canada
Stress Complex 600 Avec Vit E Cuivre ZincTabletOralFrega Inc.1995-12-312008-02-13Canada
Stress Ctr SrtTablet, extended releaseOralBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Stress FormulaTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-05-202005-07-20Canada
Stress Formula + IronTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-05-202006-07-31Canada
Stress Formula B-comp + 500mg Vit C TabTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1987-12-312002-07-29Canada
Stress Formula Multi-B Comp + 500mg Vit C CapCapsuleOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1987-12-312001-07-06Canada
Stress Formula Multivitamin Tablets USPTabletOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Stress Formula TabTabletOralNatures Sunshine Products, Inc.1986-12-312009-09-09Canada
Stress Formula Vit B With C ComplexTabletOralWatkins Incorporated1985-12-312000-01-15Canada
Stress Forte Plus Lipotropic FactorsTabletOralDouglas Laboratories1995-12-312009-09-29Canada
Stress Vitamin B With C Complex TabletsTabletOralPurity Life Health Products A Division Of Sunopta Inc.2002-06-012007-07-26Canada
StressmatesTabletOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Strovite Forte CapletTablet, coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.1996-10-01Not applicableUs
Strovite One CapletsTabletOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.2001-05-04Not applicableUs
Super B Compound W 500mg Vit CTabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1986-12-312000-08-01Canada
Super Charged EnergyPowderOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Super Daily No 2TabletOralW.R. Enterprises Inc.1990-12-312003-07-30Canada
Super PantoplexTabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312000-03-03Canada
Super Stress CapsulesCapsuleOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1987-12-311997-08-22Canada
Super Stress Mega B Plus 1000mg Vit C TabTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1987-12-312001-07-06Canada
Super-pote Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-252000-06-07Canada
Supplement De Multivitamines Infusion Arome Fruits RougesKitOralYves Rocher Inc.1999-10-182000-08-08Canada
Supravite Stress Avec Vit ETabletOralPharmalab Inc.1985-12-311997-08-08Canada
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Cuivre Et ZincTabletOralPharmalab Inc.1985-12-311997-08-08Canada
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Et FerTabletOralPharmalab Inc.1985-12-311997-08-08Canada
T.R.I. B-plex SrcCapsule, extended releaseOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1979-12-312004-03-15Canada
Therapytion Nokmosu Neutral and oily HairShampooTopicalTherapytion Co., Ltd.2014-05-01Not applicableUs
Therapytion Nokmosu Sensitive and Dry HairShampooTopicalTherapytion Co., Ltd.2014-05-01Not applicableUs
Time Release B 100 Compound - TabletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1996-10-222002-07-18Canada
Timed Release B Complex 100 SrtTablet, extended releaseOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1994-12-311997-08-13Canada
Timed Release B-complex 100Tablet, extended releaseOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Timed Release B-complex 50Tablet, extended releaseOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Tl-hem 150Tablet, film coatedOralTrigen Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Trinatal GTTabletOralTrigen Laboratories, Inc.2011-07-052017-09-13Us
Twin Ultra Liquid Fruit Punch FlavorLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-312002-09-11Canada
Twin Ultra Liquid Grape FlavorLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-312007-08-01Canada
Twin Ultra Liquid Lemon-lime FlavorLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-312005-08-30Canada
Twin Ultra Liquid Orange FlavorLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-312002-09-11Canada
UltimateCare ONE NFCapsuleOralTrigen Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-042017-09-16Us
Ultra HrTabletOralNatural Organics Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Usana Megavitamin Tablets - TabTabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.1996-12-302000-09-11Canada
Vimeral TabTabletOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1979-12-312005-04-26Canada
Virt-CapsCapsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2014-04-012017-08-11Us
Virt-PnTablet, coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2012-07-122017-08-09Us
Virt-PN PlusCapsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2013-03-012017-08-08Us
Virt-Vite PlusTabletOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2014-01-142017-08-11Us
Vit B Complex CtrTablet, extended releaseOralBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Vit-HA Multi Vitamin and Zinc SupplementTabletOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1994-12-312007-07-26Canada
Vita B Complex TabTabletOralNutrimetics International (Canada) Inc.1985-12-312000-07-19Canada
Vita-BTabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1984-12-311997-08-22Canada
Vita-B-75 CapCapsuleOralLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.1989-12-311998-09-28Canada
Vita-worth B-complex TabletsTabletOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada
Vitaflex Dietary SuplementTabletOralHome Shopping Network DirectNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitalife - CapsuleCapsuleOralHolista Health (Canada) Inc.1996-11-132002-08-06Canada
Vitamin B + C CapCapsuleOralFinlandia Consultants1990-12-311997-12-02Canada
Vitamin B Complex 100 TabTabletOralBioforce Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-04-04Canada
Vitamin B Complex 50TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-102004-06-15Canada
Vitamin B Complex SupplTabletOralAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1985-12-312006-07-20Canada
Vitamin B Complex TabTabletOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1981-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin B Complex W C TabTabletOralAlbi Imports Ltd.1979-12-312004-09-24Canada
Vitamin B Compound W C Tab 500mgTabletOralAdams Laboratories1979-12-312009-10-21Canada
Vitamin B Compound W Vit C 250mg TabTabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1972-12-312003-09-10Canada
Vitamin B TabletsTabletOralWeider Health Products1985-12-311999-09-09Canada
VP-heme OBTablet, film coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2013-10-14Not applicableUs
VP-HEME OneCapsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Vtb Vitamin and Mineral SupplementTabletOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Women's FormulaTabletOralPro Ma Systems1998-10-312007-09-25Canada
CAS number
Average: 244.311
Monoisotopic: 244.088163078
Chemical Formula
InChI Key
5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxo-hexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazolidin-4-yl]pentanoic acid
[H][[email protected]]12CS[[email protected]@H](CCCCC(O)=O)[[email protected]@]1([H])NC(=O)N2



For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.

Structured Indications
Not Available

Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which is composed of an ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It plays a role in the Kreb cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also helps with the transfer of carbon dioxide. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails. Consequenty, it is found in many cosmetic and health products for the hair and skin. Biotin deficiency is a rare nutritional disorder caused by a deficiency of biotin. Initial symptoms of biotin deficiency include: Dry skin, Seborrheic dermatitis, Fungal infections, rashes including erythematous periorofacial macular rash, fine and brittle hair, and hair loss or total alopecia. If left untreated, neurological symptoms can develop, including mild depression, which may progress to profound lassitude and, eventually, to somnolence; changes in mental status, generalized muscular pains (myalgias), hyperesthesias and paresthesias. The treatment for biotin deficiency is to simply start taking some biotin supplements. A lack of biotin in infants will lead to a condition called seborrheic dermatitis or "cradle cap". Biotin deficiencies are extremely rare in adults but if it does occur, it will lead to anemia, depression, hair loss, high blood sugar levels, muscle pain, nausea, loss of appetite and inflamed mucous membranes.

Mechanism of action

Biotin is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes that transport carboxyl units and fix carbon dioxide, and is required for various metabolic functions, including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, propionate metabolism, and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids.

UPropionyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UBiotin--protein ligaseNot AvailableHuman
USodium-dependent multivitamin transporterNot AvailableHuman
UMethylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAcetyl-CoA carboxylase 2Not AvailableHuman
UMethylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UPropionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAcetyl-CoA carboxylase 1Not AvailableHuman

Systemic - approximately 50%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Not Available

Prolonged skin contact may cause irritation.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDisease
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2Disease
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencyDisease
Multiple carboxylase deficiency, neonatal or early onset formDisease
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
The oncogenic action of FumarateDisease
Propanoate MetabolismMetabolic
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolic
Citric Acid CycleMetabolic
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)Disease
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDisease
Leigh SyndromeDisease
Malonic AciduriaDisease
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDisease
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationMetabolic
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaMetabolic
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseDisease
Glutaminolysis and CancerDisease
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolic
Pyruvate MetabolismMetabolic
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDisease
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseDisease
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaDisease
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)Disease
Pyruvate kinase deficiencyDisease
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)Disease
Triosephosphate isomeraseDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available


Synthesis Reference

Takayoshi Mitsunaga, Kiyoto Chinushi, Tadashi Umezu, "Water-soluble biotin-containing preparation." U.S. Patent US4277488, issued May, 1940.

General References
  1. Holmberg A, Blomstergren A, Nord O, Lukacs M, Lundeberg J, Uhlen M: The biotin-streptavidin interaction can be reversibly broken using water at elevated temperatures. Electrophoresis. 2005 Feb;26(3):501-10. [PubMed:15690449 ]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
BTN Drug Page
PDRhealth Drug Page
ATC Codes
A11HA05 — Biotin
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
Download (71.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBiotinidase Deficiency1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Motor Neurone Disease1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdrenoleukodystrophy / Adrenomyeloneuropathy / AMN1
3RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1


Not Available
Dosage forms
TabletOral300 mcg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
LiquidTopical.01 mL/100mL
TabletOral500 mcg
CapsuleOral500 mcg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1 mg
TabletOral250 mcg
LiquidTopical.002 mL/mL
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral5 mcg
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
ShampooTopical.06 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical.06 mL/100mL
Solution / dropsOral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Tablet, coatedOral
Liquid; tabletOral
LiquidTopical.01 mg/100mL
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Biotin powder14.69USD g
D-biotin powder12.0USD g
Diachrome capsule0.29USD capsule
Appearex 2.5 mg tablet0.26USD tablet
Stress b tablet0.1USD tablet
Stress 600 tablet0.08USD tablet
Biotin 800 mcg tablet0.06USD tablet
Biotin 300 mcg tablet0.03USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)232 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility220 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.22 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity60.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.92 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7395
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9383
Caco-2 permeable-0.7206
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6413
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9561
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor1.0
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8803
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7602
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7872
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6911
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9252
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9762
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8923
Rat acute toxicity2.0581 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9596
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9145
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )


Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.84 KB)
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0f76-1960000000-b21ddd69490cac3254f8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0f76-3960000000-a8a94e2de123f66979d8
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0f76-1960000000-b21ddd69490cac3254f8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0f76-3960000000-a8a94e2de123f66979d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-6d956bb533d353d449c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0190000000-01f67d1bdf8c742e48c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fxx-3920000000-f0b9613cbd9371e4be92
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9400000000-107f2a44f521c2513578
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-1a3f65d909dc40055e87
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-c928e8d0a18f3f848262
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-066s-1920000000-5f795e0b7f1d7cf986e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ar1-1920000000-c298be862857cb3bbc7f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-0900000000-cdc4a4c359ff765fd32d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-bcffb0dcf77e8fd727a4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6x-0390000000-c209523d36e9a7681f44
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-c0f81ee86772310db415
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0190000000-016eb89528e564c74720
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fxx-3920000000-f0b9613cbd9371e4be92
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9400000000-107f2a44f521c2513578
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-d08e1b3709844e1e91b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0190000000-21d0f2512788276bbb89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-0690000000-dc372934024e58bdcc60
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositivePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativePredicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biotin and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Biotin and derivatives
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Biotin and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives / Medium-chain fatty acids / Thia fatty acids / Heterocyclic fatty acids / Thiolanes / Imidazolines / Isoureas / Azacyclic compounds / Carboximidamides / Carboxylic acids
show 7 more
Biotin / Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative / Medium-chain fatty acid / Heterocyclic fatty acid / Thia fatty acid / Fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Thiolane / 2-imidazoline / Isourea
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
biotins (CHEBI:15956 ) / Water-soluble vitamins (C00120 )


Pharmacological action
General Function
Propionyl-coa carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
58215.13 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Vlasova TI, Stratton SL, Wells AM, Mock NI, Mock DM: Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood. J Nutr. 2005 Jan;135(1):42-7. [PubMed:15623830 ]
  4. Cherbonnel-Lasserre CL, Linares-Cruz G, Rigaut JP, Sabatier L, Dutrillaux B: Strong decrease in biotin content may correlate with metabolic alterations in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1997 Sep 4;72(5):768-75. [PubMed:9311592 ]
  5. Ishii M, Chuakrut S, Arai H, Igarashi Y: Occurrence, biochemistry and possible biotechnological application of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 Jun;64(5):605-10. Epub 2004 Feb 28. [PubMed:14997352 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Enzyme binding
Specific Function
Post-translational modification of specific protein by attachment of biotin. Acts on various carboxylases such as acetyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase, and 3-meth...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Biotin--protein ligase
Molecular Weight
80759.345 Da
  1. Velazquez-Arellano A: From an inborn error patient to a search for regulatory meaning: a biotin conducted voyage. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Mar;87(3):194-7. Epub 2005 Dec 15. [PubMed:16359899 ]
  2. Hassan YI, Zempleni J: Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene function by biotin. J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1763-5. [PubMed:16772434 ]
  3. Camporeale G, Giordano E, Rendina R, Zempleni J, Eissenberg JC: Drosophila melanogaster holocarboxylase synthetase is a chromosomal protein required for normal histone biotinylation, gene transcription patterns, lifespan, and heat tolerance. J Nutr. 2006 Nov;136(11):2735-42. [PubMed:17056793 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Transports pantothenate, biotin and lipoate in the presence of sodium.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter
Molecular Weight
68641.27 Da
  1. Luo S, Kansara VS, Zhu X, Mandava NK, Pal D, Mitra AK: Functional characterization of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter in MDCK-MDR1 cells and its utilization as a target for drug delivery. Mol Pharm. 2006 May-Jun;3(3):329-39. [PubMed:16749865 ]
  2. Janoria KG, Hariharan S, Paturi D, Pal D, Mitra AK: Biotin uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells: role of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Curr Eye Res. 2006 Oct;31(10):797-809. [PubMed:17038304 ]
  3. Reidling JC, Said HM: Regulation of the human biotin transporter hSMVT promoter by KLF-4 and AP-2: confirmation of promoter activity in vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Apr;292(4):C1305-12. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [PubMed:17135299 ]
  4. Camporeale G, Zempleni J, Eissenberg JC: Susceptibility to heat stress and aberrant gene expression patterns in holocarboxylase synthetase-deficient Drosophila melanogaster are caused by decreased biotinylation of histones, not of carboxylases. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):885-9. [PubMed:17374649 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Methylcrotonoyl-coa carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Carboxyltransferase subunit of the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA, a critical step for leucine and isova...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61332.65 Da
  1. Santoro N, Brtva T, Roest SV, Siegel K, Waldrop GL: A high-throughput screening assay for the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Anal Biochem. 2006 Jul 1;354(1):70-7. Epub 2006 May 3. [PubMed:16707089 ]
  2. de Queiroz MS, Waldrop GL: Modeling and numerical simulation of biotin carboxylase kinetics: implications for half-sites reactivity. J Theor Biol. 2007 May 7;246(1):167-75. Epub 2006 Dec 28. [PubMed:17266990 ]
  3. Ludke A, Kramer R, Burkovski A, Schluesener D, Poetsch A: A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH. BMC Microbiol. 2007 Jan 25;7:6. [PubMed:17254330 ]
  4. Jitrapakdee S, Surinya KH, Adina-Zada A, Polyak SW, Stojkoski C, Smyth R, Booker GW, Cleland WW, Attwood PV, Wallace JC: Conserved Glu40 and Glu433 of the biotin carboxylase domain of yeast pyruvate carboxylase I isoenzyme are essential for the association of tetramers. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(11):2120-34. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17659996 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase. Involved in inhibit...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2
Molecular Weight
276538.575 Da
  1. Liu Y, Zalameda L, Kim KW, Wang M, McCarter JD: Discovery of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 inhibitors: comparison of a fluorescence intensity-based phosphate assay and a fluorescence polarization-based ADP Assay for high-throughput screening. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2007 Apr;5(2):225-35. [PubMed:17477831 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Methylcrotonoyl-coa carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Biotin-attachment subunit of the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA, a critical step for leucine and isovale...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
80472.45 Da
  1. Friebel D, von der Hagen M, Baumgartner ER, Fowler B, Hahn G, Feyh P, Heubner G, Baumgartner MR, Hoffmann GF: The first case of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency responsive to biotin. Neuropediatrics. 2006 Apr;37(2):72-8. [PubMed:16773504 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Pyruvate carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
129632.565 Da
  1. Liu L, Li Y, Zhu Y, Du G, Chen J: Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level. Metab Eng. 2007 Jan;9(1):21-9. Epub 2006 Aug 12. [PubMed:17008113 ]
  2. Ferreira G, Weiss WP: Effect of biotin on activity and gene expression of biotin-dependent carboxylases in the liver of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Mar;90(3):1460-6. [PubMed:17297119 ]
  3. Jitrapakdee S, Surinya KH, Adina-Zada A, Polyak SW, Stojkoski C, Smyth R, Booker GW, Cleland WW, Attwood PV, Wallace JC: Conserved Glu40 and Glu433 of the biotin carboxylase domain of yeast pyruvate carboxylase I isoenzyme are essential for the association of tetramers. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(11):2120-34. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17659996 ]
  4. Jitrapakdee S, Adina-Zada A, Besant PG, Surinya KH, Cleland WW, Wallace JC, Attwood PV: Differential regulation of the yeast isozymes of pyruvate carboxylase and the locus of action of acetyl CoA. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(6):1211-23. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17478118 ]
  5. Ozimek PZ, Klompmaker SH, Visser N, Veenhuis M, van der Klei IJ: The transcarboxylase domain of pyruvate carboxylase is essential for assembly of the peroxisomal flavoenzyme alcohol oxidase. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007 Oct;7(7):1082-92. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17316367 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Propionyl-coa carboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
80058.295 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Clavero S, Martinez MA, Perez B, Perez-Cerda C, Ugarte M, Desviat LR: Functional characterization of PCCA mutations causing propionic acidemia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Nov 20;1588(2):119-25. [PubMed:12385775 ]
  4. Cherbonnel-Lasserre CL, Linares-Cruz G, Rigaut JP, Sabatier L, Dutrillaux B: Strong decrease in biotin content may correlate with metabolic alterations in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1997 Sep 4;72(5):768-75. [PubMed:9311592 ]
  5. Vlasova TI, Stratton SL, Wells AM, Mock NI, Mock DM: Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood. J Nutr. 2005 Jan;135(1):42-7. [PubMed:15623830 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
Molecular Weight
265551.725 Da
  1. Bilder P, Lightle S, Bainbridge G, Ohren J, Finzel B, Sun F, Holley S, Al-Kassim L, Spessard C, Melnick M, Newcomer M, Waldrop GL: The structure of the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-coA carboxylase reveals a zinc-binding motif unique to the bacterial enzyme. Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 14;45(6):1712-22. [PubMed:16460018 ]
  2. Brownsey RW, Boone AN, Elliott JE, Kulpa JE, Lee WM: Regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Apr;34(Pt 2):223-7. [PubMed:16545081 ]
  3. Aoki H, Kimura K, Igarashi K, Takenaka A: Soy protein suppresses gene expression of acetyl-coA carboxylase alpha from promoter PI in rat liver. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Apr;70(4):843-9. [PubMed:16636450 ]
  4. Santoro N, Brtva T, Roest SV, Siegel K, Waldrop GL: A high-throughput screening assay for the carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Anal Biochem. 2006 Jul 1;354(1):70-7. Epub 2006 May 3. [PubMed:16707089 ]
  5. Leonard E, Lim KH, Saw PN, Koffas MA: Engineering central metabolic pathways for high-level flavonoid production in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jun;73(12):3877-86. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17468269 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 01, 2017 10:23