Identification

Name
Levamisole
Accession Number
DB00848  (APRD01067)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Vet Approved, Withdrawn
Description

An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6). Levamisole was withdrawn from the US and Canadian markets in 2000 and 2003, respectively, due to the risk of serious side effects and the availability of more effective replacement medications. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Levamisol
  • Levamisolum
External IDs
R12564
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Levamisole hydrochlorideDL9055K80916595-80-5LAZPBGZRMVRFKY-HNCPQSOCSA-N
Levamisole phosphateFIG89N8AZY32093-35-9QEMMFDPTLWDHKP-HNCPQSOCSA-N
Levamisole resinateNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ergamisol Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralJanssen Pharmaceuticals1990-12-312003-10-17Canada
Novo-levamisoleTablet50 mgOralNovopharm Limited1997-10-172005-08-10Canada
International/Other Brands
Ergamisol (Janssen) / Ketrax (AstraZeneca)
Categories
UNII
2880D3468G
CAS number
14769-73-4
Weight
Average: 204.291
Monoisotopic: 204.072119084
Chemical Formula
C11H12N2S
InChI Key
HLFSDGLLUJUHTE-SNVBAGLBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H12N2S/c1-2-4-9(5-3-1)10-8-13-6-7-14-11(13)12-10/h1-5,10H,6-8H2/t10-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(6S)-6-phenyl-2H,3H,5H,6H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole
SMILES
C1CN2C[[email protected]@H](N=C2S1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For adjuvant treatment in combination with fluorouracil after surgical resection in patients with Dukes' stage C colon cancer. Also used to treat malignant melanoma and head/neck cancer. Levamisole was originally used as an antihelminthic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative that has been widely used in treatment of worm infestations in both humans and animals. As an anthelmintic, it probably works by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor. As an immunomodulator, it appears that Levamisole is an immunostimulant which has been shown to increase NK cells and activated T-cells in patients receiving this adjuvantly along with 5FU for Stage III colon cancer.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of levamisole as an antiparasitic agent appears to be tied to its agnositic activity towards the L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nematode muscles. This agonistic action reduces the capacity of the males to control their reproductive muscles and limits their ability to copulate. The mechanism of action of Levamisole as an anticancer drug in combination with fluorouracil is unknown. The effects of levamisole on the immune system are complex. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis.

TargetActionsOrganism
ANeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3
agonist
Human
UAlkaline phosphatase, placental-like
inhibitor
Human
UAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-38
activator
Caenorhabditis elegans
UAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63
activator
Caenorhabditis elegans
UAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type lev-1
activator
Caenorhabditis elegans
UAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type unc-29
activator
Caenorhabditis elegans
Absorption

Levamisole is rapidly absorbed (2 hours) from the gastrointestinal tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

20-25%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic (extensive) with both active and inactive metabolites.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4.4-5.6 hours (biphasic)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 = 40 mg/kg (Pigs, subcutaneous); LD50 = 180 mg/kg (rat, oral)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Levamisole can be decreased when it is combined with Amodiaquine.Approved
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Levamisole can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroxychloroquineThe serum concentration of Levamisole can be decreased when it is combined with Hydroxychloroquine.Approved
PrimaquineThe serum concentration of Levamisole can be decreased when it is combined with Primaquine.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach.

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patents 3,274,209; 3,364,112; 3,463,786; 3,579,530 and 3,646,051.

US3274209
General References
  1. Grishchenko SV, Lavrukhina LA, Ketiladze ES, Krylov VF, Ershov FI: [Results of combined therapy using levamisole for patients with influenza complicated by pneumonia]. Vopr Virusol. 1984 Mar-Apr;29(2):175-9. [PubMed:6203228]
  2. Authors unspecified: Levamisole for corticosteroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in childhood. British Association for Paediatric Nephrology. Lancet. 1991 Jun 29;337(8757):1555-7. [PubMed:1675705]
  3. Van Belle H: Alkaline phosphatase. I. Kinetics and inhibition by levamisole of purified isoenzymes from humans. Clin Chem. 1976 Jul;22(7):972-6. [PubMed:6169]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14986
KEGG Drug
D08114
KEGG Compound
C07070
PubChem Compound
26879
PubChem Substance
46509052
ChemSpider
25037
BindingDB
50241179
ChEBI
6432
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1454
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000570
PharmGKB
PA450205
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levamisole
ATC Codes
P02CE01 — Levamisole
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
Not Available
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (75.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAplastic Anaemia (AA) / Bone Marrow Failure / Haemoglobinuria / Hemolytic Anemia / Paroxysmal Hemoglobinuria / Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) / Proteinuria / Thrombosis / Urination Disorders2
2CompletedPreventionRenal Dialysis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune / Anemias / Autoimmune Diseases / Hematologic Diseases / Hemolysis / Hemolytic Anemia / Immune System Diseases / Pathologic Processes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcne1
3CompletedTreatmentColon Cancer Stage III1
3CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers3
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFirst Manifestation of Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentAscariasis / Trichuriasis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAplastic Anaemia (AA)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Janssen pharmaceutica products lp
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levamisole hcl powder7.5USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)227-227.5 U.S. Patents 3,274,209; 3,364,112; 3,463,786; 3,579,530 and 3,646,051.
water solubility210 mg/mLNot Available
logP1.84BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.44 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.2ALOGPS
logP2.36ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.98ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area15.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9868
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9513
Caco-2 permeable+0.5286
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6429
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7329
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8382
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.728
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8531
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5639
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7161
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8026
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9238
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.837
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6514
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.935
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.6601 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7472
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-3287b9f97484db3f8259
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0290000000-2a8784dae8e131756f29
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-0930000000-975ff964afb959f70b6f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-a8c5505d0b7fdeaf0370
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00o0-0900000000-80c580945e5a7ddd9141
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-0930000000-d376a4d6ffa974193618
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-d856a825b29504cf56b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-29757710d68d19c20f76
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-e4e9e3b226281380147b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a6r-0980000000-ac1adb2c160be1dafe12
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-1920000000-4c40f20cc8cba971e7f6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00bc-2900000000-9a1379a30cf72af41c53
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-7b7b26cae9b220d1caab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-1bbcf954ce60d0b1fcaa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-07d289ec95e677a1b3aa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a6r-0890000000-c2231044d3a23c9eb270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-1920000000-0a9caf1aaab83df71159
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00bc-2900000000-46aebcf766e13a170e5d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0920000000-eed44b98c34d9c4e1c34
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-4a3cc348fa14a506c8bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-49a9ae546ec3a269617e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-0930000000-339380648feb3e65ef30
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00b9-0900000000-408cd49d75c26186b6e2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ec-1900000000-ca0f7799112d42972b0d

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazothiazoles. These are organic polycyclic compounds containing an imidazole ring fused to a thiazole ring. Imidazole is 5-membered ring consisting of three carbon atoms, and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3-positions. Thiazole is a 6-membered ring that contains both sulfur and nitrogen.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazothiazoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Imidazothiazoles
Alternative Parents
Benzene and substituted derivatives / Thiazolidines / Imidazolines / Isothioureas / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Imidazothiazole / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Thiazolidine / 2-imidazoline / Isothiourea / Azacycle / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
6-phenyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole (CHEBI:6432)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID
P32297
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Culetto E, Baylis HA, Richmond JE, Jones AK, Fleming JT, Squire MD, Lewis JA, Sattelle DB: The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42476-83. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15280391]
  4. Rayes D, Flamini M, Hernando G, Bouzat C: Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 May;71(5):1407-15. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314321]
  5. Parker S, Peterkin HS, Baylis HA: Muscular dystrophy associated mutations in caveolin-1 induce neurotransmission and locomotion defects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Invert Neurosci. 2007 Sep;7(3):157-64. Epub 2007 Jul 13. [PubMed:17629760]
  6. Hu Y, Xiao SH, Aroian RV: The new anthelmintic tribendimidine is an L-type (levamisole and pyrantel) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009 Aug 11;3(8):e499. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000499. [PubMed:19668355]
  7. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID
P10696
Uniprot Name
Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like
Molecular Weight
57376.515 Da
References
  1. Chang YL, Stanford CM, Keller JC: Calcium and phosphate supplementation promotes bone cell mineralization: implications for hydroxyapatite (HA)-enhanced bone formation. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000 Nov;52(2):270-8. [PubMed:10951365]
  2. Funk CJ: Alkaline phosphatase activity in whitefly salivary glands and saliva. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2001 Apr;46(4):165-74. [PubMed:11304750]
  3. de Aguiar Matos JA, Borges FP, Tasca T, Bogo MR, De Carli GA, da Graca Fauth M, Dias RD, Bonan CD: Characterisation of an ATP diphosphohydrolase (Apyrase, EC 3.6.1.5) activity in Trichomonas vaginalis. Int J Parasitol. 2001 Jun;31(8):770-5. [PubMed:11403767]
  4. McDougall K, Plumb C, King WA, Hahnel A: Inhibitor profiles of alkaline phosphatases in bovine preattachment embryos and adult tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002 Mar;50(3):415-22. [PubMed:11850443]
  5. Soory M, Suchak A: Effects of alkaline phosphatase and its inhibitor levamisole on the modulation of androgen metabolism by nicotine and minocycline in human gingival and oral periosteal fibroblasts. Arch Oral Biol. 2003 Jan;48(1):69-76. [PubMed:12615144]
  6. Mota A, Silva P, Neves D, Lemos C, Calhau C, Torres D, Martel F, Fraga H, Ribeiro L, Alcada MN, Pinho MJ, Negrao MR, Pedrosa R, Guerreiro S, Guimaraes JT, Azevedo I, Martins MJ: Characterization of rat heart alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and modulation of activity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008 Jul;41(7):600-9. [PubMed:18719742]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
Acetylcholine receptor.
Gene Name
unc-38
Uniprot ID
Q23022
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-38
Molecular Weight
59453.83 Da
References
  1. Culetto E, Baylis HA, Richmond JE, Jones AK, Fleming JT, Squire MD, Lewis JA, Sattelle DB: The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42476-83. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15280391]
  2. Rayes D, Flamini M, Hernando G, Bouzat C: Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 May;71(5):1407-15. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314321]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Acetylcholine-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
Acetylcholine receptor.
Gene Name
unc-63
Uniprot ID
Q9N587
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63
Molecular Weight
57390.645 Da
References
  1. Culetto E, Baylis HA, Richmond JE, Jones AK, Fleming JT, Squire MD, Lewis JA, Sattelle DB: The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42476-83. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15280391]
  2. Rayes D, Flamini M, Hernando G, Bouzat C: Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 May;71(5):1407-15. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314321]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
Acetylcholine receptor.
Gene Name
lev-1
Uniprot ID
Q27218
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type lev-1
Molecular Weight
58025.88 Da
References
  1. Culetto E, Baylis HA, Richmond JE, Jones AK, Fleming JT, Squire MD, Lewis JA, Sattelle DB: The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42476-83. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15280391]
  2. Rayes D, Flamini M, Hernando G, Bouzat C: Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 May;71(5):1407-15. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314321]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
Acetylcholine receptor.
Gene Name
unc-29
Uniprot ID
P48181
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type unc-29
Molecular Weight
56496.52 Da
References
  1. Culetto E, Baylis HA, Richmond JE, Jones AK, Fleming JT, Squire MD, Lewis JA, Sattelle DB: The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42476-83. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15280391]
  2. Rayes D, Flamini M, Hernando G, Bouzat C: Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 May;71(5):1407-15. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314321]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:46