Identification

Name
Diclofenamide
Accession Number
DB01144  (APRD00131, DB07948)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,3-disulfamoyl-4,5-dichlorobenzene
  • 1,3-Disulfamyl-4,5-dichlorobenzene
  • 3,4-Dichloro-5-sulfamylbenzenesulfonamide
  • 4,5-Dichloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide
  • 4,5-dichloro-1,3-disulfamoylbenzene
  • 4,5-Dichloro-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid diamide
  • 4,5-dichloro-m-benzenedisulfonamide
  • 4,5-DICHLOROBENZENE-1,3-disulfonamide
  • Dichlofenamide
  • Dichlorophenamide
  • Dichlorphenamide
  • Diclofenamida
  • Diclofenamide
  • Diclofenamidum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DaranideTablet50 mg/1OralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2012-03-16Not applicableUs
KeveyisTablet50 mg/1OralStrongbridge Us Inc.2015-08-07Not applicableUs
KeveyisTablet50 mg/1OralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2015-08-07Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Oratrol (Alcon)
Categories
UNII
VVJ6673MHY
CAS number
120-97-8
Weight
Average: 305.159
Monoisotopic: 303.914603484
Chemical Formula
C6H6Cl2N2O4S2
InChI Key
GJQPMPFPNINLKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H6Cl2N2O4S2/c7-4-1-3(15(9,11)12)2-5(6(4)8)16(10,13)14/h1-2H,(H2,9,11,12)(H2,10,13,14)
IUPAC Name
4,5-dichlorobenzene-1,3-disulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC(=C(Cl)C(Cl)=C1)S(N)(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For adjunctive treatment of: chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma where delay of surgery is desired in order to lower intraocular pressure

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Dichlorphenamide is an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor indicated for adjunctive treatment of: chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma where delay of surgery is desired in order to lower intraocular pressure. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce intraocular pressure by partially suppressing the secretion of aqueous humor (inflow).

Mechanism of action

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce intraocular pressure by partially suppressing the secretion of aqueous humor (inflow), although the mechanism by which they do this is not fully understood. Evidence suggests that HCO3- ions are produced in the ciliary body by hydration of carbon dioxide under the influence of carbonic anhydrase and diffuse into the posterior chamber which contains more Na+ and HCO3- ions than does plasma and consequently is hypertonic. Water is then attracted to the posterior chamber by osmosis, resulting in a drop in pressure.

TargetActionsOrganism
ACarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Human
ACarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Human
ACarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Human
ACarbonic anhydrase 7
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 3
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

55%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Diclofenamide.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be increased when used in combination with Diclofenamide.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Diclofenamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Diclofenamide.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Diclofenamide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Schultz,E.M.; U.S.Patent 2,835,702; May 20, 1958; assigned to Merck & Co.,Inc.

General References
  1. Tawil R, McDermott MP, Brown R Jr, Shapiro BC, Ptacek LJ, McManis PG, Dalakas MC, Spector SA, Mendell JR, Hahn AF, Griggs RC: Randomized trials of dichlorphenamide in the periodic paralyses. Working Group on Periodic Paralysis. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jan;47(1):46-53. [PubMed:10632100]
  2. Okada S, Izumi W, Murai M, Komatsu H, Ishimitsu S: [Diclofenamide Reference Standard (Control 891) of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences]. Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. 1991;(109):148-50. [PubMed:1364383]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015275
KEGG Drug
D00518
KEGG Compound
C07459
PubChem Compound
3038
PubChem Substance
46505039
ChemSpider
2930
BindingDB
10883
ChEBI
101085
ChEMBL
CHEMBL17
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000601
PharmGKB
PA164745512
HET
I7A
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dichlorphenamide
ATC Codes
S01EC02 — DiclofenamideG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides
PDB Entries
2pou

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentHypokalemic Periodic Paralysis / Paralysis, Hyperkalemic Periodic1
3CompletedTreatmentHypokalemic Periodic Paralysis / Paralysis, Hyperkalemic Periodic / Paramyotonia Congenita1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral50 mg/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)228.5Schultz,E.M.; U.S.Patent 2,835,702; May 20, 1958; assigned to Merck & Co.,Inc.
logP0.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.398 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.92ALOGPS
logP0.39ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area120.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity59.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9913
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8167
Caco-2 permeable-0.54
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8835
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9593
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9922
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9254
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8101
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9085
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7198
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9044
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9691
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8017
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7954
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7986
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9872
Rat acute toxicity2.1828 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9697
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9558
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzenesulfonamides
Direct Parent
Benzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Benzenesulfonyl compounds / Dichlorobenzenes / Organosulfonamides / Aryl chlorides / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Organic nitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Benzenesulfonamide / Benzenesulfonyl group / 1,2-dichlorobenzene / Chlorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Organosulfonic acid amide / Aminosulfonyl compound / Sulfonyl
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, dichlorobenzene (CHEBI:101085)

Targets

Details
1. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Winum JY, Casini A, Mincione F, Starnotti M, Montero JL, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: N-(p-sulfamoylphenyl)-alpha-D-glycopyranosylamines as topically acting antiglaucoma agents in hypertensive rabbits. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Jan 5;14(1):225-9. [PubMed:14684332]
  2. Lindskog S: Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase. Pharmacol Ther. 1997;74(1):1-20. [PubMed:9336012]
  3. Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Onishi S, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. DNA cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of the human secretory isoform VI, a new target for sulfonamide and sulfamate inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2007 Jan 25;50(2):381-8. [PubMed:17228881]
  4. Giacomotto J, Pertl C, Borrel C, Walter MC, Bulst S, Johnsen B, Baillie DL, Lochmuller H, Thirion C, Segalat L: Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in two animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Nov 1;18(21):4089-101. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp358. Epub 2009 Jul 31. [PubMed:19648295]
  5. Cleland JC, Griggs RC: Treatment of neuromuscular channelopathies: current concepts and future prospects. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Oct;5(4):607-12. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2008.09.001. [PubMed:19019313]
Details
2. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Mincione F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: The development of topically acting carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as antiglaucoma agents. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(7):649-54. [PubMed:18336310]
Details
3. Carbonic anhydrase 4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Mincione F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: The development of topically acting carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as antiglaucoma agents. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(7):649-54. [PubMed:18336310]
Details
4. Carbonic anhydrase 7
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA7
Uniprot ID
P43166
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 7
Molecular Weight
29658.235 Da
References
  1. Mincione F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: The development of topically acting carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as antiglaucoma agents. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(7):649-54. [PubMed:18336310]
Details
5. Carbonic anhydrase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA3
Uniprot ID
P07451
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Molecular Weight
29557.215 Da
References
  1. Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Onishi S, Vullo D, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of the cytosolic isozyme III with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23):7229-36. Epub 2007 Aug 25. [PubMed:17826101]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2018 04:32