|DB00214||Torasemide||Torasemide is indicated for the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, renal or hepatic diseases. From this condition, it has been observed that torasemide is very effective in cases of kidney failure.[FDA label]
Edema is considered when swelling is observed due to the trap of fluid in the body tissue. It is mainly located in feet, ankles and legs but it can also be extended to other parts such as face, hands and abdomen or even the whole body.[L5251]
As well, torasemide is approved to be used as an antihypertensive agent either alone or in combination with other antihypertensives.[FDA label]
Hypertension is defined by the presence of high blood pressure. This is caused by an increase in the amount of blood pumped which in order produces the narrowing of the arteries.[L5254]|
|DB00384||Triamterene||Triamterene is indicated for the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and the nephrotic syndrome; also in steroid-induced edema, idiopathic edema, and edema due to secondary hyperaldosteronism.[Label]
Triamterene in combination with hydrochlorothiazide is indicated for the managment of hypertension or treatment of edema in patients who develop hypokalemia following hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy, and in patients who require thiazide diuretic and in whom the development of hypokalemia cannot be risked.[L6169] Triamterene allows the maintenance of potassium balance when given in combination with loop diuretics and thiazides.[T28]|
|DB00421||Spironolactone||Spironolactone is indicated for the treatment of New York Heart Association Class III-IV heart failure, management of edema in cirrhotic adults not responsive to fluid and sodium restrictions, primary hyperaldosteronism short-term preoperatively, primary hyperaldosteronism long-term in patients with aldosterone producing adrenal adenomas that are not candidates for surgery or patients with bilarteral micro/macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, as an add-on therapy in hypertension, and in nephrotic syndrome when treatment of the disease as well as fluid and sodium restriction with other diuretics is inadequate.[Label]
Spironolactone has antiandrogenic activity which leads to many of its off label uses. Spironolactone is used off label in the treatment of hirsutism, female pattern hair loss, and adult acne vulgaris.[A178135]
Spironolactone is also frequently used for its antiandrogenic effects in transgender female patients due to its low cost and reducing male-pattern hair growth.[A178138]|
|DB00594||Amiloride||For use as adjunctive treatment with thiazide diuretics or other kaliuretic-diuretic agents in congestive heart failure or hypertension.|
|DB00700||Eplerenone||For improvement of survival of stable patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) and clinical evidence of congestive heart failure after an acute myocardial infarction.|
|DB00903||Etacrynic acid||For the treatment of high blood pressure and edema caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure.|
|DB01325||Quinethazone||Used to treat hypertension.|
|DB04831||Tienilic acid||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB09015||Canrenoic acid||Not Available|
|DB00232||Methyclothiazide||For use in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension. Also used as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy.|
|DB00606||Cyclothiazide||Cyclothiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It is also indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.|
|DB00695||Furosemide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease, including the nephrotic syndrome. Also for the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.|
|DB00808||Indapamide||For the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs, as well as for the treatment of salt and fluid retention associated with congestive heart failure or edema from pregnancy (appropriate only in the management of edema of pathologic origin during pregnancy when clearly needed). Also used for the management of edema as a result of various causes.|
|DB00887||Bumetanide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic and renal disease including the nephrotic syndrome.|
|DB00999||Hydrochlorothiazide||For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.|
|DB01021||Trichlormethiazide||Used in the treatment of oedema (including that associated with heart failure) and hypertension.|
|DB00310||Chlorthalidone||Chlorthalidone is indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.
Chlorthalidone is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy.
Chlorthalidone has also been found useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction, such as nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure.|
|DB00311||Ethoxzolamide||For use in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, as a diuretic, and in the treatment of glaucoma, and may also be useful in the treatment of seizures associated with epilepsy.|
|DB00436||Bendroflumethiazide||For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema related to heart failure.|
|DB00524||Metolazone||For the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs of a different class.|
|DB00703||Methazolamide||For treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma|
|DB00742||Mannitol||Used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established, the reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.|
|DB00774||Hydroflumethiazide||Used as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. Also used in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.|
|DB00819||Acetazolamide||For adjunctive treatment of: edema due to congestive heart failure; drug-induced edema; centrencephalic epilepsies; chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma|
|DB00880||Chlorothiazide||Chlorothiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It is also indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.|
|DB01324||Polythiazide||Polythiazide is a thiazide diuretic used to decrease edema and decrease blood pressure.|
|DB01395||Drospirenone||For the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive.|
|DB05034||Ularitide||Investigated for use/treatment in congestive heart failure.|
|DB09125||Potassium Citrate||For the management of renal tubular acidosis, hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, and uric acid lithiasis with or without calcium stones.|
|DB09235||Efonidipine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB00872||Conivaptan||For the treatment of euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia (e.g. the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, or in the setting of hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, pulmonary disorders, etc.) in hospitalized patients.|
|DB01345||Potassium cation||Potassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions. |
|DB01412||Theobromine||theobromine is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension.|
|DB06212||Tolvaptan||Treatment of symptomatic and resistant to fluid restriction euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia associated with congestive heart failure, SIADH, and cirrhosis. |
|DB09338||Mersalyl||Elevated blood pressure, edema [L1577, L1585].|
|DB14018||Bromotheophylline||Bromotheophylline is used as a diuretic and also, in combination with [DB00316], it is used for the relief of temporary water weight gain, bloating, swelling and full feeling associated with the premenstrual and menstrual periods.[L2737]|
|DB00562||Benzthiazide||For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.|
|DB00869||Dorzolamide||For the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Also used prophylatically for the inhibition of perioperative IOP increase (before neodynium yttrium aluminum garnet laser posterior capsulotomy).|
|DB01194||Brinzolamide||For the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.|
|DB01144||Diclofenamide||For adjunctive treatment of: chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma where delay of surgery is desired in order to lower intraocular pressure|
|DB06292||Dapagliflozin||Dapagliflozin is indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise[Label,A6757,A6758].|
|DB08907||Canagliflozin||This drug is used in conjunction with diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA label].
Another indication for canagliflozin is for the prevention of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death due to a cardiovascular cause) in patients with type 2 diabetes [FDA label], [L5897].
It is important to note that this drug is **not** indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis [FDA label]. |
|DB09038||Empagliflozin||Empagliflozin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.|
|DB11827||Ertugliflozin||Ertugliflozin as a monotherapy is indicated to improve the glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.[FDA label] Ertugliflozin, in combination with metformin hydrochloride, is indicated to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes type 2 who are not controlled on a regimen of ertugliflozin or metformin or in patients who are already treated with both ertugliflozin and metformin.[L1134] The administration of ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin is indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes when treatment with ertugliflozin and sitagliptin is appropriate.[L1135] It is pointed out that the use of ertugliflozin has to be an adjunct therapy to the use of diet and exercise.
The type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in muscle and liver, which results in the elevation of glucose levels in blood, or by presence of insulin deficiency. The insulin resistance is related to genetic factors, obesity, sedentary lifestyle or/and aging. This increase in the blood glucose can cause severe damage to kidney, eyes and vascular system.[A31582]|
|DB00909||Zonisamide||For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.|
|DB01119||Diazoxide||Used parentally to treat hypertensive emergencies. Also used to treat hypoglycemia secondary to insulinoma.|
|DB00273||Topiramate||Topiramate is indicated for the following conditions:
- Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age.
- Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients.
- Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age.
- Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label]
A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548]
A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551]
Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]|