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Identification
NamePodofilox
Accession NumberDB01179  (APRD01189, DB08417)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA lignan (lignans) found in podophyllin resin from the roots of podophyllum plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Podophyllotoxin
9-HYDROXY-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,8,8a,9-tetrahydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-D][1,3]dioxol-6(5ah)-one
Condylox
Podofilox
Podophyllinic acid lactone
Podophyllotoxin
Podophyllotoxin 7
PPT
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CondylineSolution0.5 %TopicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
CondyloxGel5 mg/gTopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1997-03-13Not applicableUs
CondyloxSolution5 mg/mLTopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1990-12-13Not applicableUs
PodofiloxSolution5 mg/mLTopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1990-12-13Not applicableUs
PodofiloxSolution5 mg/mLTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-11-12Not applicableUs
WartecLiquid5 mgTopicalStiefel Laboratories (Ireland) Limited1995-12-312015-04-30Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PodofiloxSolution5 mg/mLTopicalPaddock Laboratories, LLC2002-01-29Not applicableUs
PodofiloxSolution5 mg/mLTopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2010-07-212017-07-31Us
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PodophyllotoxinNot Available
Podophyllotoxin 7Not Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIL36H50F353
CAS number518-28-5
WeightAverage: 414.4053
Monoisotopic: 414.13146768
Chemical FormulaC22H22O8
InChI KeyYJGVMLPVUAXIQN-KJYZGMDISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H22O8/c1-25-16-4-10(5-17(26-2)21(16)27-3)18-11-6-14-15(30-9-29-14)7-12(11)20(23)13-8-28-22(24)19(13)18/h4-7,13,18-20,23H,8-9H2,1-3H3/t13-,18-,19-,20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(10S,11R,15R,16R)-16-hydroxy-10-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,6,13-trioxatetracyclo[7.7.0.0³,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]hexadeca-1,3(7),8-trien-12-one
SMILES
[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[C@@H](C1=CC(OC)=C(OC)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[C@@H]2O
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of external genital warts (Condyloma acuminatum).
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsPodofilox, also called podophyllotoxin, is a purer and more stable form of podophyllin in which only the biologically active portion of the compound is present. Podofilox is used to remove certain types of warts on the outside skin of the genital areas.
Mechanism of actionThe exact mechanism of action is not well understood. It does appear, however, that it and its derivatives may bind and inhibit topoisomerase II during the late S and early G2 stage. The drug may bind and stabilize the temporary break caused by the enzyme. This disrupts the reparation of the break through which the double-stranded DNA passes, and consequently stops DNA unwinding and replication
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
DNA topoisomerase 2-alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP11388 details
Tubulin alpha-4A chainProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP68366 details
Tubulin beta chainProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP07437 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionTopical application of 0.05 mL of 0.5% podofilox solution to external genitalia did not result in detectable serum levels. Applications of 0.1 to 1.5 mL resulted in peak serum levels of 1 to 17 ng/mL one to two hours after application.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1.0 to 4.5 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Condyloma acuminatum
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved, Investigational
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Podofilox.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Podofilox.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Podofilox.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Podofilox can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Podofilox.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesD06BB04
AHFS Codes
  • 84:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (55.9 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9939
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5388
Caco-2 permeable+0.849
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5382
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5455
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6709
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8403
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8241
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8911
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8948
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7468
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.91
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8596
Rat acute toxicity3.0013 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9871
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9081
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionTopical0.5 %
GelTopical5 mg/g
SolutionTopical5 mg/mL
LiquidTopical5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Podofilox 0.5% Solution 3.5ml Bottle105.99USD bottle
Condylox 0.5% gel97.73USD g
Wartec 0.5 % Solution14.26USD solution
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point228 °CPhysProp
water solubility100 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.114 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.37ALOGPS
logP1.62ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity103.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as podophyllotoxins. These are tetralin lignans in which the benzene moiety of the tetralin skeleton is fused to a 1,3-dioxolane and the cyclohexane is fused to a butyrolactone (pyrrolidin-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLignans, neolignans and related compounds
ClassLignan lactones
Sub ClassPodophyllotoxins
Direct ParentPodophyllotoxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Podophyllotoxin
  • 1-aryltetralin lignan
  • Tetralin
  • Benzodioxole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Iida A, Kano M, Kubota Y, Koga K, Tomioka K: Podophyllotoxin aza-analogue, a novel DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Apr;48(4):486-9. [PubMed:10783066 ]
  2. Zhang YL, Shen YC, Wang ZQ, Chen HX, Guo X, Cheng YC, Lee KH: Antitumor agents, 130, Novel 4 beta-arylamino derivatives of 3',4'-didemethoxy-3',4'-dioxo-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin as potent inhibitors of human DNA topoisomerase II. J Nat Prod. 1992 Aug;55(8):1100-11. [PubMed:1331331 ]
  3. Terada T, Fujimoto K, Nomura M, Yamashita J, Kobunai T, Takeda S, Wierzba K, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi H: Antitumor agents. I. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and the structural relationship of podophyllotoxin derivatives as antitumor agents. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Oct;40(10):2720-7. [PubMed:1334447 ]
  4. Kamal A, Gayatri NL, Reddy DR, Mohan Reddy PS, Arifuddin M, Dastidar SG, Kondapi AK, Rajkumar M: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new 4beta-anilino- and 4beta-imido-substituted podophyllotoxin congeners. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Nov 15;13(22):6218-25. Epub 2005 Aug 2. [PubMed:16061385 ]
  5. Ruckdeschel JC: Etoposide in the management of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 1991 Jan 1;67(1 Suppl):250-3. [PubMed:1845848 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular Weight:
49923.995 Da
References
  1. Labruere R, Gautier B, Testud M, Seguin J, Lenoir C, Desbene-Finck S, Helissey P, Garbay C, Chabot GG, Vidal M, Giorgi-Renault S: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first podophyllotoxin analogues as potential vascular-disrupting agents. ChemMedChem. 2010 Dec 3;5(12):2016-25. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201000305. [PubMed:20979080 ]
  2. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Oct;45(10):1160-6. doi: 10.1002/jms.1804. [PubMed:20814887 ]
  3. Kim ND, Park ES, Kim YH, Moon SK, Lee SS, Ahn SK, Yu DY, No KT, Kim KH: Structure-based virtual screening of novel tubulin inhibitors and their characterization as anti-mitotic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Oct 1;18(19):7092-100. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.07.072. Epub 2010 Aug 6. [PubMed:20810285 ]
  4. Screpanti E, Santaguida S, Nguyen T, Silvestri R, Gussio R, Musacchio A, Hamel E, De Wulf P: A screen for kinetochore-microtubule interaction inhibitors identifies novel antitubulin compounds. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 15;5(7):e11603. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011603. [PubMed:20657644 ]
  5. Alam MA, Naik PK: Applying linear interaction energy method for binding affinity calculations of podophyllotoxin analogues with tubulin using continuum solvent model and prediction of cytotoxic activity. J Mol Graph Model. 2009 Jun-Jul;27(8):930-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2009.02.003. Epub 2009 Feb 20. [PubMed:19286405 ]
  6. Clark PI: Clinical pharmacology and schedule dependency of the podophyllotoxin derivatives. Semin Oncol. 1992 Apr;19(2 Suppl 6):20-7. [PubMed:1411635 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Wolff J, Knipling L, Cahnmann HJ, Palumbo G: Direct photoaffinity labeling of tubulin with colchicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 1;88(7):2820-4. [PubMed:2011590 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23