Identification

Name
Glucosamine
Accession Number
DB01296  (EXPT01563)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Glucosamine is commonly used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, although its acceptance as a medical therapy varies. It is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose
  • Chitosamine
  • D-Glucosamine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Glucosamine sulfate1FW7WLR73114999-43-0WLNBMPZUVDTASE-HXIISURNSA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Remaxazon External PatchGlucosamine (5 g/100g) + Capsaicin (.0285 g/100g) + Chondroitin sulfate sodium (bovine) (3 g/100g) + Lidocaine (4 g/100g)PatchTopicalHome Aide Diganostics, Inc.2015-03-09Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
N08U5BOQ1K
CAS number
3416-24-8
Weight
Average: 179.1711
Monoisotopic: 179.079372531
Chemical Formula
C6H13NO5
InChI Key
MSWZFWKMSRAUBD-IVMDWMLBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H13NO5/c7-3-5(10)4(9)2(1-8)12-6(3)11/h2-6,8-11H,1,7H2/t2-,3-,4-,5-,6?/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
SMILES

Pharmacology

Indication

Glucosamine is usually used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy is still in question.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Osteoarthritis is characterized by the progressive degeneration of cartilage glycosaminoglycans. The formation of glucosamine is the rate limiting step in glycosaminoglycans synthesis thus the addition is glucosamine, would in theory provide a building block towards the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and thus slow down the progression of osteoarthritis. Thus far however, the results have not been conclusive.

Mechanism of action

Glucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Oral glucosamine is commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis. Its use as a therapy for osteoarthritis appears safe, but there is conflicting evidence as to its effectiveness with more recent studies showing limited to no clinical benefit of use. In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use in humans. Since glucosamine is classified as a dietary supplement, safety and formulation are solely the responsibility of the manufacturer; evidence of safety and efficacy is not required as long as it is not advertised as a treatment for a medical condition.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMatrix metalloproteinase-9
antagonist
Human
UNuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
antagonist
Human
UTumor necrosis factorNot AvailableHuman
UInterferon gammaNot AvailableHuman
UChitosanaseNot AvailableBacillus circulans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Adverse effects are generally mild: itching, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseDisease
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDisease
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDisease
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseDisease
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolic
Tay-Sachs DiseaseDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AlprostadilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AndrographolideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Andrographolide.Investigational
ArgatrobanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.Approved
BeraprostGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BortezomibThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BuflomedilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Buflomedil.Experimental
ButylphthalideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CangrelorGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CilostazolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.Approved
CimetidineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClopidogrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
CloricromenGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cloricromen.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DefibrotideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DipyridamoleGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EpinastineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.Approved, Investigational
EplivanserinGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eplivanserin.Investigational
eplivanserineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of eplivanserine.Investigational
EpoprostenolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EptifibatideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
HydroxytyrosolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Hydroxytyrosol.Investigational
IbudilastGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Nutraceutical
IfenprodilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IfetrobanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifetroban.Investigational
IloprostGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
IndinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndobufenGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indobufen.Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
KetanserinGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MilrinoneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NimesulideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
PentoxifyllineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PicotamideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Picotamide.Experimental
PrasugrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.Approved
RamatrobanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
ResveratrolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
RidogrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
SarpogrelateGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sarpogrelate.Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SRT501Glucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.Investigational
StiripentolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
TesmilifeneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.Investigational
TicagrelorGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TirofibanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TranilastGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrapidilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TriflusalGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.Approved, Investigational
VorapaxarGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinGlucosamine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Yuichi Yamamura, Ichiro Azuma, Shigeru Kobayashi, "Glucosamine peptide derivatives, their production and use." U.S. Patent US4369178, issued July, 1978.

US4369178
General References
  1. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Robinson V, Hochberg MC, Wells G: Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002946. [PubMed:15846645]
  2. Roseman S: Reflections on glycobiology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):41527-42. Epub 2001 Sep 11. [PubMed:11553646]
  3. GHOSH S, BLUMENTHAL HJ, DAVIDSON E, ROSEMAN S: Glucosamine metabolism. V. Enzymatic synthesis of glucosamine 6-phosphate. J Biol Chem. 1960 May;235:1265-73. [PubMed:13827775]
  4. Buse MG: Hexosamines, insulin resistance, and the complications of diabetes: current status. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jan;290(1):E1-E8. [PubMed:16339923]
  5. Laverty S, Sandy JD, Celeste C, Vachon P, Marier JF, Plaas AH: Synovial fluid levels and serum pharmacokinetics in a large animal model following treatment with oral glucosamine at clinically relevant doses. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):181-91. [PubMed:15641100]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01514
KEGG Compound
C00329
PubChem Compound
439213
PubChem Substance
46506420
ChemSpider
388352
ChEBI
47977
ChEMBL
CHEMBL493287
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001097
PharmGKB
PA164747613
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Glucosamine
ATC Codes
M01AX05 — Glucosamine
MSDS
Download (73.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiacerein / Glucosamine / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOral Lichen Planus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Glucosamine hcl (d) powder1.05USD g
Cidatrine 500 mg tablet0.81USD tablet
Glucosamine 500 mg tablet0.23USD tablet
Glucosamine hcl 500 mg tablet0.21USD tablet
Sm glucosamine hcl 1500 mg tablet0.2USD tablet
Eql glucosamine 1000 mg tablet0.17USD tablet
Glucosamine sulf 750 mg cplt0.16USD caplet
Glucosamine 500 mg caplet0.12USD tablet
Glucosamine relief 1000 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Glucosamine 750 mg caplet0.08USD caplet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)88 °CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility551.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-3ChemAxon
logS0.49ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area116.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8589
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9143
Caco-2 permeable-0.8221
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7833
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9452
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.976
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9261
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8377
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8469
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7168
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9503
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9347
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9494
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9115
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9777
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9769
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7558
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9716
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8286
Rat acute toxicity1.2287 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9659
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.969
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
Hexoses
Alternative Parents
Aminosaccharides / Oxanes / Secondary alcohols / Hemiacetals / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Organopnictogen compounds / Monoalkylamines
show 1 more
Substituents
Hexose monosaccharide / Amino saccharide / Oxane / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Hemiacetal / Secondary alcohol / Polyol / Organoheterocyclic compound / Oxacycle / Primary amine
show 9 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
D-glucosamine (CHEBI:47977) / Amino sugars (C00329)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Fenton JI, Chlebek-Brown KA, Caron JP, Orth MW: Effect of glucosamine on interleukin-1-conditioned articular cartilage. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002 Sep;(34):219-23. [PubMed:12405690]
  2. Mendis E, Kim MM, Rajapakse N, Kim SK: Carboxy derivatized glucosamine is a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in HT1080 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3105-10. Epub 2006 Apr 17. [PubMed:16616490]
  3. Chu SC, Yang SF, Lue KH, Hsieh YS, Lee CY, Chou MC, Lu KH: Glucosamine sulfate suppresses the expressions of urokinase plasminogen activator and inhibitor and gelatinases during the early stage of osteoarthritis. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Oct;372(1-2):167-72. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16756968]
  4. Rajapakse N, Mendis E, Kim MM, Kim SK: Sulfated glucosamine inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in human fibrosarcoma cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Jul 15;15(14):4891-6. Epub 2007 Apr 29. [PubMed:17498959]
  5. Dodge GR, Jimenez SA: Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Jun;11(6):424-32. [PubMed:12801482]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related...
Gene Name
NFKB2
Uniprot ID
Q00653
Uniprot Name
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
Molecular Weight
96748.355 Da
References
  1. Largo R, Alvarez-Soria MA, Diez-Ortego I, Calvo E, Sanchez-Pernaute O, Egido J, Herrero-Beaumont G: Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Apr;11(4):290-8. [PubMed:12681956]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct ac...
Gene Name
TNF
Uniprot ID
P01375
Uniprot Name
Tumor necrosis factor
Molecular Weight
25644.15 Da
References
  1. Delcommenne M, Kannagi R, Johnson P: TNF-alpha increases the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44: induction of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine on N- and O-linked glycans. Glycobiology. 2002 Oct;12(10):613-22. [PubMed:12244074]
  2. Bitler CM, Viale TM, Damaj B, Crea R: Hydrolyzed olive vegetation water in mice has anti-inflammatory activity. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1475-9. [PubMed:15930455]
  3. Chen JT, Liang JB, Chou CL, Chien MW, Shyu RC, Chou PI, Lu DW: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced production of ICAM-1 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Feb;47(2):664-72. [PubMed:16431966]
  4. Yi HA, Yi SD, Jang BC, Song DK, Shin DH, Mun KC, Kim SP, Suh SI, Bae JH: Inhibitory effects of glucosamine on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation in microglial cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Dec;32(12):1097-103. [PubMed:16445576]
  5. Lapaque N, Takeuchi O, Corrales F, Akira S, Moriyon I, Howard JC, Gorvel JP: Differential inductions of TNF-alpha and IGTP, IIGP by structurally diverse classic and non-classic lipopolysaccharides. Cell Microbiol. 2006 Mar;8(3):401-13. [PubMed:16469053]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Interferon-gamma receptor binding
Specific Function
Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrop...
Gene Name
IFNG
Uniprot ID
P01579
Uniprot Name
Interferon gamma
Molecular Weight
19348.165 Da
References
  1. Sarrazin S, Bonnaffe D, Lubineau A, Lortat-Jacob H: Heparan sulfate mimicry: a synthetic glycoconjugate that recognizes the heparin binding domain of interferon-gamma inhibits the cytokine activity. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 11;280(45):37558-64. Epub 2005 Sep 9. [PubMed:16155294]
  2. Chen JT, Liang JB, Chou CL, Chien MW, Shyu RC, Chou PI, Lu DW: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced production of ICAM-1 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Feb;47(2):664-72. [PubMed:16431966]
  3. Lortat-Jacob H: Interferon and heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):461-4. [PubMed:16709188]
  4. Chen JT, Chen CH, Horng CT, Chien MW, Lu DW, Liang JB, Tai MC, Chang YH, Chen PL, Chen YH: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits proinflammatory cytokine-induced icam-1 production in human conjunctival cells in vitro. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;22(6):402-16. [PubMed:17238806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus circulans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Chitosanase activity
Specific Function
Aids in the defense against invading fungal pathogens by degrading their cell wall chitosan.
Gene Name
csn
Uniprot ID
P33673
Uniprot Name
Chitosanase
Molecular Weight
33425.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kurakake M, Yo-u S, Nakagawa K, Sugihara M, Komaki T: Properties of chitosanase from Bacillus cereus S1. Curr Microbiol. 2000 Jan;40(1):6-9. [PubMed:10568796]
  4. Kimoto H, Kusaoke H, Yamamoto I, Fujii Y, Onodera T, Taketo A: Biochemical and genetic properties of Paenibacillus glycosyl hydrolase having chitosanase activity and discoidin domain. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 26;277(17):14695-702. Epub 2002 Feb 19. [PubMed:11854270]
  5. Shimono K, Shigeru K, Tsuchiya A, Itou N, Ohta Y, Tanaka K, Nakagawa T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M: Two glutamic acids in chitosanase A from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 are the catalytically important residues. J Biochem. 2002 Jan;131(1):87-96. [PubMed:11754739]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 09, 2017 02:58