Identification

Name
Lidocaine
Accession Number
DB00281  (APRD00479, DB05291)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of procaine but its duration of action is shorter than that of bupivacaine or prilocaine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-2',6'-acetoxylidide
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
  • alpha-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
  • Lidocaína
  • Lidocaina
  • Lignocaine
  • α-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
External IDs
ALGRX 3268 / ALGRX-3268 / LSM-3165 / NSC-40030
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Lidocaine hydrochlorideV13007Z41A6108-05-0YECIFGHRMFEPJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrousEC2CNF7XFP73-78-9IYBQHJMYDGVZRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution20 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
AktenGel35 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.2008-10-08Not applicableUs
Amniocentesis Tray 1%Liquid1 %Infiltration; SubcutaneousAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
Antecubital Cent Venous Catheterization KitLiquid1 %EpiduralArrow International1991-12-311999-07-02Canada
Arthrogram Tray 1%Liquid1 %Intra-articularAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
Atelocollagen ImplantImplant.3 %IntradermalKoken Co. Ltd.1989-12-312005-08-25Canada
Basic Biopsy Tray 1%Liquid1 %Infiltration; SubcutaneousAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
Burncare SpraySpray2.4 %TopicalAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1985-12-311997-11-10Canada
CathejellGel20 mgTopicalPharmazeutische Fabrik Montavit Ges M.B.H.2012-05-25Not applicableCanada
JelidoGel20 mgTopicalPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-22Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-25Not applicableUs
AnestaconJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2001-11-05Not applicableUs
DermacinRx Lido V PakKit50 mg/1gTopicalPure Tek Corporation2016-09-22Not applicableUs
GlydoJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Laryng-O-JetSolution40 mg/1mLTopicalAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1980-03-062010-09-09Us
Lidenzal 1%Injection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
Lidenzal 2%Injection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
LidocaineJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2000-06-01Not applicableUs
LidocainePatch700 mg/1CutaneousA-S Medication Solutions2014-05-02Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Absorbine jr. LidocainePatch246 mg/1TopicalClarion Brands, Llc2017-01-01Not applicableUs
ADVANCED NUMB Topical AnestheticCream50 mg/1gTopicalUber Scientific, Llc2018-04-20Not applicableUs
After BurnGel25 mg/1mLTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-12Not applicableUs
After Sun Burn Relief Lidocaine Continuous SpraySolution1 %TopicalPrime Enterprises, Inc.2010-04-08Not applicableCanada
After Sun GelGel1 %TopicalWatkins IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
After Sun Soothing SprayLiquid; Spray0.5 %TopicalKinesys Pharmaceutical Inc1995-03-17Not applicableCanada
AfterBurnGel2.5 g/100gTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-122011-04-12Us
AfterBurnGel0.5 %TopicalTender Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aftersun Cooling CVSGel.5 g/100mLTopicalCVS Health2014-11-112018-02-23Us
Alcoholada Gel Pain Relieving PainGel5 mg/1mLTopicalAruba Aloe Balm, Nv2017-10-25Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
10 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%Lidocaine (4 1/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 1/1) + Menthol (5 1/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 1/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
1st RELIEF TOPICALLidocaine (40 mg/1mL) + Menthol (10 mg/1mL)SprayTopical1st Class Pharmaceuticals2014-12-02Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Epinephrine (0.01 mg)LiquidInfiltrationAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2008-12-01Not applicableCanada
25 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
3 Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-012013-01-30Us
3-Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (100 mg/10mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (11 mg/10mL) + Povidone-iodine (100 mg/10mL)KitTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-01Not applicableUs
5% Xylocaine Mpf With Glucose 7.5% InjectionLidocaine hydrochloride (5 %) + Dextrose, unspecified form (7.5 %)LiquidSubarachnoidSmiths Medical Canada Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
50 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.16 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-06-02Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%-rxLidocaine (4 1/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 1/1) + Menthol (5 1/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 1/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
AccucaineLidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionInfiltrationAsclemed Usa, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
AdazinLidocaine (2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (2 g/100g) + Capsaicin (0.035 g/100g) + Methyl salicylate (1.0 g/100g)CreamTopicalSterling Knight Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-12-03Not applicableUs
Advanced DNA Medicated CollectionLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Glycerin (0.5 g/1mL)KitOral; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc1995-07-10Not applicableUs
Advanced DNA Medicated Collection Kit IILidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Glycerin (0.5 g/1mL)KitOral; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2014-02-04Not applicableUs
Advanced DNA Medicated Collection Kit IIILidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Glycerin (0.5 g/1mL)KitOral; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2014-02-04Not applicableUs
AgonEazeLidocaine (25 mg/1g) + Lidocaine (25 mg/1g) + Prilocaine (25 mg/1g) + Prilocaine (25 mg/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2016-01-12Not applicableUs
AgonEazeLidocaine (25 mg/1g) + Lidocaine (25 mg/1g) + Prilocaine (25 mg/1g) + Prilocaine (25 mg/1g)KitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2016-01-12Not applicableUs
Ambator Lidocaine PatchLidocaine hydrochloride (1 g/10g)PatchTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
Ana-LexLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1g) + Hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/1g)CreamTopicalAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2008-02-282018-08-14Us
International/Other Brands
After Burn Double Strength Gel / After Burn Double Strength Spray / After Burn Gel / After Burn Spray / Alphacaine / Anestacon Jelly / DermaFlex / Dilocaine / Esracaine / L-Caine / Lidoject-1 / Lidoject-2 / LidoPain SP / Norwood Sunburn Spray / Xylocard
Categories
UNII
98PI200987
CAS number
137-58-6
Weight
Average: 234.3373
Monoisotopic: 234.173213336
Chemical Formula
C14H22N2O
InChI Key
NNJVILVZKWQKPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H22N2O/c1-5-16(6-2)10-13(17)15-14-11(3)8-7-9-12(14)4/h7-9H,5-6,10H2,1-4H3,(H,15,17)
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CCN(CC)CC(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C

Pharmacology

Indication

For production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Lidocaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia and in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia occurring during cardiac manipulation, such as surgery or catheterization, or which may occur during acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or other cardiac diseases. The mode of action of the antiarrhythmic effect of Lidocaine appears to be similar to that of procaine, procainamide and quinidine. Ventricular excitability is depressed and the stimulation threshold of the ventricle is increased during diastole. The sinoatrial node is, however, unaffected. In contrast to the latter 3 drugs, Lidocaine in therapeutic doses does not produce a significant decrease in arterial pressure or in cardiac contractile force. In larger doses, lidocaine may produce circulatory depression, but the magnitude of the change is less than that found with comparable doses of procainamide.

Mechanism of action

Lidocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action. Lidocaine alters signal conduction in neurons by blocking the fast voltage gated sodium (Na+) channels in the neuronal cell membrane that are responsible for signal propagation. With sufficient blockage the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential. This creates the anaesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain but by aborting their birth in the first place.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
UEpidermal growth factor receptor
antagonist
Human
USodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Information derived from diverse formulations, concentrations and usages reveals that lidocaine is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending, for example, upon various factors such as the site of administration and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent.

Volume of distribution
  • 0.7 to 2.7 L/kg [healthy volunteers]
Protein binding

60-80%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic.

Route of elimination

Lidocaine and its metabolites are excreted by the kidneys.

Half life

109 minutes

Clearance
  • 0.64 +/- 0.18 L/min
Toxicity

The oral LD 50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346-773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159-324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats. Symptoms of overdose include convulsions, hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
7-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 7-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US2441498A
General References
  1. Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N: Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004846. [PubMed:17443559]
  2. Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA, Cohn K, Steinbrunn W, Cudihee R, Rowland M: Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease, and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med. 1973 Apr;78(4):499-508. [PubMed:4694036]
  3. Geha PY, Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AV: Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapy. Pain. 2007 Mar;128(1-2):88-100. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17067740]
  4. Hines R, Keaney D, Moskowitz MH, Prakken S: Use of lidocaine patch 5% for chronic low back pain: a report of four cases. Pain Med. 2002 Dec;3(4):361-5. [PubMed:15099246]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014426
KEGG Drug
D00358
KEGG Compound
C07073
PubChem Compound
3676
PubChem Substance
46505060
ChemSpider
3548
BindingDB
50017662
ChEBI
6456
ChEMBL
CHEMBL79
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000121
PharmGKB
PA450226
IUPHAR
2623
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
LQZ
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lidocaine
ATC Codes
C01BB01 — LidocaineD04AB01 — LidocaineN01BB02 — LidocaineR02AD02 — LidocaineS02DA01 — LidocaineC05AD01 — LidocaineS01HA07 — LidocaineN01BB52 — Lidocaine, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 84:08.00 — Antipruritics and Local Anesthetics
  • 24:04.00 — Cardiac Drugs
  • 24:04.04.08 — Class Ib Antiarrythmics
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
  • 52:16.00 — Local Anesthetics
PDB Entries
3jqz / 3ttr
FDA label
Download (548 KB)
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceMorton's neuralgia1
0CompletedHealth Services ResearchPain NOS1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareCutaneous Abscess / Pain NOS1
0CompletedTreatmentChorionic Villi Sampling1
0CompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Disorders1
0CompletedTreatmentTinnitus1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Controls1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchGeneral Population1
0Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBariatric Surgery Candidate1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung / Pleural Effusion, Malignant1
0RecruitingOtherHeat Effect1
0RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancers1
0RecruitingTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
0RecruitingTreatmentSurgical Anesthesia, Cesarean Section1
0WithdrawnPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherSurgery, Colorectal1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceNociceptive Pain / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnaesthesia therapy1
1CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
1CompletedPreventionIntradermal Electroporation1
1CompletedPreventionOther Preterm Infants1
1CompletedSupportive CareEtomidate Overdose of Undetermined Intent1
1CompletedTreatment"Lost" IUD / Lost IUD1
1CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Pain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentIpsilateral Shoulder Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous1
1CompletedTreatmentPain Management / Pregnancy Termination1
1CompletedTreatmentProvoked Vestibulodynia / Provoked, Localized Vulvodynia / Vulvar Vestibulitis / Vulvodynia1
1CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome / Sciatica1
1CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1RecruitingTreatmentCraniotomy / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentIntermetatarsal Neuroma1
1RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1RecruitingTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute-onset Herpes Zoster Pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
1, 2CompletedPreventionHemodynamic Changes Due to Propofol Injection / Pain Due to Propofol Injection1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidate / BMI >30 kg/m21
1, 2RecruitingPreventionChemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) / Colorectal Cancers / Painful Neuropathy1
1, 2TerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentInjuries and Wounds1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management After Total Hip Arthroplasty1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Prostate Cancer / PSA Level Greater Than or Equal to 0.2 / PSA Progression / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Neuropathic Pain1
2CompletedPreventionDysmenorrhea1
2CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Knee Joint Osteoarthrosis / Severe Movement Related Pain1
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative paralytic ileus1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anesthesia Efficacy1
2CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareNeedle Phobia / Pain NOS1
2CompletedSupportive CareOral Mucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareSupratentorial Craniotomy Dysfunction1
2CompletedTreatmentAllodynia / Central Neuropathic Pain / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Local Infiltration1
2CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain NOS / Venipuncture1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Pain Syndrome / Prostatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea / Endometriosis1
2CompletedTreatmentFascicular Block / Latency Period / Motor Activities / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
2CompletedTreatmentHip Pain Etiology Unknown1
2CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
2CompletedTreatmentLeiomyomas1
2CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS4
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Palliative Care / Phlebotomy1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic / Vasoocclusive Sickle Cell Crises Pains1
2CompletedTreatmentPatellar Tendinopathy1
2CompletedTreatmentPostherpetic Neuralgia2
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Impingement Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain / Strokes1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
2CompletedTreatmentVulvodynia1
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionNormal Pulp/ Pulpitis1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntubations / Stellate Ganglion1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMigraines1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAllodynic Symptoms / Localized Neuropathic Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics, Local1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumor / Her2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Scar Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchistosoma infection / Schistosoma Japonicum Infection / Schistosomiasis Mansoni1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentUrethral Strictures1
2RecruitingPreventionIntraoperative Bleeding1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Pain Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Polyneuropathy / Peripheral Neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
2RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Delivery / Valve Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
2TerminatedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Malignant1
2TerminatedTreatmentDry Macular Degeneration1
2TerminatedTreatmentPruritus1
2TerminatedTreatmentVulvar Vestibulitis1
2Unknown StatusPreventionCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents / Strokes1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeoplasms / Pain NOS1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPhantom Limb Pain (PLP) / Primary/Secondary Scar Hyperalgesia1
2, 3CompletedOtherLocal Anesthesia1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain Relief During Prostate Biopsy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Catheterizations / Spasms1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Zoster Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterferential Current Drug Delivery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Lung Disease (ILD) / Lung Cancers / Sarcoidosis / Tuberculosis Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Surgical Abortion1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain and Anxiety1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Pain Relief1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiscomfort / Pain NOS1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy / Myomectomy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2, 3SuspendedSupportive CareCancer-related Pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentElective Surgical Procedure / Surgery, Colorectal1
2, 3Unknown StatusPreventionWe Focus on the Pain of Venipuncture and Intravenous Cannulation1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAchilles Tendinopathy / Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy / Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy / Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy / Non-Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHemorrhoids1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentContraception / Lidocaine1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUndernutrition1
3CompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery1
3CompletedDiagnosticGynecologic Diseases1
3CompletedDiagnosticPostoperative pain1
3CompletedPreventionBariatric Surgical Pain1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Post-surgical Pain / Post-mastectomy Pain Syndrome1
3CompletedPreventionElective Major Abdominal Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionRadiation Dermatitis1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Tiredness1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedSupportive CareProcedural Pain Relief1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Indigestion / Intestinal Malabsorption1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
3CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentFacial Wrinkles at the Nasolabial Folds1
3CompletedTreatmentForearm and Arm Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
3CompletedTreatmentLidocaine Adverse Reaction / Prilocaine Adverse Reaction1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentMastectomy1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Submental Fullness1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3CompletedTreatmentNonviable Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentPain Management, Cervical Preparation1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS11
3CompletedTreatmentPain Teeth1
3CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Neuropathy1
3CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wound site1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAbortion in First Trimester / Pain Uterus / Spontaneous Abortions1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionLabour Pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Musculoskeletal Disease / Emergency / Pain, Acute / Sprains / Sprains and Strains / Traumas / Traumatic Injuries1
3RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Modic I Discopathy1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarcinologic Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Surgery1
3RecruitingTreatmentCastration Levels of Testosterone / Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
3RecruitingTreatmentCatheter site pain / Local Anesthesia / Pain, Acute1
3RecruitingTreatmentContraception1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Pain With Neuropathic Component1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
3RecruitingTreatmentUterine Hemorrhage1
3TerminatedPreventionTransient Neurologic Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Diseases / Pain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentBursitis / Periarthritis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFibromyalgia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentParathyroid Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherPeriodontitis1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareNerve Monitoring / Thyroidectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCystoscopy / Lidocaine / Pain Perception1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Orthopaedic Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain of Anesthesia at Breast Biopsy1
4CompletedNot AvailablePeriodontal Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableUterine Leiomyomas1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHunger1
4CompletedOtherPain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthesia of Mucous Membrane1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Morbidity / Intubation Complications1
4CompletedPreventionChildbirth / Parturients1
4CompletedPreventionEsophagogastroduodenoscopy1
4CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionImproving Quality of Life1
4CompletedPreventionLaminectomy1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Infections1
4CompletedPreventionOpioid Consumption, Postoperative / Postoperative Fatigue / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS2
4CompletedPreventionPain on Injection of Propofol,Lidocaine, Alkalinized Lidocaine1
4CompletedPreventionPost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
4CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
4CompletedScreeningPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedSupportive CareArterial Catheterization1
4CompletedSupportive CareCervical Pain / Pelvic Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCognitive Function Abnormal / Intraoperative Monitoring / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareElectrodiagnosis1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntravenous Anesthetic Interaction "Unrecognized Condition" / Intravenous Anesthetic Interaction Unrecognized Condition1
4CompletedSupportive CareLeukemias / Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS5
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic / Postmastectomy Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute and Chronic Non-radicular LBP1
4CompletedTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Effects1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / IUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Requirement / Inadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Postoperative pain / Return of Bowel Activity / Stress Response1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Diabetic Neuropathies / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Spinal Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Cervical Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBlock Level / Gastrointestinal Surgery / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCanal Syndrome / Pudendal Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) / Diabetic Neuropathies / HIV Neuropathy / Idiopathic Sensory Neuropathy / Peripheral Neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Cough (CC)1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Injection / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentDermatitis Papillaris Capillitii / Tattooing1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Periodontitis, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis of the Elbow1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis, Lateral Humeral / Lateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Nausea / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentFissure;Anal / Fistula;Rectal / Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentIUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentIV Insertion Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedTreatmentInjections, Spinal / Morphine / Patients Satisfaction / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Intravenous Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentIntravenous Injections1
4CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Arthroplasty, Total1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia for Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia of the Skin2
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome / Myofascial Trigger Point Pain / Pain NOS / Painful musculoskeletal conditions1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentNose Deformities, Acquired1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentNeurocostal neuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Associated With Epidural Needle Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS6
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain on IV Injection of Propofol1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentOr Peripheral Nerve Injury (PNI) / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (PNP) Due to Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN)1
4CompletedTreatmentPersistent Post-menpausal Bleeding / Uterine Leiomyomas / Uterine Malignancies1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative paralytic ileus1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sore Throat, Cough, Hoarseness1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentThermal Burns1
4CompletedTreatmentTinnitus1
4CompletedTreatmentTolerance1
4CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentGallstone formation1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherLocal Anesthesia / Pain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCritical Illness1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain During Hystroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Related Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionThroat Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionUrinary Catheter Discomfort in Surgical Patients1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareHysteroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia, Dental / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebrospinal Fluid Leaks / Postdural Puncture Headache / Spinal; Puncture, Complications, Headache1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntravenous Lidocaine and Immunity1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Spinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopedic Procedures1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Diseases1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4RecruitingDiagnosticFemale Infertility of Tubal Origin1
4RecruitingPreventionAnginal Pain / Coronary Artery Disease / Radial Artery Spasm1
4RecruitingPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
4RecruitingPreventionNeurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4RecruitingPreventionThroat Disorder1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia, Intravenous; Surgery, Plastic1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAny Condition Requiring Vulvar Biopsy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS / Satisfaction, Consumer1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Urolithiasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentArrhythmias Ventricular1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical Radiculitis / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentCicatrix1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Colon Resection / Perioperative analgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Rib Fracture Multiple / Trauma Chest1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Radiating1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentRadiculopathy, Cervical2
4RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Transurethral Resection / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
4RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive / Urinary Incontinence (UI) / Voiding Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-pancreatectomy1
4SuspendedNot AvailableOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4SuspendedSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wounds1
4TerminatedDiagnosticPain NOS1
4TerminatedPreventionNausea / Occasional Constipation / Pain NOS / Vomiting1
4TerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentAbscesses1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthritis Multiple Joint / Basal Thumb Joint Arthritis / Basilar Joint Arthritis / Carpometacarpal Arthritis / Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4TerminatedTreatmentFace Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentForearm Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentNasolabial Folds1
4TerminatedTreatmentPelvic Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentTrigger Finger Disorder1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableDependence, Cocaine1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableEndophthalmitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceColorectal Cancers1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDrug Usage1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGynecological Pathologies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionOral Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareInjection Site Irritation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCholecystolithiasis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDilatation and Evacuation / Laminaria Placement / Pain Alleviation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFractures of the Distal Radius1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication / Pain Control1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPlanned Abdominal Hysterectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Agitation of Patients1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRetinal Detachment1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Elderly / Surgeries Requiring A Minimum One Day Hospitalization1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAbdominal Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome / Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBursitis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCataract Surgery Anesthesia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingScreeningCutaneous Melanoma / Healthy Volunteers / Melanocytic naevus / Skin Carcinoma1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareBreastcancer / Phyllodes Breast Tumor1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Osteoarthritis Nos, of Sacroiliac Joint / Sprain of Sacroiliac Ligament1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHeel Fat Pad Atrophy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNeedle Insertion and Injection Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHair removal therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrythmias / Blood Electrolyte Balance / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Myocardial Injury / Unstable Angina (UA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHemodynamic Response1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMethaemoglobinaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTrigger Finger1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableWound Healing Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Foot Proned Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBronchopulmonary Diseases2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdult Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAgitation States as Acute Reaction to Gross Stress1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Coughing / Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCognitive Decline1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGallbladder disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIntrauterine Device / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMyoma of Uterus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeoplasm, Gastric1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOther Intraoperative Cardiac Functional Disturbances During Cardiac Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS3
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPancreatitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPharyngitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionThyroidectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing Phacoemulsification With Topical Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCataracts1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInfertilities1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS5
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Anaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAllergic Skin Reaction / Anxiety Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Blood Levels of Buffered vs Non-buffered Lidocaine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBirth Injuries / Laceration / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDermal Pharmacokinetic Measurements / Dermatology/Skin - Other1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pain NOS / Peripheral Neuropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElective Total or Subtotal Abdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndometriosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentJellyfish Stings1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain / Self-Perception1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Topical Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeed for Urethral Catheterization to Rule Out Urinary Tract Infection / Pediatric Presentation of Urinary Tract Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control for Intrauterine Device Insertions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Intensity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS14
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPartial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPelvic Floor Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPerioperative Chest Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination / Uterine Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSacroiliitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVestibulodynia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBrain Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Central Nervous System Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Cerebrovascular Stroke / Ischemia, Brain / Nervous System Diseases / Strokes / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injury1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceUrethral Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAirway Complication of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Spinal Puncture1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Dislocation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Lidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Sedation therapy / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCapsaicin / Lidocaine / Pain, Neuropathic / Ultaviolet B Light Burn1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCowhage / Histamine / Itching / Serotonine / Thermal Stimulation1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticDysuria / Hematuria / Recurrent Uti1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticNeuroma / Pain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherCircumcision / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMetal Staple Removal After Total Knee Replacement1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNulliparity1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareIntravenous Injections / Vaccination1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInvasive Bladder Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareLumbar Radiculopathy Due to Spinal Nerve Compression1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Swallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAccessory Nerve Injuries / EMG: Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Abnormality / Neck Cancer / Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries / Thyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Surgery--Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthritis / Back Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Opioids Use / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis / Injections1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPilonidal Sinus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThe Comparison of the I-gel and Endotracheal Tube About in Different Ventilation Settings During Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticLabour Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionIntubation; Difficult1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionLaryngospasm1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Meningitis / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar and Other Intervertebral Disc Disorders With Radiculopathy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMigraines1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCesarean Delivery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePlantar Warts1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAnesthetics, Local1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAsymptomatic Gallstones Without Cholecystitis / Gallbladder Polyps1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionThroat Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareOverweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentInfertilities1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMacular Degeneration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain During and After Endovenous Laser Obliteration of Large Saphenous Vein Based on Lidocaine Tumescent Concentration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRenal Stones / Ureteral Calculus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTuberculosis Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAirway Complication of Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnDiagnosticInterstitial Cystitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionSpinal Puncture Complications1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareNasal Pack Removal1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLabour / Pregnant State1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNasolabial Folds Correction / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1

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  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Dentsply pharmaceutical
  • Polymedica industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Kendall co
  • Paco research corp
  • Anesiva inc
Packagers
  • 4uOrtho LLC
  • A. Aarons Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Aerospace Accessory Service Inc.
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amend
  • American Dental Cooperative Inc.
  • American Regent
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Aristos Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Ato Zizine Sarl
  • Auriga Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Avent Inc.
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Benco Dental Co.
  • Blairex Labs
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Brookstone Pharmaceuticals
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Cardent International Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carestream Health Inc.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Codman and Shurtleff Inc.
  • Covidien LP
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Deltex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • DENTSPLY International
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doak Dermatologics
  • DSC Laboratories
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Eastman Kodak Co. Dental Products
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Enterprises Importfab Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Fresca Gourmet Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • H Meer Dental Supply Co.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kent Dental
  • Klosterfrau Berlin GmbH
  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
  • Laboratorios Zeyco SA De CV
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Martica Enterprises Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medical Components Inc.
  • Medical Techniques LLC
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • National Pharmaceuticals
  • NeLLCor Puritan Bennett Mexico SA De CV
  • Nord Ost Corp.
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Novocol Pharmaceutical Canada
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Odan Laboratories Ltd.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patterson Dental Supply Inc.
  • Pharmaderm
  • Pharmedium
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Raz Co. Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxane Labs
  • S&P Healthcare
  • Safco Dental Supply Co.
  • Sandoz
  • Septodont Inc.
  • Sheffield Laboratories Div Faria Limited LLC
  • Smiths Medical ASD Inc.
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Tech Group Tempe
  • Teikoku Seiyaku Co. Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tri State Hospital Supply Corp.
  • Veratex Corp.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vyteris Inc.
  • Wallach Surgical Devices Inc.
  • Welch Allyn Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
KitTopical
LiquidSubarachnoid
KitOral; Topical
GelTopical25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
SolutionTopical1 %
Liquid; sprayTopical0.5 %
GelTopical0.5 %
GelOphthalmic35 mg/1mL
GelTopical5 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical4 g/100mL
SwabTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/1g
PatchTopical1 g/10g
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous1 %
Aerosol, foamTopical4 g/100g
GelTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5 g/100mL
LiquidEpidural1 %
OintmentTopical0.05 g/1g
Kit; liquidIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidIntra-articular1 %
PatchTopical246 mg/1
PatchTopical411.4 mg/1
LotionTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical422 mg/1
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/100g
Kit4 g/100g
ImplantIntradermal.3 %
PatchCutaneous
GelTopical4.10 mg/1mL
PatchTopical; Transdermal
GelTopical0.7 %
LiquidTopical2 %
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural; Topical
CreamTopical2 %
GelTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2.8 g/56g
Aerosol, sprayTopical
CreamTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical10 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical3.4 g/68mL
SprayTopical20 g/1L
SprayTopical20 mg/1L
CreamTopical2.25 %
GelTopical2.0 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/100mL
SprayTopical2 g/100mL
LotionTopical3 g/100g
CreamTopical3.9 g/100mL
GelTopical0.72 %
SprayTopical.05 g/100g
SprayTopical0.5 g/100g
GelTopical.5 g/100mL
SprayTopical200 g/1L
SprayTopical
SprayTopical2.4 %
GelTopical0.025 g/1g
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.04 mg/1mg
GelTopical1.0 %
GelTopical20 mg
Liquid; ointmentIntravenous; Topical
Kit; liquid; ointmentInfiltration; Parenteral; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration; Subcutaneous
PatchTopical560 mg/1
CreamTopical4 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
GelTopical5 mg/1g
RinseTopical
PatchTransdermal40 mg/1
SolutionIntra-articular; Intrabursal
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical50 mg/1g
KitTopical50 mg/1g
CreamTopical38.8 mg/1g
CreamTopical1.2 g/30g
CreamTopical1.5 g/30g
CreamTopical5 g/100g
InjectionRetrobulbar
KitBuccal; Topical
SprayTopical10 mg/0.08mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Solution / dropsTopical4 g/100mL
Kit2 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayTopical20 mg/1mL
LotionTopical4 g/1mL
PatchTopical
KitEpidural; Infiltration
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical50 mg/1000mg
GelTopical50 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical50 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical4 mg/1mL
Liquid; sprayTopical
LiquidTopical
SwabTopical
KitOral
SprayCutaneous
GelTopical10 mg/1g
SprayTopical10 mg/1mL
GelTopical2 %
KitIntra-amniotic
AerosolTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical500 g/100000mg
SprayCutaneous.50 g/100g
OintmentTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical4 g/1mL
CreamTopical5.0 %
GelTopical0.8 g/100g
GelTopical0.8 %
CreamTopical45 mg/1mL
SoapTopical
SprayTopical40 mg/1g
SoapTopical50 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntra-articular
Liquid; ointmentEpidural; Topical
SprayTopical.50 g/100g
LotionTopical.5 g/100mL
GelTopical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical4 g/50g
Spray, meteredTopical96 mg/1mL
LiquidEndotracheal40 mg
GelTopical4 g/4g
LotionTopical30 mg/1mL
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue
Aerosol, sprayTopical0.64 g/127g
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
OintmentTopical10 1/1
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical35.44 g/1g
OintmentTopical5 g/100g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous140 mg/1
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1
PatchTopical50 mg/1g
SolutionInfiltration
CreamTopical0.03 g/1g
CreamTopical3 mg/1g
CreamTopical30 mg/1g
CreamRectal; Topical
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration10 mg
LiquidInfiltration10 mg
LiquidIntravenous20 mg
SolutionInfiltration10 mg
GelTopical30 mg/1g
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration; Other20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical200 mL/1L
LotionTopical3 g/100mL
LotionTopical5.31 mL/177mL
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOropharyngeal20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal40 mg/1mL
CreamRectal
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntraspinal
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous800 mg/100mL
InjectionInfiltration
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Other
Injection, solutionInfiltration
GelRectal
SolutionInfiltration5 mg
LiquidInfiltration2 %
SolutionInfiltration20 mg
SprayTopical1 %
GelOral2 g/100mL
SolutionInfiltration1 %
SolutionInfiltration2 %
OintmentTopical5 g
CreamTopical39.2 mg/1mL
PatchTopical4 g/1
PatchTopical11 mg/1
GelTopical0.9 g/30g
SprayTopical4.6 g/115g
CreamTopical10 g/100g
SolutionTopical4 %
LiquidTopical10 mg
JellyTopical20 mg
JellyTopical2 %
OintmentTopical5 %
LiquidBuccal2 %
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous700 mg/12h
PatchCutaneous700 mg/1
LiquidCutaneous700 mg/1000mg
GelTopical3 mg/100mL
PatchTopical22.7 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.3 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.8 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical28.1 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical29 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical21.5 mg/0.24mg
LiquidAuricular (otic)
PatchTransdermal
InjectionIntramuscular300 mg/3mL
CreamTopical32.5 mg/1g
KitTopical5 g/100g
PatchIontophoresis
CreamTopical37.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical39.5 mg/1g
GelTopical40 mg/1g
LotionTopical30 mg/177mL
SprayTopical10 mg/0.1mL
LiquidInfiltration
InjectionIntramuscular
GelTopical2.36 g/118mL
Spray, meteredTopical10 mg/100mL
LiquidSubcutaneous1 %
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 mg/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Topical
CreamTopical4 %
CreamTopical5 %
PatchTopical40 mg/1
AerosolTopical
KitOral20 mg/1mL
Kit20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical5 g/100g
GelTopical0.04 g/1g
LotionTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intravenous
LiquidInfiltration; Intraspinal; Subcutaneous1 %
LiquidTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical0.04 g/28g
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
LotionTopical
SprayTopical24.64 mg/1mL
CreamTopical5 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical5 mg/30g
SprayTopical40 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical0.04 mg/1mg
StickTopical
GelTopical.5 g/100g
LiquidDental; Subcutaneous
LiquidSubcutaneous
GelPeriodontal
SuspensionAuricular (otic)
Liquid; ointmentSubcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical0.04 g/40g
LotionTopical40 mg/4mL
CreamTopical50 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1g
PatchTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical0.3 g/1
GelTopical7.128 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.13 mg/1mL
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
GelTopical2 mg/1g
LiquidIntravenous1 %
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical41.2 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
LiquidEpidural; Intravenous
GelTopical4 g/100g
LiquidDental2 %
KitInfiltration; Soft tissue; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
OintmentTopical
CreamTopical
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
SprayTopical2.6 %
SprayTopical4 %
SolutionTopical40 mg
CreamTopical400 mg/1mg
PatchTopical.005 mg/1g
OintmentTopical.005 mg/1g
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 g/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular
OintmentTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical10 g/100g
GelTopical0.5 g/100g
PatchTopical240 mg/1
PackingDental
PatchTopical18 mg/116cm2
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Topical
CreamTopical0.04 g/1g
CreamTopical0.05 g/1g
ClothTopical
GelTopical20 mg/1g
GelTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 %
SprayTopical2 %
SolutionTopical2 %
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/1
CreamPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
LiquidPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
SprayTopical1.1 g/12g
GelTopical2.0 %
GelTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical1 %
SprayTopical5 mg/1g
LotionTopical0.5 %
SprayTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.057 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.50 %
CreamTopical0.5 g/100g
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
KitInfiltration1 %
SprayTopical96 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 %
AerosolTopical0.5 %
GelTopical5.05 g/1g
GelTopical1 g/100g
SwabTopical1 %
OintmentTopical1.0 g/100g
OintmentTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidIntrathoracic; Subcutaneous1 %
SprayTopical10 mg/100mL
GelTopical2.36 g/59g
SprayTopical2.36 g/59g
GelTopical5 %
GelTopical15 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SprayTopical2.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 %
KitTopical40 mg/1mL
Kit
SprayTopical0.5 mg/100mg
CreamTopical1 %
SolutionTopical0.5 %
SprayTopical0.5 %
GelTopical2 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/1mL
InjectionDental20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration50 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
JellyTopical0.5 mg/18mL
JellyTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal
LiquidInfiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural15 mg
LiquidInfiltration20 mg
SolutionEpidural20 mg
SolutionEpidural
LiquidSubarachnoid50 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration17.3 mg
SolutionOral100 mg
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal; Percutaneous1 %
LiquidPercutaneous1 %
LiquidEpidural
LiquidInfiltration1 %
AerosolOral; Topical
SprayTopical40 mg
LiquidTopical50 mg
LiquidOral; Topical20 mg
InjectionDental
SolutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidEpidural; Intracaudal20 mg
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
LiquidIntravenous200 mg
Aerosol, metered; sprayTopical
Spray, meteredTopical
CreamTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical20 mg/1000mg
Kit50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical2.5 %
SolutionTopical4.0 %
PowderIntradermal0.5 mg/1
PatchTopical36 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rocephin 10 gm vial478.32USD each
Lidocaine HCl 3% Lotion 177ml Bottle230.3USD bottle
Rocephin 2 gm vial97.5USD each
Rocephin 1 gm vial62.02USD each
EMLA 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube58.4USD tube
Lidocaine-Prilocaine 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube47.79USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 10ml Syringe17.99USD syringe
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 30ml Tube17.99USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 50ml Bottle16.99USD bottle
Lidocaine Viscous 2% Solution 100ml Bottle13.99USD bottle
Lidocaine hcl 1% syringe9.76USD ml
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 4ml Bottle9.42USD bottle
Lidoderm 1 Box = 30 Patches8.03USD patch
Akten 3.5% drops7.5USD ml
Lidocaine 5% in d7.5w ampul3.06USD ml
Lidocaine 3% cream2.91USD g
Lidamantle 3% cream2.03USD g
Zilactin-l cold sore liquid0.99USD ml
Xylocaine 2% jelly0.68USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 10% vial0.55USD ml
Xylocaine 5% ointment0.42USD g
Xylocaine Jelly 2 % Jelly0.41USD g
Xylocaine 2% Solution0.34USD ml
Xylocaine 5 % Ointment0.29USD g
Lidocaine HCl 1% Solution0.24USD ml
Lidocaine hcl powder0.24USD g
Lidocaine base powder0.22USD g
Lidocaine hcl 4% solution0.18USD ml
Xylocaine 0.5% vial0.18USD ml
Lidodan 5 % Ointment0.16USD g
Xylocaine Viscous 2 % Liquid0.1USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 0.5% vial0.08USD ml
Solarcaine aerosol0.06USD g
Lidodan Viscous 2 % Liquid0.06USD ml
Lidocaine 2% viscous solution0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5234957No1994-02-272011-02-27Us
US5827529No1995-10-272015-10-27Us
US8540665No2009-10-222029-10-22Us
US6881200No1996-06-112016-06-11Us
US6004286No1997-03-172017-03-17Us
US5899880No1996-05-042016-05-04Us
US6031007No1997-04-012017-04-01Us
US6629968No2000-06-302020-06-30Us
US6635045No2001-06-292021-06-29Us
US6546281No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US5658583No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US6465006No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US6465709No2000-07-072020-07-07Us
US6780426No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US6306431No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US5919479No1995-07-282015-07-28Us
US6528086No1999-09-282019-09-28Us
US8759401No2006-07-242026-07-24Us
US9370622No2015-09-282035-09-28Us
US9358338No2015-04-272035-04-27Us
US9283174No2011-05-102031-05-10Us
US9925264No2011-05-102031-05-10Us
US9931403No2011-05-102031-05-10Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)68.5 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)159-160 °C at 2.00E+00 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility4100 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.44AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.76ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.21ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.01SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.593 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.81ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.18 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-38a47958df650b972703
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7a90fe8d9b35b745cfce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0920000000-f9f648594c0f1642cc4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0089-0900000000-5716ccc63e48696473bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d18ae1cd0a81ee63d35
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-83bc5908a67b3ba4b826
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-e305bfb01d615662d8a1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eab27554002663b2d3fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-1b684e31ff74300b808f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9466a1403df493f5b6e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c773b8e10c70518882c1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-00b6d0139ebe20cdb189
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-0b33ce49934844438e43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-502494c9626d1dca25d1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-86c007695ec40849f993
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-7f630b7fa4e36c59e0d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9060000000-b5aef137d8e488097fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b21ee69ce889ba36b5e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d7555c18e41a90508a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3dd6e01da50ad1a66b2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9230000000-577ea8a290877187b518
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-3f33ed4d35a979dbd732
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-343e9e6a26be64016b15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-c1923c77757d099538dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9ff21e9bcf3f87f70774
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eaebad6c7c4ce7832c9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e21612ecf5a40923bb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9050000000-930a3c8f94fdb363cc0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bc7800eef651a1a0ee2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a658a8aeac537602e1a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5a056c9766b47a19f0a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d649b0b05937216241a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-6090000000-31a60a2cff302fde1ad8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9020000000-da68f84a1fd4a905c98c
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as m-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a m-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 3-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Xylenes
Direct Parent
m-Xylenes
Alternative Parents
Trialkylamines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
M-xylene / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidic acid derivative / Carboximidic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, benzenes (CHEBI:6456)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Ekberg J, Jayamanne A, Vaughan CW, Aslan S, Thomas L, Mould J, Drinkwater R, Baker MD, Abrahamsen B, Wood JN, Adams DJ, Christie MJ, Lewis RJ: muO-conotoxin MrVIB selectively blocks Nav1.8 sensory neuron specific sodium channels and chronic pain behavior without motor deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 7;103(45):17030-5. Epub 2006 Oct 31. [PubMed:17077153]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN9A
Uniprot ID
Q15858
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Sheets PL, Jackson JO 2nd, Waxman SG, Dib-Hajj SD, Cummins TR: A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity. J Physiol. 2007 Jun 15;581(Pt 3):1019-31. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17430993]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Itoh H, Tsuji K, Sakaguchi T, Nagaoka I, Oka Y, Nakazawa Y, Yao T, Jo H, Ashihara T, Ito M, Horie M, Imoto K: A paradoxical effect of lidocaine for the N406S mutation of SCN5A associated with Brugada syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 18;121(3):239-48. Epub 2007 Apr 18. [PubMed:17445919]
  2. Fedida D, Orth PM, Hesketh JC, Ezrin AM: The role of late I and antiarrhythmic drugs in EAD formation and termination in Purkinje fibers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May;17 Suppl 1:S71-S78. [PubMed:16686685]
  3. Wallace CH, Baczko I, Jones L, Fercho M, Light PE: Inhibition of cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels by grape polyphenols. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;149(6):657-65. Epub 2006 Oct 3. [PubMed:17016511]
  4. Cerne A, Bergh C, Borg K, Ek I, Gejervall AL, Hillensjo T, Olofsson JI, Stener-Victorin E, Wood M, Westlander G: Pre-ovarian block versus paracervical block for oocyte retrieval. Hum Reprod. 2006 Nov;21(11):2916-21. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16840798]
  5. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  6. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TG...
Gene Name
EGFR
Uniprot ID
P00533
Uniprot Name
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Molecular Weight
134276.185 Da
References
  1. Sakaguchi M, Kuroda Y, Hirose M: The antiproliferative effect of lidocaine on human tongue cancer cells with inhibition of the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor. Anesth Analg. 2006 Apr;102(4):1103-7. [PubMed:16551906]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Leuwer M, Haeseler G, Hecker H, Bufler J, Dengler R, Aronson JK: An improved model for the binding of lidocaine and structurally related local anaesthetics to fast-inactivated voltage-operated sodium channels, showing evidence of cooperativity. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;141(1):47-54. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662728]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
ORM2
Uniprot ID
P19652
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Masubuchi Y, Takahashii C, Fujio N, Horie T, Suzuki T, Imaoka S, Funae Y, Narimatsu S: Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes after repetitive administration of imipramine in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Sep;23(9):999-1003. [PubMed:8565792]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  4. Wei X, Dai R, Zhai S, Thummel KE, Friedman FK, Vestal RE: Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P-450 1A2 by the class IB antiarrhythmics mexiletine, lidocaine, and tocainide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):853-8. [PubMed:10215663]
  5. Orlando R, Piccoli P, De Martin S, Padrini R, Floreani M, Palatini P: Cytochrome P450 1A2 is a major determinant of lidocaine metabolism in vivo: effects of liver function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jan;75(1):80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.09.007. [PubMed:14749694]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. [PubMed:11743742]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  3. Hu Y, Qin X, Cao H, Yu S, Feng J: Reversal effects of local anesthetics on P-glycoprotein-mediated cancer multidrug resistance. Anticancer Drugs. 2017 Mar;28(3):243-249. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000455. [PubMed:27906699]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:40