Accession Number
DB00281  (APRD00479, DB05291)
Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved

Ever since its discovery and availability for sale and use in the late 1940s, lidocaine has become an exceptionally commonly used medication 6. In particular, lidocaine's principal mode of action in acting as a local anesthetic that numbs the sensations of tissues means the agent is indicated for facilitating local anesthesia for a large variety of surgical procedures 10,7,8. It ultimately elicits its numbing activity by blocking sodium channels so that the neurons of local tissues that have the medication applied on are transiently incapable of signaling the brain regarding sensations 10,7,8. In doing so, however, it can block or decrease muscle contractile, resulting in effects like vasodilation, hypotension, and irregular heart rate, among others 10,7,8. As a result, lidocaine is also considered a class Ib anti-arrhythmic agent 7,8,12. Nevertheless, lidocaine's local anesthetic action sees its use in many medical situations or circumstances that may benefit from its action, including the treatment of premature ejaculation 5.

Regardless, lidocaine is currently available as a relatively non-expensive generic medication that is written for in millions of prescriptions internationally on a yearly basis. It is even included in the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines 9.

  • 2-(Diethylamino)-2',6'-acetoxylidide
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
  • alpha-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
  • Lidocaína
  • Lidocaina
  • Lidocaine
  • Lidocainum
  • Lignocaine
  • α-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
External IDs
ALGRX 3268 / ALGRX-3268 / LSM-3165 / NSC-40030
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Lidocaine hydrochlorideV13007Z41A6108-05-0YECIFGHRMFEPJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrousEC2CNF7XFP73-78-9IYBQHJMYDGVZRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AccucaineInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationAsclemed Usa, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
AktenGel35 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.2008-10-08Not applicableUs
Ambator Lidocaine PatchPatch1 g/10gTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
Amniocentesis Tray 1%LiquidInfiltration; SubcutaneousAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AnestheticGel5 g/100gTopicalCosmoceutical Research Center Inc2012-02-18Not applicableUs
Antecubital Cent Venous Catheterization KitLiquidEpiduralArrow International1991-12-311999-07-02Canada
Apicaine-XOintment0.05 g/1gTopicalMedicap Laboratories Inc.2015-12-122016-02-17Us
Arthrogram Tray 1%LiquidIntra-articularAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AsteroGel40 mg/1gTopicalGensco Laboratories, LLC2016-05-01Not applicableUs
AsteroGel40 mg/1gTopicalAll Pharma, Llc2016-05-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
1% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
1% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-22Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-25Not applicableUs
AnestaconJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2001-11-05Not applicableUs
DermacinRx Lido V PakKit50 mg/1gTopicalPureTek Corporation2016-09-22Not applicableUs
DermacinRx PHN PakKit700 mg/1PureTek Corporation2016-05-17Not applicableUs
GlydoJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Laryng-O-JetSolution40 mg/1mLTopicalAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1980-03-062010-09-09Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4019 First Aid KitKit2 g/100gTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4043 First Aid KitKit2 g/100gTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
Absorbine jr. LidocainePatch246 mg/1TopicalClarion Brands, Llc2017-01-01Not applicableUs
ADVANCED NUMB Topical AnestheticCream50 mg/1gTopicalUber Scientific, Llc2018-04-20Not applicableUs
Afassco Burn GelGel70 mg/3.5gTopicalAfassco Inc.2019-08-25Not applicableUs
After BurnGel25 mg/1mLTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-12Not applicableUs
After Sun Burn Relief Lidocaine Continuous SpraySprayTopicalPrime Enterprises, Inc.2010-04-08Not applicableCanada
After Sun GelGelTopicalWatkins IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
After Sun Soothing SprayLiquid; SprayTopicalKinesys Pharmaceutical Inc1995-03-17Not applicableCanada
AfterBurnGel0.5 %TopicalTender Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose InjectionLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1983-12-312019-04-12Canada
10 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOralGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%Lidocaine (4 g/1) + Capsaicin (0.025 g/1) + Levomenthol (5 g/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 g/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
1st RELIEF TOPICALLidocaine (40 mg/1mL) + Levomenthol (10 mg/1mL)SprayTopical1st Class Pharmaceuticals2014-12-02Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Epinephrine (0.01 mg)LiquidInfiltrationAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2008-12-01Not applicableCanada
25 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitTopicalGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
3 Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-012013-01-30Us
3-Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (100 mg/10mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (11 mg/10mL) + Povidone-iodine (100 mg/10mL)KitTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-01Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%-rxLidocaine (4 1/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 1/1) + Levomenthol (5 1/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 1/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4013 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4019 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4032 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4042 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
After Burn Double Strength Gel / After Burn Double Strength Spray / After Burn Gel / After Burn Spray / Alphacaine / Anestacon Jelly / DermaFlex / Dilocaine / Esracaine / L-Caine / Lidoject-1 / Lidoject-2 / LidoPain SP / Norwood Sunburn Spray / Xilocaina / Xylocaine
CAS number
Average: 234.3373
Monoisotopic: 234.173213336
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



Lidocaine is an anesthetic of the amide group indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks 10,7.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Excessive blood levels of lidocaine can cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure 10,7. With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to the block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system, and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present 10,7. The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded 10,7.

In particular, such cardiac effects are likely associated with the principal effect that lidocaine elicits when it binds and blocks sodium channels, inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of electrical action potential impulses necessary to facilitate muscle contraction 10,7,8. Subsequently, in cardiac myocytes, lidocaine can potentially block or otherwise slow the rise of cardiac action potentials and their associated cardiac myocyte contractions, resulting in possible effects like hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and perhaps cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse 10,7,8.

Moreover, lidocaine possesses a dissociation constant (pKa) of 7.7 and is considered a weak base 8. As a result, about 25% of lidocaine molecules will be un-ionized and available at the physiological pH of 7.4 to translocate inside nerve cells, which means lidocaine elicits an onset of action more rapidly than other local anesthetics that have higher pKa values 8. This rapid onset of action is demonstrated in about one minute following intravenous injection and fifteen minutes following intramuscular injection 7. The administered lidocaine subsequently spreads rapidly through the surrounding tissues and the anesthetic effect lasts approximately ten to twenty minutes when given intravenously and about sixty to ninety minutes after intramuscular injection 7.

Nevertheless, it appears that the efficacy of lidocaine may be minimized in the presence of inflammation 8. This effect could be due to acidosis decreasing the amount of un-ionized lidocaine molecules, a more rapid reduction in lidocaine concentration as a result of increased blood flow, or potentially also because of increased production of inflammatory mediators like peroxynitrite that elicit direct actions on sodium channels 8.

Mechanism of action

Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type 10,7,8. It is used to provide local anesthesia by nerve blockade at various sites in the body 10,7,8. It does so by stabilizing the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action 10,7,8. In particular, the lidocaine agent acts on sodium ion channels located on the internal surface of nerve cell membranes 10,7,8. At these channels, neutral uncharged lidocaine molecules diffuse through neural sheaths into the axoplasm where they are subsequently ionized by joining with hydrogen ions 10,7,8. The resultant lidocaine cations are then capable of reversibly binding the sodium channels from the inside, keeping them locked in an open state that prevents nerve depolarization 10,7,8. As a result, with sufficient blockage, the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will ultimately not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential 10,7,8. This facilitates an anesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain but by aborting their generation in the first place 10,7,8.

In addition to blocking conduction in nerve axons in the peripheral nervous system, lidocaine has important effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system 10,7,8. After absorption, lidocaine may cause stimulation of the CNS followed by depression and in the cardiovascular system, it acts primarily on the myocardium where it may produce decreases in electrical excitability, conduction rate, and force of contraction 10,7,8.

ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
UEpidermal growth factor receptor
USodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
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Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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In general, lidocaine is readily absorbed across mucous membranes and damaged skin but poorly through intact skin 12. The agent is quickly absorbed from the upper airway, tracheobronchial tree, and alveoli into the bloodstream 12. And although lidocaine is also well absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract the oral bioavailability is only about 35% as a result of a high degree of first-pass metabolism 12. After injection into tissues, lidocaine is also rapidly absorbed and the absorption rate is affected by both vascularity and the presence of tissue and fat capable of binding lidocaine in the particular tissues 12.

The concentration of lidocaine in the blood is subsequently affected by a variety of aspects, including its rate of absorption from the site of injection, the rate of tissue distribution, and the rate of metabolism and excretion 10,7,8. Subsequently, the systemic absorption of lidocaine is determined by the site of injection, the dosage given, and its pharmacological profile 10,7,8. The maximum blood concentration occurs following intercostal nerve blockade followed in order of decreasing concentration, the lumbar epidural space, brachial plexus site, and subcutaneous tissue 10,7,8. The total dose injected regardless of the site is the primary determinant of the absorption rate and blood levels achieved 10,7,8. There is a linear relationship between the amount of lidocaine injected and the resultant peak anesthetic blood levels 10,7,8.

Nevertheless, it has been observed that lidocaine hydrochloride is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending also on lipid solubility and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent 10,7,8. Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration 10,7,8.

Additionally, lidocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion 10.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution determined for lidocaine is 0.7 to 1.5 L/kg 8.

In particular, lidocaine is distributed throughout the total body water 7. Its rate of disappearance from the blood can be described by a two or possibly even three-compartment model 7. There is a rapid disappearance (alpha phase) which is believed to be related to uptake by rapidly equilibrating tissues (tissues with high vascular perfusion, for example) 7. The slower phase is related to distribution to slowly equilibrating tissues (beta phase) and to its metabolism and excretion (gamma phase) 7.

Lidocaine's distribution is ultimately throughout all body tissues 7. In general, the more highly perfused organs will show higher concentrations of the agent 7. The highest percentage of this drug will be found in skeletal muscle, mainly due to the mass of muscle rather than an affinity 7.

Protein binding

The protein binding recorded for lidocaine is about 60 to 80% and is dependent upon the plasma concentration of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 10,8. Such percentage protein binding bestows lidocaine with a medium duration of action when placed in comparison to other local anesthetic agents 8.


Lidocaine is metabolized predominantly and rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys 10,7. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation 10,7. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide 10,7. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine HCl 10,7. Approximately 90% of lidocaine HCl administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged 10,7. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline 10,7.

Route of elimination

The excretion of unchanged lidocaine and its metabolites occurs predominantly via the kidney with less than 5% in the unchanged form appearing in the urine 10,7. The renal clearance is inversely related to its protein binding affinity and the pH of the urine 7. This suggests by the latter that excretion of lidocaine occurs by non-ionic diffusion 7.

Half life

The elimination half-life of lidocaine hydrochloride following an intravenous bolus injection is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours 10. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine hydrochloride is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine HCl kinetics 10. The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction 10.


The mean systemic clearance observed for intravenously administered lidocaine in a study of 15 adults was approximately 0.64 +/- 0.18 L/min 11.


Symptoms of overdose and/or acute systemic toxicity involves central nervous system toxicity that presents with symptoms of increasing severity 7. Patients may present initially with circumoral paraesthesia, numbness of the tongue, light-headedness, hyperacusis, and tinnitus 7. Visual disturbance and muscular tremors or muscle twitching are more serious and precede the onset of generalized convulsions 7. These signs must not be mistaken for neurotic behavior 7. Unconsciousness and grand mal convulsions may follow, which may last from a few seconds to several minutes 7. Hypoxia and hypercapnia occur rapidly following convulsions due to increased muscular activity, together with the interference with normal respiration and loss of the airway 7. In severe cases, apnoea may occur. Acidosis increases the toxic effects of local anesthetics 7. Effects on the cardiovascular system may be seen in severe cases 7. Hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest may occur as a result of high systemic concentrations, with potentially fatal outcome 7.

Pregnancy Category B has been established for the use of lidocaine in pregnancy, although there are no formal, adequate, and well-controlled studies in pregnant women 10. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place 10. Ultimately, although animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, lidocaine should not be administered during early pregnancy unless the benefits are considered to outweigh the risks 7. Lidocaine readily crosses the placental barrier after epidural or intravenous administration to the mother 7. The ratio of umbilical to maternal venous concentration is 0.5 to 0.6 7. The fetus appears to be capable of metabolizing lidocaine at term 7. The elimination half-life in the newborn of the drug received in utero is about three hours, compared with 100 minutes in the adult 7. Elevated lidocaine levels may persist in the newborn for at least 48 hours after delivery 7. Fetal bradycardia or tachycardia, neonatal bradycardia, hypotonia or respiratory depression may occur 7.

Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudendal or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity 10. The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration 10. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function 10.

Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia 10. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves 10. Elevating the patient’s legs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure 10. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable 10.

Epidural, spinal, paracervical, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts 10. In one study, paracervical block anesthesia was associated with a decrease in the mean duration of first stage labor and facilitation of cervical dilation 10. However, spinal and epidural anesthesia have also been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the parturient’s reflex urge to bear down or by interfering with motor function 10. The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance 10.

The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life 10. The long-term significance of these observations is unknown 10. Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis 10. Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia 10. The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress 10. Careful adherence to the recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block 10. Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection 10. Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both. Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours 10. Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication 10.

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk 10. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman 10.

Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition 10.

The oral LD 50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346-773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159-324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats 10.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
7-NitroindazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Lidocaine.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


Synthesis Reference
General References
  1. Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N: Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004846. [PubMed:17443559]
  2. Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA, Cohn K, Steinbrunn W, Cudihee R, Rowland M: Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease, and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med. 1973 Apr;78(4):499-508. [PubMed:4694036]
  3. Geha PY, Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AV: Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapy. Pain. 2007 Mar;128(1-2):88-100. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17067740]
  4. Hines R, Keaney D, Moskowitz MH, Prakken S: Use of lidocaine patch 5% for chronic low back pain: a report of four cases. Pain Med. 2002 Dec;3(4):361-5. [PubMed:15099246]
  5. Authors unspecified: Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation. Drug Ther Bull. 2017 Apr;55(4):45-48. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2017.4.0469. [PubMed:28408390]
  6. Scriabine, Alexander (2017). Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health.. Chemical Heritage Press.. [ISBN:9780941901215]
  7. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Lidocaine 1% w/v solution for injection Monograph [Link]
  8. StatPearls Internet: Lidocaine Profile [Link]
  9. World Health Organization Model Lists of Essential Medicines [Link]
  10. Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl Injection, USP) FDA Label [File]
  11. University of Virginia Children's Hospital: Use of Lidocaine for Analgesia in Children and Adolescents, by Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D., FCCP, FPPAG [File]
  12. Cytochrome P450-mediated drug interactions affecting lidocaine by Mika Isohanni [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
S01HA07 — LidocaineD04AB01 — LidocaineR02AD02 — LidocaineC01BB01 — LidocaineS02DA01 — LidocaineN01BB52 — Lidocaine, combinationsC05AD01 — LidocaineN01BB02 — Lidocaine
AHFS Codes
  • 84:08.00 — Antipruritics and Local Anesthetics
  • 24:04.00 — Cardiac Drugs
  • 24:04.04.08 — Class Ib Antiarrythmics
  • 52:16.00 — Local Anesthetics
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
PDB Entries
3jqz / 3ttr
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingOtherHeat Effect1
0CompletedBasic ScienceMorton's neuralgia1
0CompletedHealth Services ResearchPain1
0CompletedScreeningAdenomatous Polyp of Colon / Colorectal Cancers / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareCutaneous Abscess / Pain1
0CompletedTreatmentChorionic Villi Sampling1
0CompletedTreatmentSurgical Anesthesia, Cesarean Section1
0CompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Disorders1
0Enrolling by InvitationHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
0Enrolling by InvitationHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Controls1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchGeneral Population1
0Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBariatric Surgery Candidate1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHumeral Fractures1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung / Pleural Effusion, Malignant1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParathyroid Adenomas / Thyroid1
0RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancers1
0RecruitingTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
0RecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Cancers1
0RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
0WithdrawnPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
0WithdrawnPreventionKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
0WithdrawnTreatmentSymptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceNociceptive Pain / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRegional Anesthesia1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnaesthesia therapy1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchUnderdosing of Local Anesthetics, Initial Encounter1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedPreventionBreast Cancer1
1CompletedPreventionIntradermal Electroporation1
1CompletedPreventionOther Preterm Infants1
1CompletedPreventionPostoperative Thromboembolism1
1CompletedSupportive CareEtomidate Overdose of Undetermined Intent1
1CompletedTreatment"Lost" IUD / Lost IUD1
1CompletedTreatmentActinic Dermatosis2
1CompletedTreatmentActinic Keratosis (AK)1
1CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Hip Fracture / Perioperative Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Pain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentIpsilateral Shoulder Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentMicroinvasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous1
1CompletedTreatmentOvercoming the Failure of Anesthesia in the Mandibular Teeth1
1CompletedTreatmentPain Management / Pregnancy Termination1
1CompletedTreatmentPostherpetic Neuralgia1
1CompletedTreatmentProvoked Vestibulodynia / Provoked, Localized Vulvodynia / Vulvar Vestibulitis / Vulvodynia1
1CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome / Sciatica1
1CompletedTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
1CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
1CompletedTreatmentTreatment Side Effects1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Healthy Volunteers1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Rupture / Lumbosacral Radiculopathy / Sciatica1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Topical Anaesthesia1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceColorectal Cancers1
1RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids1
1RecruitingTreatmentAbortion Early / Abortion in First Trimester / Missed Abortion / Spontaneous Abortions1
1RecruitingTreatmentCraniotomy / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentHeadache / Occipital Neuralgia1
1RecruitingTreatmentIntermetatarsal Neuroma1
1RecruitingTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1TerminatedOtherSurgery, Colorectal1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute-onset Herpes Zoster Pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
1WithdrawnTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1, 2CompletedOtherBehaviour Assessment / Pain1
1, 2CompletedPreventionHemodynamic Changes Due to Propofol Injection / Pain Due to Propofol Injection1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareOcular Anesthesia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidate / BMI >30 kg/m21
1, 2RecruitingPreventionChemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) / Colorectal Cancers / Painful Neuropathy1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Migraine Without Aura, Intractable / Migraine Disorders / Migraine With Typical Aura1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
1, 2TerminatedPreventionPain1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer AJCC v71
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentInjuries and Wounds1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management After Total Hip Arthroplasty1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / High Risk Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Prostate Cancer / PSA Level Greater Than or Equal to 0.2 / PSA Progression / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / PSA Level Greater Than Two / Stage IV Prostate Adenocarcinoma AJCC v71
2CompletedNot AvailableSurgery Scheduled1
2CompletedBasic ScienceBreast Cancer1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Neuropathic Pain1
2CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Knee Joint Osteoarthrosis / Severe Movement Related Pain1
2CompletedPreventionIUD Pain1
2CompletedPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedPreventionMenstrual Cramps1
2CompletedPreventionPain Relief1
2CompletedPreventionPainful Irreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative paralytic ileus1
2CompletedSupportive CareCardiac Diseases1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anesthesia Efficacy1
2CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareNeedle Phobia / Pain1
2CompletedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Malignant1
2CompletedSupportive CareSupratentorial Craniotomy Dysfunction1
2CompletedSupportive CareUterine Cervical Dysplasia1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAllodynia / Central Neuropathic Pain / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Local Infiltration1
2CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain / Venipuncture1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentBladder Diseases / Interstitial Cystitis / Pelvic Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Scar Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Biopsy1
2CompletedTreatmentEndometriosis / Menstrual Cramps1
2CompletedTreatmentFascicular Block / Latency Period / Motor Activities / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHip Fracture / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentHip Pain Etiology Unknown1
2CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
2CompletedTreatmentLidocaine Spray1
2CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia2
2CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic / Vasoocclusive Sickle Cell Crises Pains1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Palliative Care / Phlebotomy1
2CompletedTreatmentParacervical Block1
2CompletedTreatmentPatellar Tendinopathy1
2CompletedTreatmentPostherpetic Neuralgia3
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Impingement Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain / Stroke1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Stress Incontinence1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infection1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntubations / Stellate Ganglion1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAllodynic Symptoms / Localized Neuropathic Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFeeding Disorders / Malignancies1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma / Prostate Adenocarcinoma With Focal Neuroendocrine Differentiation / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStomatitis1
2RecruitingPreventionIntraoperative Bleeding1
2RecruitingPreventionPenile Prosthesis; Complications1
2RecruitingSupportive CareProlapsed Lumbar Disc1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate1
2RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain, Unspecified / Endometriosis / Fibromyalgia Syndrome / Headaches, Tension / Interstitial Cystitis / Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Migraine / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Temporomandibular Disorders / Vestibulodynia1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Pain Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Polyneuropathy / Peripheral neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
2RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Delivery / Valve Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Wounds Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache / Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Liver Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
2TerminatedSupportive CareAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Malignancies / Prostate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentDry Macular Degeneration1
2TerminatedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentMucositis / Neoplasms1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain and Discomfort During Scaling and Root Planning of Patients With / Periodontitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentVulvar Vestibulitis1
2Unknown StatusPreventionBreast Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCerebrovascular Accident / Stroke1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeoplasms / Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPhantom Limb Pain (PLP) / Primary/Secondary Scar Hyperalgesia1
2, 3CompletedOtherLocal Anesthesia1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain Relief During Prostate Biopsy1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareCancer-related Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBurning Nose1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Catheterizations / Spasms1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Zoster Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterferential Current Drug Delivery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Lung Diseases (ILD) / Lung Cancers / Sarcoidosis / Tuberculosis Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain After Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain and Anxiety1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain / Surgical Abortion1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Pain Relief1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentStomatitis1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiscomfort / Pain1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections / Venous Thromboembolism1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHemorrhoid Pain / Hemorrhoids1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy / Myomectomy1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPain Uterus1
2, 3RecruitingSupportive CarePatients With Indication for Flexible Bronchoscopy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentStage I Prostate Adenocarcinoma / Stage II Prostate Adenocarcinoma / Stage III Prostate Adenocarcinoma1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentElective Surgical Procedure / Surgery, Colorectal1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3Unknown StatusPreventionWe Focus on the Pain of Venipuncture and Intravenous Cannulation1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAchilles Tendinopathy / Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy / Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy / Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy / Non-Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHemorrhoidectomy1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHemorrhoids1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPain Perception / Phlebotomy1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentContraception / Lidocaine1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOperable Breast Cancer1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUndernutrition1
3CompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia2
3CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery1
3CompletedDiagnosticGynecologic Diseases1
3CompletedDiagnosticMeralgia Paresthetica1
3CompletedDiagnosticNeuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3CompletedDiagnosticPostoperative pain1
3CompletedOtherBreast Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionAnxiety / Pain1
3CompletedPreventionBariatric Surgical Pain1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Post-surgical Pain / Post-mastectomy Pain Syndrome1
3CompletedPreventionElective Major Abdominal Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionPain Relief With HSG1
3CompletedPreventionPain, Labor1
3CompletedPreventionRadiation Dermatitis1
3CompletedPreventionSore Throat1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
3CompletedSupportive CareFatigue / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedSupportive CareProcedural Pain Relief1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain / Dyspepsia / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Intestinal Malabsorption1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Oral Mucositis Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
3CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Modic I Discopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Menopause / Painful Intercourse / Vulvodynia1
3CompletedTreatmentCarcinologic Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest (CA)1
3CompletedTreatmentCatheter site pain / Local Anesthesia / Pain, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentCoughing / Sore Throat1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentFacial Wrinkles at the Nasolabial Folds1
3CompletedTreatmentForearm and Arm Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentIUD Insertion / IUD Insertion, Endometrial Biopsy1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
3CompletedTreatmentLidocaine Adverse Reaction / Prilocaine Adverse Reaction1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Submental Fullness1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3CompletedTreatmentNeuropathic Pain Secondary to Radiation Therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentNonviable Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentPaget Disease, Extramammary1
3CompletedTreatmentPain Management, Cervical Preparation1
3CompletedTreatmentPain Teeth1
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPeripheral neuropathy1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)2
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentShoulder Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentSore Throat Due to a Common Cold1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentUnwanted Pregnancies1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Rectal Carcinoma1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Opioid Free Anesthesia / Postoperative paralytic ileus / Surgery, Colorectal / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia Recovery Period / Scoliosis; Adolescence1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wound site1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Intensive Care Units / Lidocaine1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmergency Caesarean1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLidocaine / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchDysuria1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionInflammatory Responses1
3RecruitingPreventionPain Relief1
3RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CareOpioid Consumption / Postoperative Pain Control1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbortion in First Trimester / Pain Uterus / Spontaneous Abortions1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Musculoskeletal Disease / Emergency / Pain, Acute / Sprains / Sprains and Strains / Traumas / Traumatic Injuries1
3RecruitingTreatmentBronchiectasis Adult / Bronchopulmonary Diseases / Chest--Diseases / Infiltrates / Lung Cancers / Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy / Pneumonia1
3RecruitingTreatmentCastration Levels of Testosterone / Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Migraine / Episodic Migraine1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Pain With Neuropathic Component1
3RecruitingTreatmentMigraine in Adolescence / Migraine in Children / Sphenopalatine neuralgia1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPost-Traumatic Headaches1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
3RecruitingTreatmentUterine Hemorrhage1
3TerminatedPreventionTransient Neurologic Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentBursitis / Periarthritis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
3TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFibromyalgia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignancies / Pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
3WithdrawnTreatmentParathyroid Diseases1
3WithdrawnTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareNerve Monitoring / Thyroidectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCystoscopy / Lidocaine / Pain Perception1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Radiating1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRadiculopathy, Cervical1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentVaricosities of the great saphenous vein1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Orthopaedic Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain of Anesthesia at Breast Biopsy1
4CompletedNot AvailablePeriodontal Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableUterine Leiomyomas1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHunger1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain1
4CompletedDiagnosticAdenocarcinoma, Prostate1
4CompletedDiagnosticDental Fear1
4CompletedOtherOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthesia of Mucous Membrane1
4CompletedPreventionAnginal Pain / Coronary Artery Disease / Radial Artery Spasm1
4CompletedPreventionBacteremia / Tooth Extraction Status Nos1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Morbidity / Intubation Complications1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Migraine / Migraine1
4CompletedPreventionDecrease Post Laproscopy Shoulder and Abdominal Pain1
4CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain1
4CompletedPreventionImproving Quality of Life1
4CompletedPreventionOpioid Consumption, Postoperative / Postoperative Fatigue / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionOral Ulcers1
4CompletedPreventionPain on Injection of Propofol,Lidocaine, Alkalinized Lidocaine1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
4CompletedPreventionSore Throat1
4CompletedPreventionThroat Disorder1
4CompletedScreeningPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy2
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Anesthesia Intubation Complications / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia, Intravenous; Surgery, Plastic1
4CompletedSupportive CareArterial Catheterization1
4CompletedSupportive CareCognitive Function Abnormal / Intraoperative Monitoring / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareDiabetic complications neurological / Diabetic Nerve Problems / Diabetic Neuropathies1
4CompletedSupportive CareGeneral Surgery / Nausea, Postoperative / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysteroscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntravenous Anesthetic Interaction "Unrecognized Condition" / Intravenous Anesthetic Interaction Unrecognized Condition1
4CompletedSupportive CareLeukemias / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
4CompletedSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CareNeck Pain / Pelvic Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain6
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic / Postmastectomy Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute and Chronic Non-radicular LBP1
4CompletedTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Effects1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / IUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Requirement / Inadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Postoperative pain / Return of Bowel Activity / Stress Response1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Hip Fracture / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Nausea / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnxiety / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis;Inflammatory / Avascular Necrosis / Opioids Use / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Diabetic Neuropathies / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Stenosis, Spinal1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain, Unspecified / Neck Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBlock Level / Gastrointestinal Surgery / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCanal Syndrome / Pudendal Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease / Lidocaine Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Tracheal Intubation Morbidity1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) / Diabetic Neuropathies / HIV Neuropathy / Idiopathic Sensory Neuropathy / Peripheral neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Achilles Tendinopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Cough (CC)1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Injection / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentContraception / Intrauterine Device1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentDermatitis Papillaris Capillitii / Tattooing1
4CompletedTreatmentDilatation and Evacuation / Laminaria Placement / Pain Alleviation1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis of the Elbow1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis, Lateral Humeral / Lateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpidural Block in Axial Spondyloarthritis / Epidural Block in Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentFissure;Anal / Fistula;Rectal / Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentFlexible Nasendoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFractures of the Distal Radius1
4CompletedTreatmentFractures, Closed / Hip Arthritis / Knee Arthropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadache / Hydrocephaly / Neoplasms, Abdominal / Neurofibromatoses / Seizures Disorders / Spine Deformity / Tumors1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentHip Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentIUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentIV Insertion Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentImpingement Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedTreatmentInjections, Spinal / Morphine / Patients Satisfaction / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentInjuries to the Wrist and Hand1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Intravenous Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentIntravenous Injections1
4CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
4CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Arthroplasty, Total1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentLaceration / LET / Procedural Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia for Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia of the Skin2
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentMolar, Third1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome / Myofascial Trigger Point Pain / Orthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain) / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentNose Deformities, Acquired1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Associated With Epidural Needle Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentPain on IV Injection of Propofol1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedTreatmentOr Peripheral Nerve Injury (PNI) / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (PNP) Due to Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN)1
4CompletedTreatmentPersistent Post-menpausal Bleeding / Uterine Leiomyomas / Uterine Malignancies1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative paralytic ileus1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Atskin Graft Site1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sore Throat, Cough, Hoarseness1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentThermal Burns1
4CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentTrigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive / Urinary Incontinence (UI) / Voiding Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentGallstone formation1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherForehead Rhytides / Forehead Wrinkles1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherLocal Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction / Local Infiltration / Pulp Disease, Dental1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCannula Site Pain / Local Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIllness, Critical1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain During Hystroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionSore Throat1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Related Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionUrinary Catheter Discomfort in Surgical Patients1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareGynecologic Cancers / Sexual Dysfunctions1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjuvants, Anesthesia / Analgesics / Buprenorphine / Dilation and Evacuation / Procedural Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAmbu ACTion / Cesarean Section / Infusion Catheter, Wound / Lidopatch / Medication Assisted Treatment / Opioid Abuse / Opioid Dependence / Opioid-use Disorder / Opioids Use / Pregnancy Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia, Dental / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebrospinal Fluid Leaks / Postdural Puncture Headache / Spinal; Puncture, Complications, Headache1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntravenous Lidocaine and Immunity1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Spinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopedic Procedures1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Diseases1
4RecruitingDiagnosticCystocele / Pelvic Floor Disorders / Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) / Urethra Issue / Urinary Incontinence (UI) / Uterine Prolapse / Vaginal Prolapse / Vaginal Vault Prolapse1
4RecruitingDiagnosticFemale Infertility of Tubal Origin1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation1
4RecruitingOtherLocal Anesthesia / Pain1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Chronic Lung Diseases / Lung Inflammation / Postoperative Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
4RecruitingPreventionNeuralgia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Post Operative Pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAppendicitis Acute / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCatheter Site Discomfort / Catheter site pain / Coronary Artery Disease / Local Anesthesia1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareLeukemia-Lymphoma1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain / Satisfaction, Consumer1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcne / Alopecia Areata (AA) / Epidermal Inclusion Cyst / Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia / Granuloma annulare lesions / Hypertrophic Scars / Keloid Scars / Keratoacanthoma / Lichen Plano-Pilaris / Lichen Planus (LP) / Lichen simplex chronicus / Morphoea / Nummular Eczema / Prurigo Nodularis / Psoriasis Vulgaris (Plaque Psoriasis)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy / Children, Only / Tonsillar Hypertrophy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Urolithiasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Drug Dependence1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia of Mucous Membrane1
4RecruitingTreatmentArrhythmias Ventricular1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Nausea, Postoperative / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Vomiting, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical Radiculitis / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Neuropathic Pain and Fibromyalgia / Patient With Chronic Neuropathic Pain and Fibromyalgia1
4RecruitingTreatmentDislocation, Shoulder1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypertrophic Scars / Scar Keloid1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntubation Complications1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaceration / Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Colon Resection / Perioperative analgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraine in Children / Posttraumatic Headache1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Rib Fracture Multiple / Trauma Chest1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain / Stress Incontinence, Female1
4RecruitingTreatmentParaesophageal Hernia1
4RecruitingTreatmentPediatric Dentistry1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Renal Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lidocaine Improves Pain Control After Surgery by Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Transurethral Resection / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain1
4SuspendedSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wounds1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceFacial Paresis1
4TerminatedPreventionConstipation / Nausea / Pain / Vomiting1
4TerminatedSupportive CareAny Condition Requiring Vulvar Biopsy1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePain1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthritis Multiple Joint / Basal Thumb Joint Arthritis / Basilar Joint Arthritis / Carpometacarpal Arthritis / Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4TerminatedTreatmentFace Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentForearm Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome2
4TerminatedTreatmentNasolabial Folds1
4TerminatedTreatmentPelvic Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
4TerminatedTreatmentRadiculopathy, Cervical1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentTrigger Finger Disorder1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableEndophthalmitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceColorectal Cancers1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDrug Usage1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGynecological Pathologies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionOral Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCholecystolithiasis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication / Pain Control1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPlanned Abdominal Hysterectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Agitation of Patients1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain5
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRetinal Detachment1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAnxiety / Pain1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Elderly / Surgeries Requiring A Minimum One Day Hospitalization1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management After Breast Biopsy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAbdominal Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome / Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4WithdrawnTreatmentCataract Surgery Anesthesia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCapsaicin / Lidocaine / Pain, Neuropathic / Ultaviolet B Light Burn1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherBenign facial lentigines1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Phyllodes Breast Tumor1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHeel Fat Pad Atrophy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNeedle Insertion and Injection Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHair removal therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnalgesia / Cataracts / Ophthalmological Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrhythmia / Blood Electrolyte Balance / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Myocardial Injury / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArthritis / Gouty Arthritis / Headache / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDependence, Cocaine1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDigital Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHemodynamic Response1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntraosseous Vascular Access1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMethaemoglobinaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRadius Fractures2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTrigger Finger1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableWound Healing Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Foot Proned Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceStrabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBronchopulmonary Diseases3
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDysuria / Hematuria / Urinary Tract Infections, Recurrent1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticNeuroma / Pain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPain2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBronchoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCentral Post Stroke Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherGenital Diseases, Female1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Tourniquets1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdult Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAgitation States as Acute Reaction to Gross Stress1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Coughing2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Coughing / Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Urologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCognitive Decline1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionColposcopy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGallbladder disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionInjection Pain / Lidocaine1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIntrauterine Device / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIntubation, Intratracheal / Lidocaine / Pharyngitis / Post-Operative Sore Throat / Ropivacaine1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLower Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMyoma of Uterus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeoplasm, Gastric1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOphthalmic Artery / Peribulbar Block1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOther Intraoperative Cardiac Functional Disturbances During Cardiac Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain4
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPancreatitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPharyngitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPrimary Spontaneous Pneumothorax1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Tears1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionThyroidectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAbnormal Uterine Bleeding / Endometrial Biopsy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing Phacoemulsification With Topical Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnesthetics, Local1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBenign Lung Mass Requiring Operation / Lung Cancer(Primary, Metastatic)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCataracts2
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareFevers / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInfertility1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLumbar Radiculopathy Due to Spinal Nerve Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain4
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain / Urinary Stress Incontinence1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Anaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis of Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdult Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery With General Anesthesia and LMA Insertion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAllergic Skin Reaction / Anxiety Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Blood Levels of Buffered vs Non-buffered Lidocaine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Osteoarthritis Nos, of Sacroiliac Joint / Sprain of Sacroiliac Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / TURP(Transurethral Resection of Prostate)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBirth Injuries / Laceration / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBlood Pressures / Epistaxis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDental Anxiety / Local Anaesthetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDental Decay1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDermal Pharmacokinetic Measurements / Dermatology/Skin - Other1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes / Pain / Peripheral neuropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElective Total or Subtotal Abdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndometriosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpidural Analgesia, Obstetric1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpidural Analgesia / Labour1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFemale Infertility / Hysterosalpingography1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentForearm Fractures / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis (Toothache)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentJellyfish Stings1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKidney Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain / Self-Perception1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMacular Degeneration1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Mastectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraine2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeed for Urethral Catheterization to Rule Out Urinary Tract Infection / Pediatric Presentation of Urinary Tract Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Iris and Ciliary Body Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain19
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control for Intrauterine Device Insertions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain During Hysteroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Intensity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Score1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain and Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain / Pregnancy Termination1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPartial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPelvic Floor Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPerioperative Chest Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination / Uterine Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Spontaneous Pneumothorax1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentReducing Cough During Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSacroiliitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSkin Laxity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Bupivacaine/Morphine in Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) / Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStroke1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVestibulodynia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSwelling of the face1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBrain Diseases / Cardiovascular Heart Disease / Central Nervous System Diseases / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Cerebrovascular Stroke / Ischemia, Brain / Nervous System Diseases / Stroke / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableEhlers-Danlos Syndrome / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injuries1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherAneurysm, Cerebral1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAkinesia / Anesthesia Recovery Period / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect / Cataract Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Patients Satisfaction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherBronchoscopy / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAirway Complication of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Spinal Puncture1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cough / Postoperative Sore Throat1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareChild, Hospitalized1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareEndoscopic Sinus Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareMorphine Adverse Reaction / Postoperative pain / Transplantation, Renal1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics Agent / Bupivacaine / Lidocaine / Mohs Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Dislocation, Shoulder1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBurn Scars / Skin graft scar1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDental Fear / Local Anesthesia / Pediatric Dentistry1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Lidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Sedation / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCowhage / Histamine / Itching / Serotonine / Thermal Stimulation1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceItching / Lidocaine1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePain1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticCarpal Tunnel1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticEvaluation of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Hand Surgery Using Local Anesthesia With Adrenaline1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchDonor Site Complication / Skin Graft1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherCircumcision / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherColles' Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDermal Pharmacokinetic Measurement / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAbdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia Intubation Complications / Intubation Complications / Sore Throat1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionBladder discomfort1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCesarean Section / Pain / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionChildren / Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCough, General Anesthesia, Extubation, Lidocaine, Sore Throat1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMetal Staple Removal After Total Knee Replacement1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNulliparity1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningCutaneous Melanoma / Healthy Volunteers / Melanocytic naevus / Skin Carcinoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareChildren / Pain Due to Certain Specified Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareIntravenous Injections / Vaccinations1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInvasive Bladder Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareRespiratory Failure / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Swallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAccessory Nerve Injuries / EMG: Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Abnormality / Neck Cancer / Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries / Thyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAirway Complication of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Narcotics / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Recovery Quality1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthritis / Back Pain, Unspecified1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Opioids Use / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis / Injections1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBlepharoptosis / Ptosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChest Pain / Pain, Acute / Respiratory Failure / Rib Fracture Multiple / Thoracic Injury / Trauma Chest1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentForearm Injuries / Hand Injuries and Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGastro-Intestinal Disorder1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLeg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNasal Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNephrectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain / Urinary System Stones1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPilonidal Sinus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPregnant Women>37SA1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSciatic Radiculopathy / Sciatica / Sciatica Due to Intervertebral Disc Disorder1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSuprascapular Nerve Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThe Comparison of the I-gel and Endotracheal Tube About in Different Ventilation Settings During Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThoracic Diseases1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePain1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticPain, Labor1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherCataracts1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionAsymptomatic Gallstones Without Cholecystitis / Gallbladder Polyps1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionAtrial Fibrillation (AF)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionIntubation; Difficult1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionLaryngospasm1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Meningitis / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Topical Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar and Other Intervertebral Disc Disorders With Radiculopathy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMigraine1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCesarean Delivery / Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePlantar Warts1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAnesthetics, Local1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionSore Throat1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareOverweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentInfertility1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentKidney Stones / Ureteral Calculus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMorton's neuralgia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain During and After Endovenous Laser Obliteration of Large Saphenous Vein Based on Lidocaine Tumescent Concentration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain Relief1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTuberculosis Infection1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAirway Complication of Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnDiagnosticInterstitial Cystitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherSkin Manifestations1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionSpinal Puncture Complications1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareNasal Pack Removal1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain, Unspecified1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLabour / Pregnant State1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection Due to Cancer1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNasolabial Folds Correction / Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentUpper Eyelid Surgery1


  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Noven pharmaceuticals inc
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  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amend
  • American Dental Cooperative Inc.
  • American Regent
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  • APP Pharmaceuticals
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  • Avent Inc.
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  • Baxter International Inc.
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  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Fresca Gourmet Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • H Meer Dental Supply Co.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
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  • Kent Dental
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  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
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  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
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  • Vyteris Inc.
  • Wallach Surgical Devices Inc.
  • Welch Allyn Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
KitTopical2 g/100g
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Topical
KitRespiratory (inhalation)
PatchTopical246 mg/1
GelTopical70 mg/3.5g
GelTopical25 mg/1mL
Liquid; sprayTopical
GelTopical0.5 %
GelOphthalmic35 mg/1mL
GelTopical5 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 %
OintmentTopical4 g/100mL
SwabTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/1g
PatchTopical1 g/10g
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
CreamTopical4 mg/100g
GelTopical2 g/1mL
CreamTopical4 %
Aerosol, foamTopical4 g/100g
GelTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5 g/100mL
OintmentTopical0.05 g/1g
Kit; liquidIntravenous
PatchTopical411.4 mg/1
LotionTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical422 mg/1
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
Kit4 g/100g
GelTopical4.1 mg/1mL
PatchTopical; Transdermal
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural; Topical
GelTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/100g
CreamTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2.8 g/56g
CreamTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical10 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical3.4 g/68mL
SprayTopical20 mg/1L
CreamTopical2.25 %
GelTopical2 g/100g
GelTopical2.5 g/100mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical0.64 g/127g
LotionTopical3 g/100g
CreamTopical3.9 g/100mL
CreamTopical3.9 g/100g
SprayTopical.05 g/100g
SprayTopical0.5 g/100g
GelTopical.5 g/100mL
SprayTopical200 g/1L
GelTopical0.025 g/1g
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.04 mg/1mg
Liquid; ointmentIntravenous; Topical
Kit; liquid; ointmentInfiltration; Parenteral; Subcutaneous; Topical
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration; Subcutaneous
PatchTopical560 mg/1
PatchTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
GelTopical5 mg/1g
PatchTransdermal567 mg/1
PatchTransdermal858 mg/1
PatchTransdermal40 mg/1
PatchBuccal46.1 mg/1
SuspensionIntra-articular; Intrabursal
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical50 mg/1g
Kit700 mg/1
KitInfiltration; Subcutaneous
CreamTopical0.5 g/10g
CreamTopical1.2 g/30g
CreamTopical1.5 g/30g
CreamTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5 %
SprayTopical10 mg/0.08mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Solution / dropsTopical4 g/100mL
KitTopical2 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1mL
LotionTopical4 g/1mL
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
GelTopical8 mg/1g
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical40 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical50 mg/1000mg
GelTopical50 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical50 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical4 mg/1mL
Liquid; sprayTopical
SprayTopical20 g/1000mL
GelTopical10 mg/1g
PatchTopical490 mg/1
LotionTopical3.5 g/100g
AerosolTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical500 g/100000mg
SprayCutaneous.50 g/100g
CreamTopical4 g/1mL
SprayTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical100 g/100g
GelTopical0.8 g/100g
CreamTopical45 mg/1mL
SoapTopical50 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntra-articular
Liquid; ointmentEpidural; Topical
SprayTopical.50 g/100g
LotionTopical.5 g/100mL
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional
KitIntra-articular; Intramuscular
GelTopical4 g/50g
Spray, meteredTopical96 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 g/4g
LotionTopical30 mg/1mL
LotionTopical30 mg/177mL
GelTopical4 g/100mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
OintmentTopical10 1/1
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical35.44 g/1g
OintmentTopical5 g/100g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous140 mg/1
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal4 mg/1
PatchTopical4 g/1g
PatchTopical50 mg/1g
OintmentTopical15 g/100g
CreamTopical0.03 g/1g
OintmentTopical30 g/100g
CreamTopical0.4 g/1g
CreamTopical3 mg/1g
CreamTopical30 mg/1g
CreamRectal; Topical
CreamTopical38.8 mg/1g
OintmentTopical4 g/100g
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
GelTopical30 mg/1g
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical200 mL/1L
LotionTopical3 g/100mL
LotionTopical5.31 mL/177mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOropharyngeal20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal40 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous800 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration
Injection, solutionInfiltration
GelOral2 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical39.2 mg/1mL
PatchTopical4 g/1
PatchTopical11 mg/1
SprayTopical20 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.9 g/30g
SprayTopical4.6 g/115g
CreamTopical10 g/100g
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous700 mg/1
PatchCutaneous700 mg/12h
LiquidCutaneous700 mg/1000mg
GelTopical3 mg/100mL
PatchTopical22.7 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.3 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.8 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical28.1 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical29 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical21.5 mg/0.24mg
LiquidAuricular (otic)
InjectionIntramuscular300 mg/3mL
CreamTopical32.5 mg/1g
KitTopical5 g/100g
KitTopical50 mg/1g
CreamTopical37.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical39.5 mg/1g
KitNot applicable
KitOral; Topical
GelTopical40 mg/1g
SprayTopical10 mg/0.1mL
GelTopical2.36 g/118mL
Spray, meteredTopical10 mg/100mL
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 mg/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
SprayTopical2 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical40 mg/1g
KitOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical5 g/100g
SprayTopical20 g/1L
GelTopical0.04 g/1g
LotionTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Intraspinal; Subcutaneous
LiquidTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical0.04 g/28g
LiquidTopical10 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Kit50 mg/1g
GelTopical2 g/100mL
SprayTopical24.64 mg/1mL
CreamTopical5 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical5 mg/30g
CreamTopical5 mg/100mL
SprayTopical0.04 mg/1mg
GelTopical.5 g/100g
LiquidDental; Subcutaneous
OilTopical8 mg/1mL
SuspensionAuricular (otic)
Liquid; ointmentSubcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical0.04 g/40g
LotionTopical40 mg/4mL
CreamTopical50 mg/1mL
CreamTopical3.86 g/100g
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
PatchTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical0.3 g/1
GelTopical7.128 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.13 mg/1mL
GelTopical2 mg/1g
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical41.2 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
LiquidEpidural; Intravenous
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical
CreamTopical400 mg/1mg
PatchTopical.005 mg/1g
OintmentTopical.005 mg/1g
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 g/100mL
OintmentTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical10 g/100g
GelTopical0.5 g/100g
PatchTopical600 mg/1g
PatchTopical240 mg/1
PatchTopical18 mg/116cm2
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitIntramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration
CreamTopical0.04 g/1g
CreamTopical0.05 g/1g
GelTopical20 mg/1g
GelTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 g/100g
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/1
CreamPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
LiquidPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
SprayTopical1.1 g/12g
LotionTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical30 mg/1mL
GelTopical11.9 g/234.6g
GelTopical40 mg/1mL
PatchCutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/14g
LiquidTopical125 mg/1mL
SprayTopical5 mg/1g
SprayTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.057 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.1258 mg/1mL
CreamTopical0.5 g/100g
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
SprayTopical96 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredTopical
AerosolTopical0.5 %
GelTopical5.05 g/1g
GelTopical1 g/100g
SprayTopical10 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical1.0 g/100g
OintmentTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidIntrathoracic; Subcutaneous
SprayTopical10 mg/100mL
GelTopical2.36 g/59g
SprayTopical2.36 g/59g
GelTopical5 %
GelTopical15 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SprayTopical2.5 g/100mL
KitTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayTopical0.5 mg/100mg
LiquidTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/1mL
InjectionDental20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration50 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
JellyTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural20 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal; Percutaneous1 %
LiquidPercutaneous1 %
AerosolOral; Topical
SolutionOral; Topical
SolutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidEpidural; Intracaudal
Spray, meteredBuccal
Aerosol, sprayTopical
Spray, meteredTopical
CreamTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical20 mg/1000mg
PowderIntradermal0.5 mg/1
PatchTopical36 mg/1
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rocephin 10 gm vial478.32USD each
Lidocaine HCl 3% Lotion 177ml Bottle230.3USD bottle
Rocephin 2 gm vial97.5USD each
Rocephin 1 gm vial62.02USD each
EMLA 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube58.4USD tube
Lidocaine-Prilocaine 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube47.79USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 10ml Syringe17.99USD syringe
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 30ml Tube17.99USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 50ml Bottle16.99USD bottle
Lidocaine Viscous 2% Solution 100ml Bottle13.99USD bottle
Lidocaine hcl 1% syringe9.76USD ml
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 4ml Bottle9.42USD bottle
Lidoderm 1 Box = 30 Patches8.03USD patch
Akten 3.5% drops7.5USD ml
Lidocaine 5% in d7.5w ampul3.06USD ml
Lidocaine 3% cream2.91USD g
Lidamantle 3% cream2.03USD g
Zilactin-l cold sore liquid0.99USD ml
Xylocaine 2% jelly0.68USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 10% vial0.55USD ml
Xylocaine 5% ointment0.42USD g
Xylocaine Jelly 2 % Jelly0.41USD g
Xylocaine 2% Solution0.34USD ml
Xylocaine 5 % Ointment0.29USD g
Lidocaine HCl 1% Solution0.24USD ml
Lidocaine hcl powder0.24USD g
Lidocaine base powder0.22USD g
Lidocaine hcl 4% solution0.18USD ml
Xylocaine 0.5% vial0.18USD ml
Lidodan 5 % Ointment0.16USD g
Xylocaine Viscous 2 % Liquid0.1USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 0.5% vial0.08USD ml
Solarcaine aerosol0.06USD g
Lidodan Viscous 2 % Liquid0.06USD ml
Lidocaine 2% viscous solution0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)68.5 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)159-160 °C at 2.00E+00 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility4100 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.44AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.76ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.21ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.01SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.593 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available


Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.18 KB)
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-38a47958df650b972703
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7a90fe8d9b35b745cfce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0920000000-f9f648594c0f1642cc4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0089-0900000000-5716ccc63e48696473bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d18ae1cd0a81ee63d35
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-83bc5908a67b3ba4b826
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-e305bfb01d615662d8a1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eab27554002663b2d3fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-1b684e31ff74300b808f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9466a1403df493f5b6e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c773b8e10c70518882c1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-00b6d0139ebe20cdb189
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-0b33ce49934844438e43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-502494c9626d1dca25d1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-86c007695ec40849f993
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-7f630b7fa4e36c59e0d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9060000000-b5aef137d8e488097fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b21ee69ce889ba36b5e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d7555c18e41a90508a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3dd6e01da50ad1a66b2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9230000000-577ea8a290877187b518
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-3f33ed4d35a979dbd732
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-343e9e6a26be64016b15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-c1923c77757d099538dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9ff21e9bcf3f87f70774
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eaebad6c7c4ce7832c9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e21612ecf5a40923bb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9050000000-930a3c8f94fdb363cc0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bc7800eef651a1a0ee2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a658a8aeac537602e1a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5a056c9766b47a19f0a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d649b0b05937216241a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-6090000000-31a60a2cff302fde1ad8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9020000000-da68f84a1fd4a905c98c
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as m-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a m-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 3-positions.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Trialkylamines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
M-xylene / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidic acid derivative / Carboximidic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, benzenes (CHEBI:6456)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
  1. Ekberg J, Jayamanne A, Vaughan CW, Aslan S, Thomas L, Mould J, Drinkwater R, Baker MD, Abrahamsen B, Wood JN, Adams DJ, Christie MJ, Lewis RJ: muO-conotoxin MrVIB selectively blocks Nav1.8 sensory neuron specific sodium channels and chronic pain behavior without motor deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 7;103(45):17030-5. Epub 2006 Oct 31. [PubMed:17077153]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
  1. Sheets PL, Jackson JO 2nd, Waxman SG, Dib-Hajj SD, Cummins TR: A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity. J Physiol. 2007 Jun 15;581(Pt 3):1019-31. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17430993]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
  1. Itoh H, Tsuji K, Sakaguchi T, Nagaoka I, Oka Y, Nakazawa Y, Yao T, Jo H, Ashihara T, Ito M, Horie M, Imoto K: A paradoxical effect of lidocaine for the N406S mutation of SCN5A associated with Brugada syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 18;121(3):239-48. Epub 2007 Apr 18. [PubMed:17445919]
  2. Fedida D, Orth PM, Hesketh JC, Ezrin AM: The role of late I and antiarrhythmic drugs in EAD formation and termination in Purkinje fibers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May;17 Suppl 1:S71-S78. [PubMed:16686685]
  3. Wallace CH, Baczko I, Jones L, Fercho M, Light PE: Inhibition of cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels by grape polyphenols. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;149(6):657-65. Epub 2006 Oct 3. [PubMed:17016511]
  4. Cerne A, Bergh C, Borg K, Ek I, Gejervall AL, Hillensjo T, Olofsson JI, Stener-Victorin E, Wood M, Westlander G: Pre-ovarian block versus paracervical block for oocyte retrieval. Hum Reprod. 2006 Nov;21(11):2916-21. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16840798]
  5. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  6. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TG...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Molecular Weight
134276.185 Da
  1. Sakaguchi M, Kuroda Y, Hirose M: The antiproliferative effect of lidocaine on human tongue cancer cells with inhibition of the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor. Anesth Analg. 2006 Apr;102(4):1103-7. [PubMed:16551906]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
  1. Leuwer M, Haeseler G, Hecker H, Bufler J, Dengler R, Aronson JK: An improved model for the binding of lidocaine and structurally related local anaesthetics to fast-inactivated voltage-operated sodium channels, showing evidence of cooperativity. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;141(1):47-54. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662728]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  2. Zhang J, Zhu J, Yao X, Duan Y, Zhou X, Yang M, Li X: Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Metabolized by CYP3A4 in Chinese Han Volunteers Living at Low Altitude and in Native Han and Tibetan Chinese Volunteers Living at High Altitude. Pharmacology. 2016;97(3-4):107-13. doi: 10.1159/000443332. Epub 2016 Jan 6. [PubMed:26730802]
  3. Mustajoki P, Mustajoki S, Rautio A, Arvela P, Pelkonen O: Effects of heme arginate on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drugs in patients with variegate porphyria and in healthy men. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Jul;56(1):9-13. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1994.94. [PubMed:8033500]
  4. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
  1. Masubuchi Y, Takahashii C, Fujio N, Horie T, Suzuki T, Imaoka S, Funae Y, Narimatsu S: Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes after repetitive administration of imipramine in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Sep;23(9):999-1003. [PubMed:8565792]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Wei X, Dai R, Zhai S, Thummel KE, Friedman FK, Vestal RE: Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P-450 1A2 by the class IB antiarrhythmics mexiletine, lidocaine, and tocainide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):853-8. [PubMed:10215663]
  4. Orlando R, Piccoli P, De Martin S, Padrini R, Floreani M, Palatini P: Cytochrome P450 1A2 is a major determinant of lidocaine metabolism in vivo: effects of liver function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jan;75(1):80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.09.007. [PubMed:14749694]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
  1. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. [PubMed:11743742]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  3. Hu Y, Qin X, Cao H, Yu S, Feng J: Reversal effects of local anesthetics on P-glycoprotein-mediated cancer multidrug resistance. Anticancer Drugs. 2017 Mar;28(3):243-249. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000455. [PubMed:27906699]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 30, 2020 00:49

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