Identification

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Name
Lidocaine
Accession Number
DB00281  (APRD00479, DB05291)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Ever since its discovery and availability for sale and use in the late 1940s, lidocaine has become an exceptionally commonly used medication 6. In particular, lidocaine's principal mode of action in acting as a local anesthetic that numbs the sensations of tissues means the agent is indicated for facilitating local anesthesia for a large variety of surgical procedures 10,7,8. It ultimately elicits its numbing activity by blocking sodium channels so that the neurons of local tissues that have the medication applied on are transiently incapable of signaling the brain regarding sensations 10,7,8. In doing so, however, it can block or decrease muscle contractile, resulting in effects like vasodilation, hypotension, and irregular heart rate, among others 10,7,8. As a result, lidocaine is also considered a class Ib anti-arrhythmic agent 7,8,12. Nevertheless, lidocaine's local anesthetic action sees its use in many medical situations or circumstances that may benefit from its action, including the treatment of premature ejaculation 5.

Regardless, lidocaine is currently available as a relatively non-expensive generic medication that is written for in millions of prescriptions internationally on a yearly basis. It is even included in the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines 9.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-2',6'-acetoxylidide
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
  • alpha-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
  • Lidocaína
  • Lidocaina
  • Lidocaine
  • Lignocaine
  • α-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
External IDs
ALGRX 3268 / ALGRX-3268 / LSM-3165 / NSC-40030
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Lidocaine hydrochlorideV13007Z41A6108-05-0YECIFGHRMFEPJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrousEC2CNF7XFP73-78-9IYBQHJMYDGVZRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution20 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
AccucaineInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationAsclemed Usa, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
AktenGel35 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.2008-10-08Not applicableUs
Ambator Lidocaine PatchPatch1 g/10gTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
Amniocentesis Tray 1%Liquid1 %Infiltration; SubcutaneousAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AnestheticGel5 g/100gTopicalCosmoceutical Research Center Inc2012-02-18Not applicableUs
Antecubital Cent Venous Catheterization KitLiquid1 %EpiduralArrow International1991-12-311999-07-02Canada
Apicaine-XOintment0.05 g/1gTopicalMedicap Laboratories Inc.2015-12-122016-02-17Us
Arthrogram Tray 1%Liquid1 %Intra-articularAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AsteroGel40 mg/1gTopicalAll Pharma, Llc2016-05-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-22Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-25Not applicableUs
AnestaconJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2001-11-05Not applicableUs
DermacinRx Lido V PakKit50 mg/1gTopicalPureTek Corporation2016-09-22Not applicableUs
DermacinRx PHN PakKit700 mg/1PureTek Corporation2016-05-17Not applicableUs
GlydoJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Laryng-O-JetSolution40 mg/1mLTopicalAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1980-03-062010-09-09Us
Lidenzal 1%Injection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
Lidenzal 2%Injection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
LidocainePatch50 mg/1gCutaneousLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2014-05-02Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4019 First Aid KitKit2 g/100gTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4043 First Aid KitKit2 g/100gHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
Absorbine jr. LidocainePatch246 mg/1TopicalClarion Brands, Llc2017-01-01Not applicableUs
ADVANCED NUMB Topical AnestheticCream50 mg/1gTopicalUber Scientific, Llc2018-04-20Not applicableUs
After BurnGel25 mg/1mLTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-12Not applicableUs
After Sun Burn Relief Lidocaine Continuous SpraySolution1 %TopicalPrime Enterprises, Inc.2010-04-08Not applicableCanada
After Sun GelGel1 %TopicalWatkins IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
After Sun Soothing SprayLiquid; Spray0.5 %TopicalKinesys Pharmaceutical Inc1995-03-17Not applicableCanada
AfterBurnGel0.5 %TopicalTender Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
AfterBurnGel2.5 g/100gTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-122011-04-12Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
10 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%Lidocaine (4 g/1) + Capsaicin (0.025 g/1) + Levomenthol (5 g/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 g/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
1st RELIEF TOPICALLidocaine (40 mg/1mL) + Levomenthol (10 mg/1mL)SprayTopical1st Class Pharmaceuticals2014-12-02Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Epinephrine (0.01 mg)LiquidInfiltrationAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2008-12-01Not applicableCanada
25 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
3 Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-012013-01-30Us
3-Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (100 mg/10mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (11 mg/10mL) + Povidone-iodine (100 mg/10mL)KitTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-01Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4013 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%-rxLidocaine (4 1/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 1/1) + Levomenthol (5 1/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 1/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4013 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4019 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4032 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4042 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-21Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
After Burn Double Strength Gel / After Burn Double Strength Spray / After Burn Gel / After Burn Spray / Alphacaine / Anestacon Jelly / DermaFlex / Dilocaine / Esracaine / L-Caine / Lidoject-1 / Lidoject-2 / LidoPain SP / Norwood Sunburn Spray
Categories
UNII
98PI200987
CAS number
137-58-6
Weight
Average: 234.3373
Monoisotopic: 234.173213336
Chemical Formula
C14H22N2O
InChI Key
NNJVILVZKWQKPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H22N2O/c1-5-16(6-2)10-13(17)15-14-11(3)8-7-9-12(14)4/h7-9H,5-6,10H2,1-4H3,(H,15,17)
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CCN(CC)CC(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C

Pharmacology

Indication

Lidocaine is an anesthetic of the amide group indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks 10,7.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Excessive blood levels of lidocaine can cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure 10,7. With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to the block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system, and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present 10,7. The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded 10,7.

In particular, such cardiac effects are likely associated with the principal effect that lidocaine elicits when it binds and blocks sodium channels, inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of electrical action potential impulses necessary to facilitate muscle contraction 10,7,8. Subsequently, in cardiac myocytes, lidocaine can potentially block or otherwise slow the rise of cardiac action potentials and their associated cardiac myocyte contractions, resulting in possible effects like hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and perhaps cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse 10,7,8.

Moreover, lidocaine possesses a dissociation constant (pKa) of 7.7 and is considered a weak base 8. As a result, about 25% of lidocaine molecules will be un-ionized and available at the physiological pH of 7.4 to translocate inside nerve cells, which means lidocaine elicits an onset of action more rapidly than other local anesthetics that have higher pKa values 8. This rapid onset of action is demonstrated in about one minute following intravenous injection and fifteen minutes following intramuscular injection 7. The administered lidocaine subsequently spreads rapidly through the surrounding tissues and the anesthetic effect lasts approximately ten to twenty minutes when given intravenously and about sixty to ninety minutes after intramuscular injection 7.

Nevertheless, it appears that the efficacy of lidocaine may be minimized in the presence of inflammation 8. This effect could be due to acidosis decreasing the amount of un-ionized lidocaine molecules, a more rapid reduction in lidocaine concentration as a result of increased blood flow, or potentially also because of increased production of inflammatory mediators like peroxynitrite that elicit direct actions on sodium channels 8.

Mechanism of action

Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type 10,7,8. It is used to provide local anesthesia by nerve blockade at various sites in the body 10,7,8. It does so by stabilizing the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action 10,7,8. In particular, the lidocaine agent acts on sodium ion channels located on the internal surface of nerve cell membranes 10,7,8. At these channels, neutral uncharged lidocaine molecules diffuse through neural sheaths into the axoplasm where they are subsequently ionized by joining with hydrogen ions 10,7,8. The resultant lidocaine cations are then capable of reversibly binding the sodium channels from the inside, keeping them locked in an open state that prevents nerve depolarization 10,7,8. As a result, with sufficient blockage, the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will ultimately not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential 10,7,8. This facilitates an anesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain but by aborting their generation in the first place 10,7,8.

In addition to blocking conduction in nerve axons in the peripheral nervous system, lidocaine has important effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system 10,7,8. After absorption, lidocaine may cause stimulation of the CNS followed by depression and in the cardiovascular system, it acts primarily on the myocardium where it may produce decreases in electrical excitability, conduction rate, and force of contraction 10,7,8.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
UEpidermal growth factor receptor
antagonist
Humans
USodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
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Absorption

In general, lidocaine is readily absorbed across mucous membranes and damaged skin but poorly through intact skin 12. The agent is quickly absorbed from the upper airway, tracheobronchial tree, and alveoli into the bloodstream 12. And although lidocaine is also well absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract the oral bioavailability is only about 35% as a result of a high degree of first-pass metabolism 12. After injection into tissues, lidocaine is also rapidly absorbed and the absorption rate is affected by both vascularity and the presence of tissue and fat capable of binding lidocaine in the particular tissues 12.

The concentration of lidocaine in the blood is subsequently affected by a variety of aspects, including its rate of absorption from the site of injection, the rate of tissue distribution, and the rate of metabolism and excretion 10,7,8. Subsequently, the systemic absorption of lidocaine is determined by the site of injection, the dosage given, and its pharmacological profile 10,7,8. The maximum blood concentration occurs following intercostal nerve blockade followed in order of decreasing concentration, the lumbar epidural space, brachial plexus site, and subcutaneous tissue 10,7,8. The total dose injected regardless of the site is the primary determinant of the absorption rate and blood levels achieved 10,7,8. There is a linear relationship between the amount of lidocaine injected and the resultant peak anesthetic blood levels 10,7,8.

Nevertheless, it has been observed that lidocaine hydrochloride is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending also on lipid solubility and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent 10,7,8. Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration 10,7,8.

Additionally, lidocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion 10.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution determined for lidocaine is 0.7 to 1.5 L/kg 8.

In particular, lidocaine is distributed throughout the total body water 7. Its rate of disappearance from the blood can be described by a two or possibly even three-compartment model 7. There is a rapid disappearance (alpha phase) which is believed to be related to uptake by rapidly equilibrating tissues (tissues with high vascular perfusion, for example) 7. The slower phase is related to distribution to slowly equilibrating tissues (beta phase) and to its metabolism and excretion (gamma phase) 7.

Lidocaine's distribution is ultimately throughout all body tissues 7. In general, the more highly perfused organs will show higher concentrations of the agent 7. The highest percentage of this drug will be found in skeletal muscle, mainly due to the mass of muscle rather than an affinity 7.

Protein binding

The protein binding recorded for lidocaine is about 60 to 80% and is dependent upon the plasma concentration of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 10,8. Such percentage protein binding bestows lidocaine with a medium duration of action when placed in comparison to other local anesthetic agents 8.

Metabolism

Lidocaine is metabolized predominantly and rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys 10,7. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation 10,7. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide 10,7. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine HCl 10,7. Approximately 90% of lidocaine HCl administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged 10,7. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline 10,7.

Route of elimination

The excretion of unchanged lidocaine and its metabolites occurs predominantly via the kidney with less than 5% in the unchanged form appearing in the urine 10,7. The renal clearance is inversely related to its protein binding affinity and the pH of the urine 7. This suggests by the latter that excretion of lidocaine occurs by non-ionic diffusion 7.

Half life

The elimination half-life of lidocaine hydrochloride following an intravenous bolus injection is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours 10. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine hydrochloride is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine HCl kinetics 10. The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction 10.

Clearance

The mean systemic clearance observed for intravenously administered lidocaine in a study of 15 adults was approximately 0.64 +/- 0.18 L/min 11.

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose and/or acute systemic toxicity involves central nervous system toxicity that presents with symptoms of increasing severity 7. Patients may present initially with circumoral paraesthesia, numbness of the tongue, light-headedness, hyperacusis, and tinnitus 7. Visual disturbance and muscular tremors or muscle twitching are more serious and precede the onset of generalized convulsions 7. These signs must not be mistaken for neurotic behavior 7. Unconsciousness and grand mal convulsions may follow, which may last from a few seconds to several minutes 7. Hypoxia and hypercapnia occur rapidly following convulsions due to increased muscular activity, together with the interference with normal respiration and loss of the airway 7. In severe cases, apnoea may occur. Acidosis increases the toxic effects of local anesthetics 7. Effects on the cardiovascular system may be seen in severe cases 7. Hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest may occur as a result of high systemic concentrations, with potentially fatal outcome 7.

Pregnancy Category B has been established for the use of lidocaine in pregnancy, although there are no formal, adequate, and well-controlled studies in pregnant women 10. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place 10. Ultimately, although animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, lidocaine should not be administered during early pregnancy unless the benefits are considered to outweigh the risks 7. Lidocaine readily crosses the placental barrier after epidural or intravenous administration to the mother 7. The ratio of umbilical to maternal venous concentration is 0.5 to 0.6 7. The fetus appears to be capable of metabolizing lidocaine at term 7. The elimination half-life in the newborn of the drug received in utero is about three hours, compared with 100 minutes in the adult 7. Elevated lidocaine levels may persist in the newborn for at least 48 hours after delivery 7. Fetal bradycardia or tachycardia, neonatal bradycardia, hypotonia or respiratory depression may occur 7.

Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudendal or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity 10. The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration 10. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function 10.

Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia 10. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves 10. Elevating the patient’s legs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure 10. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable 10.

Epidural, spinal, paracervical, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts 10. In one study, paracervical block anesthesia was associated with a decrease in the mean duration of first stage labor and facilitation of cervical dilation 10. However, spinal and epidural anesthesia have also been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the parturient’s reflex urge to bear down or by interfering with motor function 10. The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance 10.

The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life 10. The long-term significance of these observations is unknown 10. Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis 10. Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia 10. The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress 10. Careful adherence to the recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block 10. Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection 10. Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both. Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours 10. Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication 10.

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk 10. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman 10.

Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition 10.

The oral LD 50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346-773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159-324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats 10.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
7-NitroindazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Lidocaine.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
9-aminocamptothecinThe metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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    Action

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US2441498A
General References
  1. Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N: Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004846. [PubMed:17443559]
  2. Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA, Cohn K, Steinbrunn W, Cudihee R, Rowland M: Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease, and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med. 1973 Apr;78(4):499-508. [PubMed:4694036]
  3. Geha PY, Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AV: Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapy. Pain. 2007 Mar;128(1-2):88-100. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17067740]
  4. Hines R, Keaney D, Moskowitz MH, Prakken S: Use of lidocaine patch 5% for chronic low back pain: a report of four cases. Pain Med. 2002 Dec;3(4):361-5. [PubMed:15099246]
  5. Authors unspecified: Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation. Drug Ther Bull. 2017 Apr;55(4):45-48. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2017.4.0469. [PubMed:28408390]
  6. Scriabine, Alexander (2017). Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health.. Chemical Heritage Press.. [ISBN:9780941901215]
  7. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Lidocaine 1% w/v solution for injection Monograph [Link]
  8. StatPearls Internet: Lidocaine Profile [Link]
  9. World Health Organization Model Lists of Essential Medicines [Link]
  10. Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl Injection, USP) FDA Label [File]
  11. University of Virginia Children's Hospital: Use of Lidocaine for Analgesia in Children and Adolescents, by Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D., FCCP, FPPAG [File]
  12. Cytochrome P450-mediated drug interactions affecting lidocaine by Mika Isohanni [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014426
KEGG Drug
D00358
KEGG Compound
C07073
PubChem Compound
3676
PubChem Substance
46505060
ChemSpider
3548
BindingDB
50017662
ChEBI
6456
ChEMBL
CHEMBL79
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000121
PharmGKB
PA450226
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
LQZ
Wikipedia
Lidocaine
ATC Codes
S01HA07 — LidocaineD04AB01 — LidocaineS02DA01 — LidocaineC01BB01 — LidocaineR02AD02 — LidocaineN01BB52 — Lidocaine, combinationsC05AD01 — LidocaineN01BB02 — Lidocaine
AHFS Codes
  • 84:08.00 — Antipruritics and Local Anesthetics
  • 24:04.00 — Cardiac Drugs
  • 24:04.04.08 — Class Ib Antiarrythmics
  • 52:16.00 — Local Anesthetics
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
PDB Entries
3jqz / 3ttr
FDA label
Download (548 KB)
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherHeat Effect1
0CompletedBasic ScienceMorton's neuralgia1
0CompletedHealth Services ResearchPain NOS1
0CompletedSupportive CareAddition of Hyalase to Local Anesthetic in Scalp Block1
0CompletedSupportive CareCutaneous Abscess / Pain NOS1
0CompletedTreatmentChorionic Villi Sampling1
0CompletedTreatmentSurgical Anesthesia, Cesarean Section1
0CompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Disorders1
0CompletedTreatmentTinnitus1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Controls1
0Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchGeneral Population1
0Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBariatric Surgery Candidate1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung / Pleural Effusion, Malignant1
0RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancers1
0RecruitingTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
0WithdrawnPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherSurgery, Colorectal1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceNociceptive Pain / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnaesthesia therapy1
1CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
1CompletedPreventionIntradermal Electroporation1
1CompletedPreventionOther Preterm Infants1
1CompletedSupportive CareEtomidate Overdose of Undetermined Intent1
1CompletedTreatment"Lost" IUD / Lost IUD1
1CompletedTreatmentCoughing1
1CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Pain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentIpsilateral Shoulder Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous1
1CompletedTreatmentPain Management / Pregnancy Termination1
1CompletedTreatmentProvoked Vestibulodynia / Provoked, Localized Vulvodynia / Vulvar Vestibulitis / Vulvodynia1
1CompletedTreatmentRadicular syndrome / Sciatica1
1CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Neoplasms, Brain1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1RecruitingTreatmentCraniotomy / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentIntermetatarsal Neuroma1
1RecruitingTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute-onset Herpes Zoster Pain1
1TerminatedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
1WithdrawnTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1, 2CompletedPreventionHemodynamic Changes Due to Propofol Injection / Pain Due to Propofol Injection1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionBariatric Surgery Candidate / BMI >30 kg/m21
1, 2RecruitingPreventionChemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) / Colorectal Cancers / Painful Neuropathy1
1, 2TerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentInjuries and Wounds1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management After Total Hip Arthroplasty1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Prostate Cancer / PSA Level Greater Than or Equal to 0.2 / PSA Progression / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Neuropathic Pain1
2CompletedPreventionDysmenorrhea1
2CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Knee Joint Osteoarthrosis / Severe Movement Related Pain1
2CompletedPreventionNormal Pulp/ Pulpitis1
2CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
2CompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative paralytic ileus1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anesthesia Efficacy1
2CompletedSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareNeedle Phobia / Pain NOS1
2CompletedSupportive CareOral Mucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareSupratentorial Craniotomy Dysfunction1
2CompletedTreatmentAllodynia / Central Neuropathic Pain / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Local Infiltration1
2CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Pain NOS / Venipuncture1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea / Endometriosis1
2CompletedTreatmentFascicular Block / Latency Period / Motor Activities / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids1
2CompletedTreatmentHip Pain Etiology Unknown1
2CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
2CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
2CompletedTreatmentLeiomyomas1
2CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS4
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Palliative Care / Phlebotomy1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic / Vasoocclusive Sickle Cell Crises Pains1
2CompletedTreatmentPatellar Tendinopathy1
2CompletedTreatmentPostherpetic Neuralgia2
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Impingement Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentShoulder Pain / Strokes1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
2CompletedTreatmentVulvodynia1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntubations / Stellate Ganglion1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAllodynic Symptoms / Localized Neuropathic Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics, Local1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma / Prostate Adenocarcinoma With Focal Neuroendocrine Differentiation / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchistosoma infection / Schistosoma Japonicum Infection / Schistosomiasis Mansoni1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentUrethral Strictures1
2RecruitingPreventionIntraoperative Bleeding1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Pain Syndrome / Interstitial Cystitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumor / Her2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Scar Pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Polyneuropathy / Peripheral Neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
2RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Delivery / Valve Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Wounds Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache / Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2TerminatedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Malignant1
2TerminatedTreatmentDry Macular Degeneration1
2TerminatedTreatmentPruritus1
2TerminatedTreatmentVulvar Vestibulitis1
2Unknown StatusPreventionCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents / Strokes1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeoplasms / Pain NOS1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPhantom Limb Pain (PLP) / Primary/Secondary Scar Hyperalgesia1
2, 3CompletedOtherLocal Anesthesia1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain Relief During Prostate Biopsy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Catheterizations / Spasms1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Zoster Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterferential Current Drug Delivery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Lung Disease (ILD) / Lung Cancers / Sarcoidosis / Tuberculosis Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Surgical Abortion1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain and Anxiety1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Pain Relief1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiscomfort / Pain NOS1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy / Myomectomy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2, 3SuspendedSupportive CareCancer-related Pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentElective Surgical Procedure / Surgery, Colorectal1
2, 3Unknown StatusPreventionWe Focus on the Pain of Venipuncture and Intravenous Cannulation1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAchilles Tendinopathy / Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy / Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy / Mid-Portion Achilles Tendinopathy / Non-Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHemorrhoids1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentContraception / Lidocaine1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUndernutrition1
3CompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery1
3CompletedDiagnosticGynecologic Diseases1
3CompletedDiagnosticPostoperative pain1
3CompletedOtherBreast Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionBariatric Surgical Pain1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Post-surgical Pain / Post-mastectomy Pain Syndrome1
3CompletedPreventionElective Major Abdominal Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionRadiation Dermatitis1
3CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Tiredness1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedSupportive CareProcedural Pain Relief1
3CompletedSupportive CareSubtenon Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Indigestion / Intestinal Malabsorption1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
3CompletedTreatmentAnkle Sprains1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
3CompletedTreatmentContraception1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentFacial Wrinkles at the Nasolabial Folds1
3CompletedTreatmentForearm and Arm Surgery1
3CompletedTreatmentInguinal Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
3CompletedTreatmentLidocaine Adverse Reaction / Prilocaine Adverse Reaction1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentMastectomy1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Submental Fullness1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
3CompletedTreatmentNonviable Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentPain Management, Cervical Preparation1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS11
3CompletedTreatmentPain Teeth1
3CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Neuropathy1
3CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)2
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative paralytic ileus1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wound site1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3RecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionCoughing1
3RecruitingPreventionLabour Pain1
3RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbortion in First Trimester / Pain Uterus / Spontaneous Abortions1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Musculoskeletal Disease / Emergency / Pain, Acute / Sprains / Sprains and Strains / Traumas / Traumatic Injuries1
3RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Modic I Discopathy1
3RecruitingTreatmentBronchiectasis Adult / Bronchopulmonary Diseases / Chest--Diseases / Infiltrates / Lung Cancers / Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy / Pneumonia1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarcinologic Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Surgery1
3RecruitingTreatmentCastration Levels of Testosterone / Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
3RecruitingTreatmentCatheter site pain / Local Anesthesia / Pain, Acute1
3RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Local Anesthesia / Sedation, Conscious1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Pain With Neuropathic Component1
3RecruitingTreatmentMigraine1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
3RecruitingTreatmentUterine Hemorrhage1
3TerminatedPreventionTransient Neurologic Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Diseases / Pain NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentBursitis / Periarthritis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentFibromyalgia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentParathyroid Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareNerve Monitoring / Thyroidectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCystoscopy / Lidocaine / Pain Perception1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia / Caudal epidural block therapy / Orthopaedic Disorders1
4CompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain of Anesthesia at Breast Biopsy1
4CompletedNot AvailablePeriodontal Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableUterine Leiomyomas1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHunger1
4CompletedOtherPain NOS1
4CompletedOtherPeriodontitis1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthesia of Mucous Membrane1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Morbidity / Intubation Complications1
4CompletedPreventionChildbirth / Parturients1
4CompletedPreventionEsophagogastroduodenoscopy1
4CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionImproving Quality of Life1
4CompletedPreventionLaminectomy1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Infections1
4CompletedPreventionOpioid Consumption, Postoperative / Postoperative Fatigue / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS2
4CompletedPreventionPain on Injection of Propofol,Lidocaine, Alkalinized Lidocaine1
4CompletedPreventionPost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
4CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
4CompletedScreeningPostoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedSupportive CareArterial Catheterization1
4CompletedSupportive CareCervical Pain / Pelvic Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCognitive Function Abnormal / Intraoperative Monitoring / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareElectrodiagnosis1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntravenous Anesthetic Interaction "Unrecognized Condition" / Intravenous Anesthetic Interaction Unrecognized Condition1
4CompletedSupportive CareLeukemias / Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS5
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic / Postmastectomy Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareQuality of Ocular Akinesia (Onset and Duration)1
4CompletedSupportive CareSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute and Chronic Non-radicular LBP1
4CompletedTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Effects1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / IUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesic Requirement / Inadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Postoperative pain / Return of Bowel Activity / Stress Response1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Diabetic Neuropathies / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Spinal Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Cervical Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentBimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle / Post Operative Analgesia Duration / Saphenous Nerve Block / Sciatic Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBlock Level / Gastrointestinal Surgery / Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCanal Syndrome / Pudendal Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) / Diabetic Neuropathies / HIV Neuropathy / Idiopathic Sensory Neuropathy / Peripheral Neuropathy / Postherpetic Neuralgia1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Cough (CC)1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Injection / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentDermatitis Papillaris Capillitii / Tattooing1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Periodontitis, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis of the Elbow1
4CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis, Lateral Humeral / Lateral Epicondylitis1
4CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Nausea / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentFissure;Anal / Fistula;Rectal / Hemorrhoids1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHallux Valgus1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentIUD Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentIV Insertion Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedTreatmentInjections, Spinal / Morphine / Patients Satisfaction / Prostatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Intravenous Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentIntravenous Injections1
4CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Arthroplasty, Total1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia for Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia of the Skin2
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome / Myofascial Trigger Point Pain / Orthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain) / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentNose Deformities, Acquired1
4CompletedTreatmentOpen Reduction Internal Fixation(ORIF) of Lateral Malleolus1
4CompletedTreatmentNeurocostal neuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Associated With Epidural Needle Insertion1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS7
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain on IV Injection of Propofol1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentOr Peripheral Nerve Injury (PNI) / Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (PNP) Due to Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN)1
4CompletedTreatmentPersistent Post-menpausal Bleeding / Uterine Leiomyomas / Uterine Malignancies1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative paralytic ileus1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Atskin Graft Site1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sore Throat, Cough, Hoarseness1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Propofol Target-controlled Infusion / Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentThermal Burns1
4CompletedTreatmentTinnitus1
4CompletedTreatmentTolerance1
4CompletedTreatmentTopical Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentGallstone formation1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-pancreatectomy1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherForehead Rhytides / Forehead Wrinkles1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCritical Illness1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPain During Hystroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Related Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionThroat Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionUrinary Catheter Discomfort in Surgical Patients1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Anesthesia Intubation Complications / Anesthesia; Adverse Effect1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareGynecologic Cancers / Sexual Dysfunctions1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareHysteroscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia, Dental / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebrospinal Fluid Leaks / Postdural Puncture Headache / Spinal; Puncture, Complications, Headache1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntravenous Lidocaine and Immunity1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Spinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMigraine in Children / Posttraumatic Headache1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopedic Procedures1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lidocaine Improves Pain Control After Surgery by Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Surgery1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4RecruitingDiagnosticFemale Infertility of Tubal Origin1
4RecruitingOtherLocal Anesthesia / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Chronic Lung Diseases / Lung Inflammation / Postoperative Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionAnginal Pain / Coronary Artery Disease / Radial Artery Spasm1
4RecruitingPreventionHemodynamics Instability1
4RecruitingPreventionNeurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4RecruitingPreventionThroat Disorder1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia, Intravenous; Surgery, Plastic1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAny Condition Requiring Vulvar Biopsy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAppendicitis Acute / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS / Satisfaction, Consumer1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy / Children, Only / Tonsillar Hypertrophy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Urolithiasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Drug Dependence1
4RecruitingTreatmentArrhythmias Ventricular1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical Radiculitis / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentContraception / Intrauterine Device1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Colon Resection / Perioperative analgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentLidocaine1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraine2
4RecruitingTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Stress Incontinence, Female1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Rib Fracture Multiple / Trauma Chest1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Radiating1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Renal Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentRadiculopathy, Cervical2
4RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Transurethral Resection / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
4RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive / Urinary Incontinence (UI) / Voiding Disorders1
4SuspendedNot AvailableOnset and Duration of a Digital Nerve Block1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4SuspendedSupportive CareLocal Anesthesia / Wounds1
4TerminatedDiagnosticPain NOS1
4TerminatedPreventionNausea / Occasional Constipation / Pain NOS / Vomiting1
4TerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentAbscesses1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthritis Multiple Joint / Basal Thumb Joint Arthritis / Basilar Joint Arthritis / Carpometacarpal Arthritis / Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentCicatrix1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4TerminatedTreatmentFace Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentForearm Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4TerminatedTreatmentNasolabial Folds1
4TerminatedTreatmentPelvic Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
4TerminatedTreatmentShoulder Pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentTrigger Finger Disorder1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableDependence, Cocaine1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableEndophthalmitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceColorectal Cancers1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDrug Usage1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGynecological Pathologies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionOral Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareInjection Site Irritation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCholecystolithiasis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDilatation and Evacuation / Laminaria Placement / Pain Alleviation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFractures of the Distal Radius1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication / Pain Control1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInfraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPlanned Abdominal Hysterectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Agitation of Patients1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRetinal Detachment1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Elderly / Surgeries Requiring A Minimum One Day Hospitalization1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAbdominal Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome / Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4WithdrawnTreatmentBursitis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCataract Surgery Anesthesia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingScreeningCutaneous Melanoma / Healthy Volunteers / Melanocytic naevus / Skin Carcinoma1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Phyllodes Breast Tumor1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHeel Fat Pad Atrophy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNeedle Insertion and Injection Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHair removal therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrythmias / Blood Electrolyte Balance / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Myocardial Injury / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFemoroacetabular Impingement1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHemodynamic Response1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMethaemoglobinaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTrigger Finger1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableWound Healing Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Foot Proned Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBronchopulmonary Diseases2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticNeuroma / Pain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBronchoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Nausea and Vomiting, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Tourniquets1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdult Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAgitation States as Acute Reaction to Gross Stress1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Coughing / Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCognitive Decline1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGallbladder disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIntrauterine Device / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMyoma of Uterus1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeoplasm, Gastric1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOther Intraoperative Cardiac Functional Disturbances During Cardiac Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS3
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPancreatitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPharyngitis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionThyroidectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing Phacoemulsification With Topical Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCataracts1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInfertilities1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInflammatory Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLumbar Radiculopathy Due to Spinal Nerve Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine as an Adjuvant to L. A in Peribulbar Block for Cataract Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS5
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Urinary Stress Incontinence1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdductor Canal Block / Anaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAllergic Skin Reaction / Anxiety Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Surgery--Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Local / Blood Levels of Buffered vs Non-buffered Lidocaine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Osteoarthritis Nos, of Sacroiliac Joint / Sprain of Sacroiliac Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBirth Injuries / Laceration / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDermal Pharmacokinetic Measurements / Dermatology/Skin - Other1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pain NOS / Peripheral Neuropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElective Total or Subtotal Abdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndometriosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentForearm Fractures / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentJellyfish Stings1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLateral Epicondylitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Postoperative pain / Self-Perception1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Topical Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMacular Degeneration1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMigraine2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeed for Urethral Catheterization to Rule Out Urinary Tract Infection / Pediatric Presentation of Urinary Tract Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control for Intrauterine Device Insertions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Intensity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS14
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPartial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPelvic Floor Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPerioperative Chest Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination / Uterine Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSacroiliitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVestibulodynia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBrain Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Central Nervous System Diseases / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Cerebrovascular Stroke / Ischemia, Brain / Nervous System Diseases / Strokes / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceArm Injury1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherAneurysm, Cerebral1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAirway Complication of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Spinal Puncture1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cough / Postoperative Sore Throat1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetics / Bupivacaine / Lidocaine / Mohs Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Dislocation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Mastectomy / Post Operative Pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDental Fear / Local Anesthesia / Pediatric Dentistry1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Lidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLidocaine / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain / Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Peripheral Nerve Blocks / Sedation therapy / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chest / Respiratory Failure / Rib Fracture Multiple / Thoracic Injury / Trauma Chest1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSciatic Radiculopathy / Sciatica / Sciatica Due to Intervertebral Disc Disorder1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCapsaicin / Lidocaine / Pain, Neuropathic / Ultaviolet B Light Burn1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCowhage / Histamine / Itching / Serotonine / Thermal Stimulation1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticDysuria / Hematuria / Recurrent Uti1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherCircumcision / Postoperative pain / Regional Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDermal Pharmacokinetic Measurement / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Nausea and Vomiting, Postoperative1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUpper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAbdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionKidney Transplant; Complications1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLower Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMetal Staple Removal After Total Knee Replacement1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNulliparity1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareIntravenous Injections / Vaccination1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInvasive Bladder Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareRespiratory Failure / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP) / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Swallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAccessory Nerve Injuries / EMG: Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Abnormality / Neck Cancer / Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries / Thyroid Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArthritis / Back Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Opioids Use / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis / Injections1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBlepharoptosis / Procidentia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIUD Insertion Complication1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHysterosalpingography / Infertility, Female1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLeg Injuries / Orthopedic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNasal Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNephrectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPilonidal Sinus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThe Comparison of the I-gel and Endotracheal Tube About in Different Ventilation Settings During Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticLabour Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionAsymptomatic Gallstones Without Cholecystitis / Gallbladder Polyps1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionIntubation; Difficult1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionLaryngospasm1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar Puncture / Meningitis / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar and Other Intervertebral Disc Disorders With Radiculopathy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMigraine1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCesarean Delivery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailablePlantar Warts1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAnesthetics, Local1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionContraception1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionThroat Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareOverweight and Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentInfertilities1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain During and After Endovenous Laser Obliteration of Large Saphenous Vein Based on Lidocaine Tumescent Concentration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRenal Stones / Ureteral Calculus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTuberculosis Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAirway Complication of Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnDiagnosticInterstitial Cystitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionSpinal Puncture Complications1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareNasal Pack Removal1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAdhesive Capsulitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLabour / Pregnant State1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNasolabial Folds Correction / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPlantar fascial fibromatosis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Noven pharmaceuticals inc
  • Carlisle laboratories inc
  • E fougera div altana inc
  • Graham chemical co
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teikoku pharma usa inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Akorn inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Dell laboratories inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication systems ltd
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Miles laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Dentsply pharmaceutical
  • Polymedica industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Kendall co
  • Paco research corp
  • Anesiva inc
Packagers
  • 4uOrtho LLC
  • A. Aarons Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Aerospace Accessory Service Inc.
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amend
  • American Dental Cooperative Inc.
  • American Regent
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Aristos Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Ato Zizine Sarl
  • Auriga Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Avent Inc.
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Benco Dental Co.
  • Blairex Labs
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Brookstone Pharmaceuticals
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Cardent International Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carestream Health Inc.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Codman and Shurtleff Inc.
  • Covidien LP
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Deltex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • DENTSPLY International
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doak Dermatologics
  • DSC Laboratories
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Eastman Kodak Co. Dental Products
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Enterprises Importfab Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Fresca Gourmet Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • H Meer Dental Supply Co.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kent Dental
  • Klosterfrau Berlin GmbH
  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
  • Laboratorios Zeyco SA De CV
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Martica Enterprises Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medical Components Inc.
  • Medical Techniques LLC
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • National Pharmaceuticals
  • NeLLCor Puritan Bennett Mexico SA De CV
  • Nord Ost Corp.
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Novocol Pharmaceutical Canada
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Odan Laboratories Ltd.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patterson Dental Supply Inc.
  • Pharmaderm
  • Pharmedium
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Raz Co. Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxane Labs
  • S&P Healthcare
  • Safco Dental Supply Co.
  • Sandoz
  • Septodont Inc.
  • Sheffield Laboratories Div Faria Limited LLC
  • Smiths Medical ASD Inc.
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Tech Group Tempe
  • Teikoku Seiyaku Co. Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tri State Hospital Supply Corp.
  • Veratex Corp.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vyteris Inc.
  • Wallach Surgical Devices Inc.
  • Welch Allyn Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
KitTopical
KitTopical2 g/100g
Kit2 g/100g
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Topical
KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
LiquidSubarachnoid
KitOral; Topical
GelTopical25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
SolutionTopical1 %
Liquid; sprayTopical0.5 %
GelTopical0.5 %
GelOphthalmic35 mg/1mL
GelTopical5 mg/1mL
OintmentTopical4 g/100mL
SwabTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/1g
PatchTopical1 g/10g
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous1 %
GelTopical2 g/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical4 g/100g
GelTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5 g/100mL
LiquidEpidural1 %
CreamTopical
OintmentTopical0.05 g/1g
Kit; liquidIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidIntra-articular1 %
PatchTopical246 mg/1
PatchTopical411.4 mg/1
LotionTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical422 mg/1
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/100g
Kit4 g/100g
ImplantIntradermal.3 %
PatchCutaneous
GelTopical4.1 mg/1mL
PatchTopical; Transdermal
GelTopical0.7 %
LiquidTopical2 %
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural; Topical
CreamTopical2 %
GelTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2.00 g/100g
CreamTopical2.8 g/56g
CreamTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical10 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical3.4 g/68mL
SprayTopical20 g/1L
SprayTopical20 mg/1L
CreamTopical2.25 %
GelTopical2 g/100g
GelTopical2.5 g/100mL
LotionTopical3 g/100g
CreamTopical3.9 g/100g
CreamTopical3.9 g/100mL
GelTopical0.72 %
SprayTopical.05 g/100g
SprayTopical0.5 g/100g
GelTopical.5 g/100mL
SprayTopical200 g/1L
SprayTopical
SprayTopical2.4 %
GelTopical5.05 g/1g
GelTopical0.025 g/1g
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
CreamTopical0.04 mg/1mg
GelTopical1.0 %
GelTopical20 mg
Liquid; ointmentIntravenous; Topical
Kit; liquid; ointmentInfiltration; Parenteral; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration; Subcutaneous
PatchTopical560 mg/1
CreamTopical4 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
GelTopical5 mg/1g
RinseTopical
PatchTransdermal40 mg/1
PatchBuccal46.1 mg/1
SolutionIntra-articular; Intrabursal
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical50 mg/1g
Kit700 mg/1
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
CreamTopical0.5 g/10g
CreamTopical1.2 g/30g
CreamTopical1.5 g/30g
CreamTopical5 g/100g
InjectionRetrobulbar
KitBuccal; Topical
SprayTopical10 mg/0.08mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Solution / dropsTopical4 g/100mL
Kit2 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayTopical20 mg/1mL
LotionTopical4 g/1mL
PatchTopical
KitEpidural; Infiltration
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
GelTopical8 mg/1g
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical50 mg/1000mg
GelTopical50 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical50 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical4 mg/1mL
Liquid; sprayTopical
LiquidTopical
SwabTopical
KitOral
SprayCutaneous
GelTopical10 mg/1g
SprayTopical10 mg/1mL
GelTopical2 %
KitIntra-amniotic
AerosolTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical500 g/100000mg
SprayCutaneous.50 g/100g
OintmentTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical4 g/1mL
CreamTopical5.0 %
GelTopical0.8 g/100g
GelTopical0.8 %
CreamTopical45 mg/1mL
SoapTopical
SprayTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical4 g/100g
SoapTopical50 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntra-articular
Liquid; ointmentEpidural; Topical
SprayTopical.50 g/100g
LotionTopical.5 g/100mL
GelTopical
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical4 g/50g
Spray, meteredTopical96 mg/1mL
LiquidEndotracheal40 mg
GelTopical4 g/4g
LotionTopical30 mg/1mL
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue
Aerosol, sprayTopical0.64 g/127g
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
OintmentTopical10 1/1
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical35.44 g/1g
OintmentTopical5 g/100g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous140 mg/1
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal4 mg/1
PatchTopical50 mg/1g
OintmentTopical15 g/100g
SolutionInfiltration
CreamTopical0.03 g/1g
OintmentTopical30 g/100g
CreamTopical3 mg/1g
CreamTopical30 mg/1g
CreamRectal; Topical
SolutionIntravenous
CreamTopical38.8 mg/1g
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration10 mg
LiquidInfiltration10 mg
LiquidIntravenous20 mg
SolutionInfiltration10 mg
GelTopical30 mg/1g
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration; Other20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Other10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Other15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical200 mL/1L
LotionTopical3 g/100mL
LotionTopical5.31 mL/177mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOropharyngeal20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal40 mg/1mL
CreamRectal
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous800 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Other
Injection, solutionInfiltration
GelRectal
SolutionInfiltration5 mg
LiquidInfiltration2 %
SolutionInfiltration20 mg
SprayTopical1 %
GelOral2 g/100mL
SolutionInfiltration1 %
SolutionInfiltration2 %
OintmentTopical5 g
CreamTopical39.2 mg/1mL
PatchTopical4 g/1
PatchTopical11 mg/1
GelTopical0.9 g/30g
SprayTopical4.6 g/115g
CreamTopical10 g/100g
SolutionTopical4 %
LiquidTopical10 mg
JellyTopical20 mg
JellyTopical2 %
OintmentTopical5 %
LiquidBuccal2 %
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous700 mg/12h
PatchCutaneous700 mg/1
LiquidCutaneous700 mg/1000mg
GelTopical3 mg/100mL
PatchTopical22.7 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.3 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.8 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical28.1 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical29 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical21.5 mg/0.24mg
LiquidAuricular (otic)
PatchTransdermal
InjectionIntramuscular300 mg/3mL
CreamTopical32.5 mg/1g
KitTopical5 g/100g
PatchIontophoresis
KitTopical50 mg/1g
CreamTopical37.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical39.5 mg/1g
GelTopical40 mg/1g
LotionTopical30 mg/177mL
SprayTopical10 mg/0.1mL
LiquidInfiltration
InjectionIntramuscular
GelTopical2.36 g/118mL
Spray, meteredTopical10 mg/100mL
LiquidSubcutaneous1 %
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 mg/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Topical
SprayTopical2 g/100mL
CreamTopical4 %
CreamTopical5 %
PatchTopical40 mg/1
AerosolTopical
KitOral20 mg/1mL
Kit20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical5 g/100g
GelTopical0.04 g/1g
LotionTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intravenous
Liquid; ointmentSubcutaneous; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Intraspinal; Subcutaneous1 %
LiquidTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical0.04 g/28g
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
LotionTopical
GelTopical2 g/100mL
SprayTopical24.64 mg/1mL
CreamTopical5 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical5 mg/30g
SprayTopical40 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical0.04 mg/1mg
StickTopical
GelTopical.5 g/100g
LiquidDental; Subcutaneous
LiquidSubcutaneous
OilTopical8 mg/1mL
GelPeriodontal
SuspensionAuricular (otic)
CreamTopical0.04 g/40g
LotionTopical40 mg/4mL
CreamTopical50 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1g
PatchTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical0.3 g/1
GelTopical7.128 mg/1mL
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
GelTopical2 mg/1g
LiquidIntravenous1 %
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical41.2 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
LiquidEpidural; Intravenous
LiquidDental2 %
KitInfiltration; Soft tissue; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal
OintmentTopical
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
SprayTopical2.6 %
SprayTopical4 %
SolutionTopical40 mg
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical
CreamTopical400 mg/1mg
PatchTopical.005 mg/1g
OintmentTopical.005 mg/1g
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 g/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular
OintmentTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical10 g/100g
GelTopical0.5 g/100g
PatchTopical240 mg/1
PackingDental
PatchTopical18 mg/116cm2
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Topical
CreamTopical0.04 g/1g
CreamTopical0.05 g/1g
ClothTopical
GelTopical20 mg/1mL
GelTopical20 mg/1g
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 %
SprayTopical2 %
SolutionTopical2 %
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/1
CreamPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
LiquidPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
SprayTopical1.1 g/12g
LotionTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical2.0 %
GelTopical40 mg/1mL
PatchCutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/14g
GelTopical1 %
SprayTopical5 mg/1g
LotionTopical0.5 %
SprayTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.057 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.1258 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.50 %
CreamTopical0.5 g/100g
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
KitInfiltration1 %
SprayTopical96 mg/1mL
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 %
AerosolTopical0.5 %
GelTopical1 g/100g
GelTopical7.13 mg/1mL
SwabTopical1 %
OintmentTopical1.0 g/100g
OintmentTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidIntrathoracic; Subcutaneous1 %
SprayTopical10 mg/100mL
GelTopical2.36 g/59g
SprayTopical2.36 g/59g
LiquidTopical4 g/100g
GelTopical5 %
GelTopical15 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SprayTopical2.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 %
KitTopical40 mg/1mL
Kit
SprayTopical0.5 mg/100mg
CreamTopical1 %
SolutionTopical0.5 %
SprayTopical0.5 %
CreamTopical2 g/1mL
InjectionDental20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration
InjectionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration50 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
JellyTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal
LiquidInfiltration5 mg
SolutionEpidural15 mg
LiquidInfiltration20 mg
SolutionEpidural20 mg
SolutionEpidural
LiquidSubarachnoid50 mg
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration17.3 mg
SolutionOral100 mg
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural20 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal; Percutaneous1 %
LiquidPercutaneous1 %
LiquidEpidural
LiquidInfiltration1 %
AerosolOral; Topical
SprayTopical40 mg
LiquidTopical50 mg
LiquidOral; Topical20 mg
InjectionDental
SolutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidEpidural; Intracaudal20 mg
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
LiquidIntravenous200 mg
Aerosol, metered; sprayTopical
Aerosol, sprayTopical
Spray, meteredTopical
CreamTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical20 mg/1000mg
Kit50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical2.5 %
SolutionTopical4.0 %
PowderIntradermal0.5 mg/1
PatchTopical36 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rocephin 10 gm vial478.32USD each
Lidocaine HCl 3% Lotion 177ml Bottle230.3USD bottle
Rocephin 2 gm vial97.5USD each
Rocephin 1 gm vial62.02USD each
EMLA 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube58.4USD tube
Lidocaine-Prilocaine 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube47.79USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 10ml Syringe17.99USD syringe
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 30ml Tube17.99USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 50ml Bottle16.99USD bottle
Lidocaine Viscous 2% Solution 100ml Bottle13.99USD bottle
Lidocaine hcl 1% syringe9.76USD ml
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 4ml Bottle9.42USD bottle
Lidoderm 1 Box = 30 Patches8.03USD patch
Akten 3.5% drops7.5USD ml
Lidocaine 5% in d7.5w ampul3.06USD ml
Lidocaine 3% cream2.91USD g
Lidamantle 3% cream2.03USD g
Zilactin-l cold sore liquid0.99USD ml
Xylocaine 2% jelly0.68USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 10% vial0.55USD ml
Xylocaine 5% ointment0.42USD g
Xylocaine Jelly 2 % Jelly0.41USD g
Xylocaine 2% Solution0.34USD ml
Xylocaine 5 % Ointment0.29USD g
Lidocaine HCl 1% Solution0.24USD ml
Lidocaine hcl powder0.24USD g
Lidocaine base powder0.22USD g
Lidocaine hcl 4% solution0.18USD ml
Xylocaine 0.5% vial0.18USD ml
Lidodan 5 % Ointment0.16USD g
Xylocaine Viscous 2 % Liquid0.1USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 0.5% vial0.08USD ml
Solarcaine aerosol0.06USD g
Lidodan Viscous 2 % Liquid0.06USD ml
Lidocaine 2% viscous solution0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5234957No1993-08-102011-02-27Us
US5827529No1998-10-272015-10-27Us
US8540665No2013-09-242029-10-22Us
US6881200No2005-04-192016-06-11Us
US6004286No1999-12-212017-03-17Us
US5899880No1999-05-042016-05-04Us
US6031007No2000-02-292017-04-01Us
US6629968No2003-10-072020-06-30Us
US6635045No2003-10-212021-06-29Us
US6546281No2003-04-082015-07-28Us
US5658583No1997-08-192015-07-28Us
US6465006No2002-10-152015-07-28Us
US6465709No2002-10-152020-07-07Us
US6780426No2004-08-242015-07-28Us
US6306431No2001-10-232015-07-28Us
US5919479No1999-07-062015-07-28Us
US6528086No2003-03-042019-09-28Us
US8759401No2014-06-242026-07-24Us
US9370622No2016-06-212035-09-28Us
US9358338No2016-06-072035-04-27Us
US9283174No2016-03-152031-05-10Us
US9925264No2018-03-272031-05-10Us
US9931403No2018-04-032031-05-10Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)68.5 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)159-160 °C at 2.00E+00 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility4100 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.44AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.76ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.21ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.01SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.593 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.81ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.18 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-38a47958df650b972703
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7a90fe8d9b35b745cfce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0920000000-f9f648594c0f1642cc4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0089-0900000000-5716ccc63e48696473bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d18ae1cd0a81ee63d35
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-83bc5908a67b3ba4b826
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-e305bfb01d615662d8a1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eab27554002663b2d3fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-1b684e31ff74300b808f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9466a1403df493f5b6e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c773b8e10c70518882c1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-00b6d0139ebe20cdb189
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-0b33ce49934844438e43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-502494c9626d1dca25d1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-86c007695ec40849f993
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-7f630b7fa4e36c59e0d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9060000000-b5aef137d8e488097fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b21ee69ce889ba36b5e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d7555c18e41a90508a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3dd6e01da50ad1a66b2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9230000000-577ea8a290877187b518
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-3f33ed4d35a979dbd732
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-343e9e6a26be64016b15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-c1923c77757d099538dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9ff21e9bcf3f87f70774
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eaebad6c7c4ce7832c9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e21612ecf5a40923bb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9050000000-930a3c8f94fdb363cc0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bc7800eef651a1a0ee2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a658a8aeac537602e1a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5a056c9766b47a19f0a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d649b0b05937216241a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-6090000000-31a60a2cff302fde1ad8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9020000000-da68f84a1fd4a905c98c
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as m-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a m-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 3-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Xylenes
Direct Parent
m-Xylenes
Alternative Parents
Trialkylamines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
M-xylene / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidic acid derivative / Carboximidic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, benzenes (CHEBI:6456)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Ekberg J, Jayamanne A, Vaughan CW, Aslan S, Thomas L, Mould J, Drinkwater R, Baker MD, Abrahamsen B, Wood JN, Adams DJ, Christie MJ, Lewis RJ: muO-conotoxin MrVIB selectively blocks Nav1.8 sensory neuron specific sodium channels and chronic pain behavior without motor deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 7;103(45):17030-5. Epub 2006 Oct 31. [PubMed:17077153]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN9A
Uniprot ID
Q15858
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Sheets PL, Jackson JO 2nd, Waxman SG, Dib-Hajj SD, Cummins TR: A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity. J Physiol. 2007 Jun 15;581(Pt 3):1019-31. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17430993]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Itoh H, Tsuji K, Sakaguchi T, Nagaoka I, Oka Y, Nakazawa Y, Yao T, Jo H, Ashihara T, Ito M, Horie M, Imoto K: A paradoxical effect of lidocaine for the N406S mutation of SCN5A associated with Brugada syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 18;121(3):239-48. Epub 2007 Apr 18. [PubMed:17445919]
  2. Fedida D, Orth PM, Hesketh JC, Ezrin AM: The role of late I and antiarrhythmic drugs in EAD formation and termination in Purkinje fibers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May;17 Suppl 1:S71-S78. [PubMed:16686685]
  3. Wallace CH, Baczko I, Jones L, Fercho M, Light PE: Inhibition of cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels by grape polyphenols. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;149(6):657-65. Epub 2006 Oct 3. [PubMed:17016511]
  4. Cerne A, Bergh C, Borg K, Ek I, Gejervall AL, Hillensjo T, Olofsson JI, Stener-Victorin E, Wood M, Westlander G: Pre-ovarian block versus paracervical block for oocyte retrieval. Hum Reprod. 2006 Nov;21(11):2916-21. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16840798]
  5. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  6. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TG...
Gene Name
EGFR
Uniprot ID
P00533
Uniprot Name
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Molecular Weight
134276.185 Da
References
  1. Sakaguchi M, Kuroda Y, Hirose M: The antiproliferative effect of lidocaine on human tongue cancer cells with inhibition of the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor. Anesth Analg. 2006 Apr;102(4):1103-7. [PubMed:16551906]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Leuwer M, Haeseler G, Hecker H, Bufler J, Dengler R, Aronson JK: An improved model for the binding of lidocaine and structurally related local anaesthetics to fast-inactivated voltage-operated sodium channels, showing evidence of cooperativity. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;141(1):47-54. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662728]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
ORM2
Uniprot ID
P19652
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Masubuchi Y, Takahashii C, Fujio N, Horie T, Suzuki T, Imaoka S, Funae Y, Narimatsu S: Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes after repetitive administration of imipramine in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Sep;23(9):999-1003. [PubMed:8565792]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  4. Wei X, Dai R, Zhai S, Thummel KE, Friedman FK, Vestal RE: Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P-450 1A2 by the class IB antiarrhythmics mexiletine, lidocaine, and tocainide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):853-8. [PubMed:10215663]
  5. Orlando R, Piccoli P, De Martin S, Padrini R, Floreani M, Palatini P: Cytochrome P450 1A2 is a major determinant of lidocaine metabolism in vivo: effects of liver function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jan;75(1):80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.09.007. [PubMed:14749694]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. [PubMed:11743742]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  3. Hu Y, Qin X, Cao H, Yu S, Feng J: Reversal effects of local anesthetics on P-glycoprotein-mediated cancer multidrug resistance. Anticancer Drugs. 2017 Mar;28(3):243-249. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000455. [PubMed:27906699]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 16, 2019 06:42