Identification

Name
Lidocaine
Accession Number
DB00281
Description

Ever since its discovery and availability for sale and use in the late 1940s, lidocaine has become an exceptionally commonly used medication 6. In particular, lidocaine's principal mode of action in acting as a local anesthetic that numbs the sensations of tissues means the agent is indicated for facilitating local anesthesia for a large variety of surgical procedures 10,7,8. It ultimately elicits its numbing activity by blocking sodium channels so that the neurons of local tissues that have the medication applied on are transiently incapable of signaling the brain regarding sensations 10,7,8. In doing so, however, it can block or decrease muscle contractile, resulting in effects like vasodilation, hypotension, and irregular heart rate, among others 10,7,8. As a result, lidocaine is also considered a class Ib anti-arrhythmic agent 7,8,12. Nevertheless, lidocaine's local anesthetic action sees its use in many medical situations or circumstances that may benefit from its action, including the treatment of premature ejaculation 5.

Regardless, lidocaine is currently available as a relatively non-expensive generic medication that is written for in millions of prescriptions internationally on a yearly basis. It is even included in the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines 9.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 234.3373
Monoisotopic: 234.173213336
Chemical Formula
C14H22N2O
Synonyms
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-2',6'-acetoxylidide
  • 2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
  • alpha-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
  • Lidocaína
  • Lidocaina
  • Lidocaine
  • Lidocainum
  • Lignocaine
  • α-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
External IDs
  • ALGRX 3268
  • ALGRX-3268
  • LSM-3165
  • NSC-40030

Pharmacology

Indication

Lidocaine is an anesthetic of the amide group indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks 10,7.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

Excessive blood levels of lidocaine can cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure 10,7. With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to the block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system, and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present 10,7. The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded 10,7.

In particular, such cardiac effects are likely associated with the principal effect that lidocaine elicits when it binds and blocks sodium channels, inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of electrical action potential impulses necessary to facilitate muscle contraction 10,7,8. Subsequently, in cardiac myocytes, lidocaine can potentially block or otherwise slow the rise of cardiac action potentials and their associated cardiac myocyte contractions, resulting in possible effects like hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and perhaps cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse 10,7,8.

Moreover, lidocaine possesses a dissociation constant (pKa) of 7.7 and is considered a weak base 8. As a result, about 25% of lidocaine molecules will be un-ionized and available at the physiological pH of 7.4 to translocate inside nerve cells, which means lidocaine elicits an onset of action more rapidly than other local anesthetics that have higher pKa values 8. This rapid onset of action is demonstrated in about one minute following intravenous injection and fifteen minutes following intramuscular injection 7. The administered lidocaine subsequently spreads rapidly through the surrounding tissues and the anesthetic effect lasts approximately ten to twenty minutes when given intravenously and about sixty to ninety minutes after intramuscular injection 7.

Nevertheless, it appears that the efficacy of lidocaine may be minimized in the presence of inflammation 8. This effect could be due to acidosis decreasing the amount of un-ionized lidocaine molecules, a more rapid reduction in lidocaine concentration as a result of increased blood flow, or potentially also because of increased production of inflammatory mediators like peroxynitrite that elicit direct actions on sodium channels 8.

Mechanism of action

Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type 10,7,8. It is used to provide local anesthesia by nerve blockade at various sites in the body 10,7,8. It does so by stabilizing the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action 10,7,8. In particular, the lidocaine agent acts on sodium ion channels located on the internal surface of nerve cell membranes 10,7,8. At these channels, neutral uncharged lidocaine molecules diffuse through neural sheaths into the axoplasm where they are subsequently ionized by joining with hydrogen ions 10,7,8. The resultant lidocaine cations are then capable of reversibly binding the sodium channels from the inside, keeping them locked in an open state that prevents nerve depolarization 10,7,8. As a result, with sufficient blockage, the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will ultimately not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential 10,7,8. This facilitates an anesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain but by aborting their generation in the first place 10,7,8.

In addition to blocking conduction in nerve axons in the peripheral nervous system, lidocaine has important effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system 10,7,8. After absorption, lidocaine may cause stimulation of the CNS followed by depression and in the cardiovascular system, it acts primarily on the myocardium where it may produce decreases in electrical excitability, conduction rate, and force of contraction 10,7,8.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Humans
UEpidermal growth factor receptor
antagonist
Humans
USodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHumans
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2Not AvailableHumans
Absorption

In general, lidocaine is readily absorbed across mucous membranes and damaged skin but poorly through intact skin 12. The agent is quickly absorbed from the upper airway, tracheobronchial tree, and alveoli into the bloodstream 12. And although lidocaine is also well absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract the oral bioavailability is only about 35% as a result of a high degree of first-pass metabolism 12. After injection into tissues, lidocaine is also rapidly absorbed and the absorption rate is affected by both vascularity and the presence of tissue and fat capable of binding lidocaine in the particular tissues 12.

The concentration of lidocaine in the blood is subsequently affected by a variety of aspects, including its rate of absorption from the site of injection, the rate of tissue distribution, and the rate of metabolism and excretion 10,7,8. Subsequently, the systemic absorption of lidocaine is determined by the site of injection, the dosage given, and its pharmacological profile 10,7,8. The maximum blood concentration occurs following intercostal nerve blockade followed in order of decreasing concentration, the lumbar epidural space, brachial plexus site, and subcutaneous tissue 10,7,8. The total dose injected regardless of the site is the primary determinant of the absorption rate and blood levels achieved 10,7,8. There is a linear relationship between the amount of lidocaine injected and the resultant peak anesthetic blood levels 10,7,8.

Nevertheless, it has been observed that lidocaine hydrochloride is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending also on lipid solubility and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent 10,7,8. Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration 10,7,8.

Additionally, lidocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion 10.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution determined for lidocaine is 0.7 to 1.5 L/kg 8.

In particular, lidocaine is distributed throughout the total body water 7. Its rate of disappearance from the blood can be described by a two or possibly even three-compartment model 7. There is a rapid disappearance (alpha phase) which is believed to be related to uptake by rapidly equilibrating tissues (tissues with high vascular perfusion, for example) 7. The slower phase is related to distribution to slowly equilibrating tissues (beta phase) and to its metabolism and excretion (gamma phase) 7.

Lidocaine's distribution is ultimately throughout all body tissues 7. In general, the more highly perfused organs will show higher concentrations of the agent 7. The highest percentage of this drug will be found in skeletal muscle, mainly due to the mass of muscle rather than an affinity 7.

Protein binding

The protein binding recorded for lidocaine is about 60 to 80% and is dependent upon the plasma concentration of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 10,8. Such percentage protein binding bestows lidocaine with a medium duration of action when placed in comparison to other local anesthetic agents 8.

Metabolism

Lidocaine is metabolized predominantly and rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys 10,7. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation 10,7. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide 10,7. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine HCl 10,7. Approximately 90% of lidocaine HCl administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged 10,7. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline 10,7.

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Route of elimination

The excretion of unchanged lidocaine and its metabolites occurs predominantly via the kidney with less than 5% in the unchanged form appearing in the urine 10,7. The renal clearance is inversely related to its protein binding affinity and the pH of the urine 7. This suggests by the latter that excretion of lidocaine occurs by non-ionic diffusion 7.

Half-life

The elimination half-life of lidocaine hydrochloride following an intravenous bolus injection is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours 10. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine hydrochloride is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine HCl kinetics 10. The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction 10.

Clearance

The mean systemic clearance observed for intravenously administered lidocaine in a study of 15 adults was approximately 0.64 +/- 0.18 L/min 11.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose and/or acute systemic toxicity involves central nervous system toxicity that presents with symptoms of increasing severity 7. Patients may present initially with circumoral paraesthesia, numbness of the tongue, light-headedness, hyperacusis, and tinnitus 7. Visual disturbance and muscular tremors or muscle twitching are more serious and precede the onset of generalized convulsions 7. These signs must not be mistaken for neurotic behavior 7. Unconsciousness and grand mal convulsions may follow, which may last from a few seconds to several minutes 7. Hypoxia and hypercapnia occur rapidly following convulsions due to increased muscular activity, together with the interference with normal respiration and loss of the airway 7. In severe cases, apnoea may occur. Acidosis increases the toxic effects of local anesthetics 7. Effects on the cardiovascular system may be seen in severe cases 7. Hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest may occur as a result of high systemic concentrations, with potentially fatal outcome 7.

Pregnancy Category B has been established for the use of lidocaine in pregnancy, although there are no formal, adequate, and well-controlled studies in pregnant women 10. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place 10. Ultimately, although animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, lidocaine should not be administered during early pregnancy unless the benefits are considered to outweigh the risks 7. Lidocaine readily crosses the placental barrier after epidural or intravenous administration to the mother 7. The ratio of umbilical to maternal venous concentration is 0.5 to 0.6 7. The fetus appears to be capable of metabolizing lidocaine at term 7. The elimination half-life in the newborn of the drug received in utero is about three hours, compared with 100 minutes in the adult 7. Elevated lidocaine levels may persist in the newborn for at least 48 hours after delivery 7. Fetal bradycardia or tachycardia, neonatal bradycardia, hypotonia or respiratory depression may occur 7.

Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudendal or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity 10. The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration 10. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function 10.

Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia 10. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves 10. Elevating the patient’s legs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure 10. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable 10.

Epidural, spinal, paracervical, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts 10. In one study, paracervical block anesthesia was associated with a decrease in the mean duration of first stage labor and facilitation of cervical dilation 10. However, spinal and epidural anesthesia have also been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the parturient’s reflex urge to bear down or by interfering with motor function 10. The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance 10.

The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life 10. The long-term significance of these observations is unknown 10. Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis 10. Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia 10. The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress 10. Careful adherence to the recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block 10. Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection 10. Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both. Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours 10. Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication 10.

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk 10. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman 10.

Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition 10.

The oral LD 50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346-773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159-324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats 10.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug action
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbametapirThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Acebutolol.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
AcetaminophenThe risk or severity of methemoglobinemia can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetazolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetazolamide can be decreased when used in combination with Lidocaine.
AcetyldigitoxinLidocaine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
AcyclovirThe metabolism of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
Additional Data Available
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Lidocaine hydrochlorideV13007Z41A6108-05-0YECIFGHRMFEPJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrousEC2CNF7XFP73-78-9IYBQHJMYDGVZRY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
After Burn Double Strength Gel / After Burn Double Strength Spray / After Burn Gel / After Burn Spray / Alphacaine / Anestacon Jelly / DermaFlex / Dilocaine / Esracaine / L-Caine / Lidoject-1 / Lidoject-2 / LidoPain SP / Norwood Sunburn Spray / Xilocaina / Xylocaine
Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
AccucaineInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltrationAsclemed Usa, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
AktenGel35 mg/1mLOphthalmicAkorn, Inc.2008-10-08Not applicableUs
Ambator Lidocaine PatchPatch1 g/10gTopical7T Pharma LLC2017-12-152018-03-29Us
Amniocentesis Tray 1%LiquidInfiltration; SubcutaneousAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AnestheticGel5 g/100gTopicalCosmoceutical Research Center Inc2012-02-182019-02-05Us
Antecubital Cent Venous Catheterization KitLiquidEpiduralArrow International1991-12-311999-07-02Canada
Apicaine-XOintment0.05 g/1gTopicalMedicap Laboratories Inc.2015-12-122016-02-17Us
Arthrogram Tray 1%LiquidIntra-articularAllegiance Healthcare Corporation1992-12-312000-07-31Canada
AsteroGel40 mg/1gTopicalAll Pharma, Llc2016-12-012016-12-01Us
AsteroGel40 mg/1gTopicalGensco Laboratories, LLC2016-05-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
1% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
1% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution10 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-25Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-12-13Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine HciInjection, solution20 mg/1mLInfiltration; PerineuralHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-10-22Not applicableUs
AnestaconJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2001-11-05Not applicableUs
DermacinRx Lido V PakKit50 mg/1gTopicalPureTek Corporation2016-09-22Not applicableUs
DermacinRx PHN PakKit700 mg/1CutaneousPureTek Corporation2016-05-17Not applicableUs
GlydoJelly20 mg/1mLTopicalSagent Pharmaceuticals2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Laryng-O-JetSolution40 mg/1mLTopicalAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1980-03-062010-09-09Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4 Lidocaine Topical AnestheticCream40 mg/1gTopicalRUGBY LABORATORIES2020-04-30Not applicableUs
4019 First Aid KitKit2 g/100gTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4043 First Aid Kit2 g/100gTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18Us
Absorbine jr. LidocainePatch246 mg/1TopicalClarion Brands, Llc2017-01-01Not applicableUs
ADVANCED NUMB Topical AnestheticCream50 mg/1gTopicalUber Scientific, Llc2018-04-20Not applicableUs
Advanced Seal Barrier plus Pain ReliefSpray20 mg/1mLTopicalKericure Inc.2020-04-10Not applicableUs
Afassco Burn GelGel70 mg/3.5gTopicalAfassco Inc.2019-08-25Not applicableUs
After BurnGel25 mg/1mLTopicalTender Corporation2011-04-12Not applicableUs
After Sun Burn Relief Lidocaine Continuous SpraySprayTopicalPrime Enterprises, Inc.2010-04-08Not applicableCanada
After Sun GelGelTopicalWatkins IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose InjectionLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
0.4% Lidocaine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (4 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc1983-12-312019-04-12Canada
10 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%Lidocaine (4 g/1) + Capsaicin (0.025 g/1) + Levomenthol (5 g/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 g/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
1st RELIEF TOPICALLidocaine (40 mg/1mL) + Levomenthol (10 mg/1mL)SprayTopical1st Class Pharmaceuticals2014-12-02Not applicableUs
2% Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection USPLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Epinephrine (0.01 mg)LiquidInfiltrationAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2008-12-01Not applicableCanada
25 Person ANSILidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
3 Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (1 mg/1mL)LiquidTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-012013-01-30Us
3-Step First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (100 mg/10mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (11 mg/10mL) + Povidone-iodine (100 mg/10mL)KitTopicalSwabplus Inc.2003-03-01Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
1st Medxpatch With Lidocaine 4%-rxLidocaine (4 1/1) + Capsaicin (0.0375 1/1) + Levomenthol (5 1/1) + Methyl salicylate (20 1/1)PatchTopical1ST MEDX LLC2018-03-15Not applicableUs
4007 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4013 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100mL) + Ethanol (665 mL/1L)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-12Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4019 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g)KitTopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-10-13Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4032 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4042 First Aid KitLidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-11-212019-10-18Us

Categories

ATC Codes
S01HA07 — LidocaineD04AB01 — LidocaineR02AD02 — LidocaineC01BB01 — LidocaineS02DA01 — LidocaineN01BB52 — Lidocaine, combinationsC05AD01 — LidocaineN01BB02 — Lidocaine
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as m-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a m-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 3-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Xylenes
Direct Parent
m-Xylenes
Alternative Parents
Trialkylamines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Amine / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative / Hydrocarbon derivative / M-xylene / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, benzenes (CHEBI:6456)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
98PI200987
CAS number
137-58-6
InChI Key
NNJVILVZKWQKPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H22N2O/c1-5-16(6-2)10-13(17)15-14-11(3)8-7-9-12(14)4/h7-9H,5-6,10H2,1-4H3,(H,15,17)
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CCN(CC)CC(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C

References

Synthesis Reference
US2441498A
General References
  1. Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N: Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004846. [PubMed:17443559]
  2. Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA, Cohn K, Steinbrunn W, Cudihee R, Rowland M: Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease, and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med. 1973 Apr;78(4):499-508. [PubMed:4694036]
  3. Geha PY, Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Harden RN, Paice JA, Apkarian AV: Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapy. Pain. 2007 Mar;128(1-2):88-100. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17067740]
  4. Hines R, Keaney D, Moskowitz MH, Prakken S: Use of lidocaine patch 5% for chronic low back pain: a report of four cases. Pain Med. 2002 Dec;3(4):361-5. [PubMed:15099246]
  5. Authors unspecified: Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation. Drug Ther Bull. 2017 Apr;55(4):45-48. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2017.4.0469. [PubMed:28408390]
  6. Scriabine, Alexander (2017). Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health.. Chemical Heritage Press.. [ISBN:9780941901215]
  7. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Lidocaine 1% w/v solution for injection Monograph [Link]
  8. StatPearls Internet: Lidocaine Profile [Link]
  9. World Health Organization Model Lists of Essential Medicines [Link]
  10. Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl Injection, USP) FDA Label [File]
  11. University of Virginia Children's Hospital: Use of Lidocaine for Analgesia in Children and Adolescents, by Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D., FCCP, FPPAG [File]
  12. Cytochrome P450-mediated drug interactions affecting lidocaine by Mika Isohanni [File]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014426
KEGG Drug
D00358
KEGG Compound
C07073
PubChem Compound
3676
PubChem Substance
46505060
ChemSpider
3548
BindingDB
50017662
RxNav
6387
ChEBI
6456
ChEMBL
CHEMBL79
ZINC
ZINC000000020237
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000121
PharmGKB
PA450226
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
LQZ
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lidocaine
AHFS Codes
  • 84:08.00 — Antipruritics and Local Anesthetics
  • 24:04.00 — Cardiac Drugs
  • 24:04.04.08 — Class Ib Antiarrythmics
  • 52:16.00 — Local Anesthetics
  • 72:00.00 — Local Anesthetics
PDB Entries
3jqz / 3ttr
FDA label
Download (548 KB)
MSDS
Download (74.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareNerve Monitoring / Thyroidectomy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCystoscopy / Lidocaine / Pain Perception1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Radiating1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRadiculopathy, Cervical1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentVaricosities of the great saphenous vein1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Noven pharmaceuticals inc
  • Carlisle laboratories inc
  • E fougera div altana inc
  • Graham chemical co
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teikoku pharma usa inc
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Akorn inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Dell laboratories inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication systems ltd
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Miles laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • B braun medical inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Dentsply pharmaceutical
  • Polymedica industries inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Kendall co
  • Paco research corp
  • Anesiva inc
Packagers
  • 4uOrtho LLC
  • A. Aarons Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Aerospace Accessory Service Inc.
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amend
  • American Dental Cooperative Inc.
  • American Regent
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Aristos Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Ato Zizine Sarl
  • Auriga Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Avent Inc.
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Benco Dental Co.
  • Blairex Labs
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Brookstone Pharmaceuticals
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Cardent International Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carestream Health Inc.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Codman and Shurtleff Inc.
  • Covidien LP
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Deltex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • DENTSPLY International
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doak Dermatologics
  • DSC Laboratories
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Eastman Kodak Co. Dental Products
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Enterprises Importfab Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Fresca Gourmet Inc.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Groupe Parima Inc.
  • H Meer Dental Supply Co.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Henry Schein Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kent Dental
  • Klosterfrau Berlin GmbH
  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
  • Laboratorios Zeyco SA De CV
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Martica Enterprises Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medical Components Inc.
  • Medical Techniques LLC
  • Merit Pharmaceuticals
  • National Pharmaceuticals
  • NeLLCor Puritan Bennett Mexico SA De CV
  • Nord Ost Corp.
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Novocol Pharmaceutical Canada
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Odan Laboratories Ltd.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patterson Dental Supply Inc.
  • Pharmaderm
  • Pharmedium
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Primedics Laboratories
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Raz Co. Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxane Labs
  • S&P Healthcare
  • Safco Dental Supply Co.
  • Sandoz
  • Septodont Inc.
  • Sheffield Laboratories Div Faria Limited LLC
  • Smiths Medical ASD Inc.
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Tech Group Tempe
  • Teikoku Seiyaku Co. Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tri State Hospital Supply Corp.
  • Veratex Corp.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vyteris Inc.
  • Wallach Surgical Devices Inc.
  • Welch Allyn Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntravenous
KitTopical2 g/100g
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitRespiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitOphthalmic; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitOphthalmic; Topical
KitOral; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
LiquidSubarachnoid
PatchTopical246 mg/1
GelTopical70 mg/3.5g
GelTopical25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
SprayTopical
Liquid; sprayTopical
GelTopical0.5 %
GelTopical2.5 g/100g
GelOphthalmic35 mg/1mL
GelTopical5 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 %
OintmentTopical4 g/100mL
SwabTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.5 g/100mL
GelTopical2.5 g/1g
PatchTopical1 g/10g
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
CreamTopical4 mg/100g
GelTopical2 g/1mL
CreamTopical4 %
Aerosol, foamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical5 g/100mL
LiquidEpidural
OintmentTopical0.05 g/1g
Kit; liquidIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidIntra-articular
PatchTopical411.4 mg/1
LotionTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical422 mg/1
KitTopical4 g/100g
ImplantIntradermal
PatchCutaneous
GelTopical4.1 mg/1mL
GelTopical5.05 mg/1mL
KitOral; Topical
PatchTopical; Transdermal
KitInfiltration
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Perineural; Topical
CreamTopical
CreamTopical2 g/100g
CreamTopical2.8 g/56g
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Topical
CreamTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical10 mg/1mg
LiquidTopical3.4 g/68mL
SprayTopical20 mg/1L
CreamTopical2.25 %
GelTopical2 g/100g
GelTopical2.5 g/100mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical0.64 g/127g
LotionTopical3 g/100g
CreamTopical3.9 g/100mL
CreamTopical3.9 g/100g
SprayTopical.05 g/100g
SprayTopical0.5 g/100g
GelTopical.5 g/100mL
SprayTopical200 g/1L
GelTopical0.025 g/1g
CreamTopical10 mg/1g
KitElectro-osmosis
CreamTopical0.04 mg/1mg
Liquid; ointmentIntravenous; Topical
Kit; liquid; ointmentInfiltration; Parenteral; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitIntravenous
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration; Subcutaneous
PatchTopical560 mg/1
PatchTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1g
CreamTopical50 mg/1g
LiquidTopical
GelTopical5 mg/1g
RinseTopical
PatchTransdermal567 mg/1
KitTransdermal
PatchTransdermal858 mg/1
PatchTransdermal40 mg/1
PatchBuccal46.1 mg/1
SuspensionIntra-articular; Intrabursal
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical50 mg/1g
KitTopical50 mg/1g
CreamTopical38.8 mg/1g
KitCutaneous700 mg/1
KitCutaneous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Subcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical0.5 g/10g
CreamTopical1.2 g/30g
CreamTopical1.5 g/30g
CreamTopical5 g/100g
CreamTopical5 %
GelTopical
InjectionRetrobulbar
SprayTopical10 mg/0.08mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Soft tissue; Subcutaneous; Topical
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
Solution / dropsTopical4 g/100mL
LiquidAuricular (otic)4 g/100mL
KitTopical2 g/100mL
CreamTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayTopical20 mg/1mL
LotionTopical4 g/1mL
LiquidTopical4 mg/100mL
GelTopical8 mg/1g
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Intravenous; Topical
GelTopical40 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical50 mg/1000mg
GelTopical50 mg/1000mg
SprayTopical50 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical4 mg/1mL
Liquid; sprayTopical
SprayTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayTopical20 g/1000mL
OintmentTopical
KitOral
SprayCutaneous
GelTopical10 mg/1g
KitCutaneous; Oral
PatchTopical490 mg/1
LotionTopical3.5 g/100g
KitIntra-amniotic
AerosolTopical40 mg/1g
GelTopical500 g/100000mg
SprayCutaneous.50 g/100g
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Topical
CreamTopical4 g/1mL
SprayTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical100 g/100g
GelTopical0.8 g/100g
CreamTopical45 mg/1mL
CreamTopical1.4 g/28g
SoapTopical
SoapTopical50 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntra-articular
Liquid; ointmentEpidural; Topical
SprayTopical.50 g/100g
LotionTopical.5 g/100mL
GelUrethral
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Respiratory (inhalation); Topical
KitIntravenous; Topical
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional
KitIntra-articular; Intramuscular
GelTopical4 g/50g
LotionTopical
Spray, meteredTopical96 mg/1mL
KitOphthalmic
LiquidEndotracheal
GelTopical4 g/4g
LotionTopical30 mg/1mL
LotionTopical30 mg/177mL
GelTopical4 g/100mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
OintmentTopical10 1/1
OintmentTopical2.5 g/50g
OintmentTopical35.44 g/1g
OintmentTopical5 g/100g
OintmentTopical50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous140 mg/1
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal4 mg/1
PatchTopical4 g/1g
PatchTopical50 mg/1g
OintmentTopical15 g/100g
SolutionInfiltration
CreamTopical0.03 g/1g
OintmentTopical30 g/100g
CreamTopical4.27 g/100g
PatchTopical700 mg/1
CreamRectal; Topical5.25 g/100g
CreamTopical
CreamTopical0.4 g/1g
CreamTopical3 mg/1g
CreamTopical30 mg/1g
CreamRectal; Topical
OintmentTopical4 g/100g
LiquidEpidural; Infiltration
LiquidInfiltration
SolutionInfiltration
GelTopical30 mg/1g
InjectionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
InjectionParenteral20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Intravenous5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical200 mL/1L
LotionTopical3 g/100mL
LotionTopical5.31 mL/177mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
SolutionOral20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral40 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOropharyngeal20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical20 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal20 mg/1mL
SprayLaryngeal; Transtracheal40 mg/1mL
CreamRectal
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
InjectionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous400 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous800 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionDental; Infiltration
Injection, solutionEpidural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration
Injection, solutionInfiltration
GelRectal
SolutionIntravenous
GelOral2 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical39.2 mg/1mL
PatchTopical4 g/1
PatchTopical11 mg/1
GelTopical0.9 g/30g
SprayTopical4.6 g/115g
CreamTopical10 g/100g
SolutionTopical
LiquidTopical
JellyTopical
OintmentTopical
SolutionBuccal
PatchCutaneous50 mg/1g
PatchCutaneous700 mg/1
PatchCutaneous700 mg/12h
LiquidCutaneous700 mg/1000mg
GelTopical3 mg/100mL
PatchTopical22.7 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.3 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical25.8 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical28.1 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical29 mg/0.24mg
PatchTopical21.5 mg/0.24mg
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural10 mg/1mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal20 mg/1mL
LiquidAuricular (otic)
PatchTransdermal
InjectionIntramuscular300 mg/3mL
CreamTopical32.5 mg/1g
KitTopical5 g/100g
PatchIontophoresis
CreamTopical37.5 mg/1g
CreamTopical39.5 mg/1g
KitNot applicable
GelTopical40 mg/1g
SprayTopical10 mg/0.1mL
LiquidInfiltration
InjectionIntramuscular
GelTopical2.36 g/118mL
Spray, meteredTopical10 mg/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intramuscular; Topical
GelTopical5 g/100g
LiquidSubcutaneous
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 mg/100mL
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Topical
SprayTopical2 g/100mL
PatchTopical40 mg/1
SprayTopical40 mg/1g
KitOral; Topical20 mg/1mL
SolutionOral; Topical5 g/100g
SprayTopical20 g/1L
SprayTopical
GelTopical0.04 g/1g
LotionTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical10 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical
KitInfiltration; Intra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular; Soft tissue; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Intraspinal; Subcutaneous
LiquidTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical0.04 g/28g
LiquidTopical10 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
GelTopical2 g/100mL
SprayTopical24.64 mg/1mL
CreamTopical5 mg/1g
CreamTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical5 mg/30g
CreamTopical5 mg/100mL
SprayTopical0.04 mg/1mg
StickTopical
GelTopical.5 g/100g
LiquidDental; Subcutaneous
LiquidSubcutaneous
OilTopical8 mg/1mL
GelPeriodontal
SuspensionAuricular (otic)
Liquid; ointmentSubcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical0.04 g/40g
LotionTopical40 mg/4mL
CreamTopical50 mg/1mL
CreamTopical3.86 g/100g
LiquidTopical4 g/100mL
PatchTopical4 g/100g
PatchTopical0.3 g/1
GelTopical7.128 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.13 mg/1mL
GelTopical2 mg/1g
LiquidIntravenous
Kit; ointment; solutionInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
CreamTopical41.2 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
LiquidEpidural; Intravenous
LiquidDental
Solution / dropsAuricular (otic)
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical
CreamTopical400 mg/1mg
PatchTopical.005 mg/1g
OintmentTopical.005 mg/1g
Spray, meteredTopical9.6 g/100mL
OintmentTopical10 mg/1mL
SprayTopical10 g/100g
GelTopical0.5 g/100g
PatchTopical240 mg/1
PackingDental
PatchTopical18 mg/116cm2
KitIntra-articular; Intralesional; Intramuscular
KitIntramuscular; Intravenous
KitEpidural; Infiltration
CreamTopical0.04 g/1g
CreamTopical0.05 g/1g
ClothTopical
GelTopical20 mg/1mL
GelTopical20 mg/1g
Kit
LiquidTopical40 mg/1mL
GelTopical4 g/100g
CreamPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
LiquidPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal
SprayTopical1.1 g/12g
LotionTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical30 mg/1mL
GelTopical11.9 g/234.6g
GelTopical40 mg/1mL
PatchCutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/14g
LiquidTopical125 mg/1mL
KitTopical
GelTopical
SprayTopical5 mg/1g
AerosolTopical
LotionTopical
SprayTopical4 g/100mL
GelTopical0.057 mg/1mL
GelTopical7.1258 mg/1mL
CreamTopical0.5 g/100g
KitInfiltration; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous; Topical
LiquidParenteral; Topical
LiquidInfiltration; Subcutaneous
KitInfiltration
SprayTopical96 mg/1mL
SwabTopical
Spray, meteredTopical
AerosolTopical0.5 %
GelTopical5.05 g/1g
GelTopical1 g/100g
SwabTopical
SprayTopical10 mg/1mL
PatchTopical
OintmentTopical1.0 g/100g
OintmentTopical0.5 g/100g
LiquidIntrathoracic; Subcutaneous
SprayTopical10 mg/100mL
GelTopical2.36 g/59g
SprayTopical2.36 g/59g
GelTopical5 %
GelTopical15 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical50 mg/1mL
SprayTopical2.5 g/100mL
PatchPercutaneous; Topical; Transdermal560 mg/1
KitTopical40 mg/1mL
KitSubcutaneous; Topical
SprayTopical0.5 mg/100mg
LiquidTopical4 g/100g
CreamTopical2 g/1mL
KitCutaneous50 mg/1g
InjectionDental20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration
InjectionInfiltration10 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration15 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration20 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration5 mg/1mL
InjectionInfiltration50 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural20 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionInfiltration; Perineural5 mg/1mL
JellyTopical20 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal
SolutionEpidural
SolutionEpidural
LiquidSubarachnoid
SolutionEpidural; Infiltration
SolutionOral
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural15 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Infiltration; Intracaudal; Perineural20 mg/1mL
LiquidIntraspinal; Percutaneous1 %
LiquidPercutaneous1 %
SolutionRetrobulbar; Topical40 mg/1mL
LiquidEpidural
AerosolOral; Topical
SolutionOral; Topical
InjectionDental
LiquidEpidural; Intracaudal
Spray, meteredBuccal
AerosolTopical
Aerosol, sprayTopical
Spray, meteredTopical
CreamTopical40 mg/1000mg
CreamTopical20 mg/1000mg
PowderIntradermal0.5 mg/1
PatchTopical36 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rocephin 10 gm vial478.32USD each
Lidocaine HCl 3% Lotion 177ml Bottle230.3USD bottle
Rocephin 2 gm vial97.5USD each
Rocephin 1 gm vial62.02USD each
EMLA 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube58.4USD tube
Lidocaine-Prilocaine 2.5-2.5% Cream 30 gm Tube47.79USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 10ml Syringe17.99USD syringe
Lidocaine HCl 2% Gel 30ml Tube17.99USD tube
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 50ml Bottle16.99USD bottle
Lidocaine Viscous 2% Solution 100ml Bottle13.99USD bottle
Lidocaine hcl 1% syringe9.76USD ml
Lidocaine HCl 4% Solution 4ml Bottle9.42USD bottle
Lidoderm 1 Box = 30 Patches8.03USD patch
Akten 3.5% drops7.5USD ml
Lidocaine 5% in d7.5w ampul3.06USD ml
Lidocaine 3% cream2.91USD g
Lidamantle 3% cream2.03USD g
Zilactin-l cold sore liquid0.99USD ml
Xylocaine 2% jelly0.68USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 10% vial0.55USD ml
Xylocaine 5% ointment0.42USD g
Xylocaine Jelly 2 % Jelly0.41USD g
Xylocaine 2% Solution0.34USD ml
Xylocaine 5 % Ointment0.29USD g
Lidocaine HCl 1% Solution0.24USD ml
Lidocaine hcl powder0.24USD g
Lidocaine base powder0.22USD g
Lidocaine hcl 4% solution0.18USD ml
Xylocaine 0.5% vial0.18USD ml
Lidodan 5 % Ointment0.16USD g
Xylocaine Viscous 2 % Liquid0.1USD ml
Lidocaine hcl 0.5% vial0.08USD ml
Solarcaine aerosol0.06USD g
Lidodan Viscous 2 % Liquid0.06USD ml
Lidocaine 2% viscous solution0.03USD ml
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US5234957No1993-08-102011-02-27Us
US5827529No1998-10-272015-10-27Us
US8540665No2013-09-242029-10-22Us
US6881200No2005-04-192016-06-11Us
US6004286No1999-12-212017-03-17Us
US5899880No1999-05-042016-05-04Us
US6031007No2000-02-292017-04-01Us
US6629968No2003-10-072020-06-30Us
US6635045No2003-10-212021-06-29Us
US6546281No2003-04-082015-07-28Us
US5658583No1997-08-192015-07-28Us
US6465006No2002-10-152015-07-28Us
US6465709No2002-10-152020-07-07Us
US6780426No2004-08-242015-07-28Us
US6306431No2001-10-232015-07-28Us
US5919479No1999-07-062015-07-28Us
US6528086No2003-03-042019-09-28Us
US8759401No2014-06-242026-07-24Us
US9370622No2016-06-212035-09-28Us
US9358338No2016-06-072035-04-27Us
US9283174No2016-03-152031-05-10Us
US9925264No2018-03-272031-05-10Us
US9931403No2018-04-032031-05-10Us
US10350180No2019-07-162031-01-14Us
US10603293No2011-01-142031-01-14Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)68.5 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)159-160 °C at 2.00E+00 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility4100 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.44AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.76ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.21ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.01SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.593 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.81ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.18 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-38a47958df650b972703
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7a90fe8d9b35b745cfce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0920000000-f9f648594c0f1642cc4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0089-0900000000-5716ccc63e48696473bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d18ae1cd0a81ee63d35
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-83bc5908a67b3ba4b826
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-e305bfb01d615662d8a1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eab27554002663b2d3fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-1b684e31ff74300b808f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9466a1403df493f5b6e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-c773b8e10c70518882c1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-8090000000-00b6d0139ebe20cdb189
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-0b33ce49934844438e43
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-502494c9626d1dca25d1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b39af34b526d79a4b07b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-86c007695ec40849f993
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-7f630b7fa4e36c59e0d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9060000000-b5aef137d8e488097fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-b21ee69ce889ba36b5e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d7555c18e41a90508a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-3dd6e01da50ad1a66b2f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9230000000-577ea8a290877187b518
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-3f33ed4d35a979dbd732
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-343e9e6a26be64016b15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-c1923c77757d099538dd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9ff21e9bcf3f87f70774
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-eaebad6c7c4ce7832c9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-2e21612ecf5a40923bb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9050000000-930a3c8f94fdb363cc0f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-bc7800eef651a1a0ee2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a658a8aeac537602e1a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-5a056c9766b47a19f0a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d649b0b05937216241a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-6090000000-31a60a2cff302fde1ad8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9020000000-da68f84a1fd4a905c98c
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference acro...
Gene Name
SCN10A
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5Y9
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Ekberg J, Jayamanne A, Vaughan CW, Aslan S, Thomas L, Mould J, Drinkwater R, Baker MD, Abrahamsen B, Wood JN, Adams DJ, Christie MJ, Lewis RJ: muO-conotoxin MrVIB selectively blocks Nav1.8 sensory neuron specific sodium channels and chronic pain behavior without motor deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 7;103(45):17030-5. Epub 2006 Oct 31. [PubMed:17077153]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN9A
Uniprot ID
Q15858
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Sheets PL, Jackson JO 2nd, Waxman SG, Dib-Hajj SD, Cummins TR: A Nav1.7 channel mutation associated with hereditary erythromelalgia contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and displays reduced lidocaine sensitivity. J Physiol. 2007 Jun 15;581(Pt 3):1019-31. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17430993]
  2. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  3. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Itoh H, Tsuji K, Sakaguchi T, Nagaoka I, Oka Y, Nakazawa Y, Yao T, Jo H, Ashihara T, Ito M, Horie M, Imoto K: A paradoxical effect of lidocaine for the N406S mutation of SCN5A associated with Brugada syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 18;121(3):239-48. Epub 2007 Apr 18. [PubMed:17445919]
  2. Fedida D, Orth PM, Hesketh JC, Ezrin AM: The role of late I and antiarrhythmic drugs in EAD formation and termination in Purkinje fibers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May;17 Suppl 1:S71-S78. [PubMed:16686685]
  3. Wallace CH, Baczko I, Jones L, Fercho M, Light PE: Inhibition of cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels by grape polyphenols. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;149(6):657-65. Epub 2006 Oct 3. [PubMed:17016511]
  4. Cerne A, Bergh C, Borg K, Ek I, Gejervall AL, Hillensjo T, Olofsson JI, Stener-Victorin E, Wood M, Westlander G: Pre-ovarian block versus paracervical block for oocyte retrieval. Hum Reprod. 2006 Nov;21(11):2916-21. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [PubMed:16840798]
  5. Muroi Y, Chanda B: Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jan;133(1):1-15. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200810103. Epub 2008 Dec 15. [PubMed:19088384]
  6. Karoly R, Lenkey N, Juhasz AO, Vizi ES, Mike A: Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Jun 17;6(6):e1000818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000818. [PubMed:20585544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses. Known ligands include EGF, TG...
Gene Name
EGFR
Uniprot ID
P00533
Uniprot Name
Epidermal growth factor receptor
Molecular Weight
134276.185 Da
References
  1. Sakaguchi M, Kuroda Y, Hirose M: The antiproliferative effect of lidocaine on human tongue cancer cells with inhibition of the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor. Anesth Analg. 2006 Apr;102(4):1103-7. [PubMed:16551906]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Leuwer M, Haeseler G, Hecker H, Bufler J, Dengler R, Aronson JK: An improved model for the binding of lidocaine and structurally related local anaesthetics to fast-inactivated voltage-operated sodium channels, showing evidence of cooperativity. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;141(1):47-54. Epub 2003 Dec 8. [PubMed:14662728]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
ORM2
Uniprot ID
P19652
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [PubMed:8946472]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  2. Zhang J, Zhu J, Yao X, Duan Y, Zhou X, Yang M, Li X: Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Metabolized by CYP3A4 in Chinese Han Volunteers Living at Low Altitude and in Native Han and Tibetan Chinese Volunteers Living at High Altitude. Pharmacology. 2016;97(3-4):107-13. doi: 10.1159/000443332. Epub 2016 Jan 6. [PubMed:26730802]
  3. Mustajoki P, Mustajoki S, Rautio A, Arvela P, Pelkonen O: Effects of heme arginate on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drugs in patients with variegate porphyria and in healthy men. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Jul;56(1):9-13. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1994.94. [PubMed:8033500]
  4. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Masubuchi Y, Takahashii C, Fujio N, Horie T, Suzuki T, Imaoka S, Funae Y, Narimatsu S: Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes after repetitive administration of imipramine in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Sep;23(9):999-1003. [PubMed:8565792]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
  3. Wei X, Dai R, Zhai S, Thummel KE, Friedman FK, Vestal RE: Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P-450 1A2 by the class IB antiarrhythmics mexiletine, lidocaine, and tocainide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):853-8. [PubMed:10215663]
  4. Orlando R, Piccoli P, De Martin S, Padrini R, Floreani M, Palatini P: Cytochrome P450 1A2 is a major determinant of lidocaine metabolism in vivo: effects of liver function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jan;75(1):80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2003.09.007. [PubMed:14749694]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT: Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):959-65. [PubMed:10901707]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Hedrich WD, Hassan HE, Wang H: Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug-drug interactions. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016 Sep;6(5):413-425. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 9. [PubMed:27709010]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. [PubMed:11743742]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103]
  3. Hu Y, Qin X, Cao H, Yu S, Feng J: Reversal effects of local anesthetics on P-glycoprotein-mediated cancer multidrug resistance. Anticancer Drugs. 2017 Mar;28(3):243-249. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000455. [PubMed:27906699]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 10, 2020 08:11

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