Identification

Name
Tolevamer
Accession Number
DB01344  (DB06658)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used to treat abnormally high potassium levels. It may be taken orally or by rectum, as an enema, and functions as a potassium-binding resin in the intestines. It is also an effective topical microbicide and spermicide, inhibiting the genital transfection of, among others, HIV. [Wikipedia]

Synonyms
  • poly(styrene-4-sulfonic acid)
  • Polystyrene sulfonate
  • Polystyrene sulfonic acid
  • polystyrenesulfonic acid
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tolevamer calciumHUI2S0079337286-92-3Not applicable
Tolevamer potassium sodium4A5OM7PI181011713-07-7Not applicable
Tolevamer sodium1699G8679Z9080-79-9Not applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
K-exit PoudrePowder, for solution100 %Oral; RectalOmega Laboratories Ltd1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalCovis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-152018-06-30Us
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalConcordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc2013-07-152018-06-30Us
KayexalatePowder100 %Oral; RectalSanofi Aventis1961-12-31Not applicableCanada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Oral SuspensionSuspension250 mgOralPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate PowderPowder94.3 mgOral; RectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072014-02-10Canada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Retention EnemaSuspension250 mgRectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada
Resonium CalciumPowder, for solution999 mgOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
SolystatPowder94.3 mgOral; RectalPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
SolystatSuspension250 mgRectalPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KionexPowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1998-02-012018-07-31Us
KionexSuspension15 g/60mLOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.2008-12-30Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalEci Pharmaceuticals Llc2017-02-07Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOralEpic Pharma, LLC2014-04-14Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-03-01Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension1 g/gOral; RectalCmp Pharma, Inc.1989-01-19Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonateSuspension15 g/60mLOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.2011-09-21Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalSunrise Pharmaceutical, Inc.2017-01-24Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalBelcher Pharmaceuticals, LLC2016-03-15Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/gOral; RectalExact Rx, Inc.2012-04-012017-08-31Us
International/Other Brands
Resonium A / Sorbisterit
Categories
UNII
ZSL2FB6GXN
CAS number
28210-41-5
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat abnormally high potassium levels.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Polystyrene sulfonate affects the exchange of sodium and potassium in the body. Polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat high levels of potassium in the blood, also called hyperkalemia. It is a potassium-binding ion-exchange resin that can be administered orally (25 grams in 20% sorbitol) or rectally (50 grams in 20% sorbitol).

Mechanism of action

Polystyrene sulfonate, which is not absorbed, binds excess potassium, carrying it out of the body. The indigestible potassium polystryene sulfonate complex is excreted with the faeces, preventing the absorption of potassium into the blood stream. Hence, the serum potassium level decreases.

TargetActionsOrganism
APotassium
binder
Human
Absorption

Not absorbed following oral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

none

Route of elimination

Feces.

Half life

none

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Overdose symptoms may include confusion, irritability, trouble thinking or concentrating, muscle weakness, or trouble breathing.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.Approved
AcetyldigoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Acetyldigoxin.Experimental
AlgeldrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Algeldrate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Experimental
AlmagateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Almagate is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
AlmasilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Almasilate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Experimental
AloglutamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aloglutamol is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
AluminiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aluminium is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
Aluminium acetoacetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aluminium acetoacetate is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
Aluminium glycinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aluminium glycinate is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
Aluminum hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.Approved
Bismuth SubcitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bismuth Subcitrate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
Bismuth subnitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bismuth subnitrate is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
Calcium CarbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Carbonate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
Calcium silicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium silicate is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
CymarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Cymarin.Experimental
DeslanosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Deslanoside.Approved
DigitoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Digitoxin.Approved, Investigational
DigoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Digoxin.Approved
GitoformateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Gitoformate.Experimental
HydrotalciteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrotalcite is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental, Investigational
Lanatoside CThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Lanatoside C.Experimental
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Levothyroxine can be decreased when it is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Liothyronine can be decreased when it is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
MagaldrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magaldrate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Withdrawn
Magnesium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium citrate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
Magnesium peroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium peroxide is combined with Tolevamer.Experimental
Magnesium silicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium silicate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Experimental
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium Sulfate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Vet Approved
Magnesium TrisilicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium Trisilicate is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meloxicam is combined with Tolevamer.Approved, Vet Approved
MetildigoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Metildigoxin.Experimental
OleandrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Oleandrin.Experimental, Investigational
OuabainThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Ouabain.Approved
PeruvosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Peruvoside.Experimental
ProscillaridinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Proscillaridin.Experimental
Thyroid, porcineThe serum concentration of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when it is combined with Tolevamer.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Avoid calcium, magnesium and potassium.
  • Take on an empty stomach.

References

Synthesis Reference

Chris Ho, Jugminder Chawla, Hitesh R. Bhagat, "Polystyrene sulfonate polymer tablets, their preparation and use." U.S. Patent US20080299198, issued December 04, 2008.

US20080299198
General References
Not Available
External Links
PubChem Substance
46507832
ChEBI
53278
PharmGKB
PA164749386
Wikipedia
Polystyrene_sulfonate
ATC Codes
V03AE01 — Polystyrene sulfonate
AHFS Codes
  • 40:18.18 — Potassium-removing Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentAntibiotic-Associated Colitis / Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea / Clostridium Difficile Diarrhea / Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) / Clostridium Enterocolitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPseudohypoaldosteronism1
3TerminatedTreatmentClostridium Difficile / Diarrhea / Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Failure / Hyperkalemia1
4TerminatedSupportive CareHyperkalemia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionOral; Rectal100 %
PowderOral; Rectal100 %
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/g
SuspensionRectal250 mg
Powder, for solutionOral; Rectal999 mg
PowderOral1 g/g
PowderOral; Rectal1 g/g
Powder, for suspensionOral4.1 meq/g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal1 g/g
SuspensionOral; Rectal15 g/60mL
SuspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/g
PowderOral; Rectal94.3 mg
SuspensionOral250 mg
SuspensionOral; Rectal15 g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Pms-Sod Polystyr Sulf (120 Ml) 30 g/enm Retention Enema15.36USD enema
Kayexalate Powder0.9USD gm
Kayexalate powder0.86USD g
Sod poly sulfonate powder0.69USD g
Kionex Powder0.46USD gm
Kionex powder0.44USD g
Kalexate powder0.39USD g
Sodium polystyrene sulf powder0.39USD g
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Powder0.31USD gm
Kayexalate Powder0.2USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. Powder0.15USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. 250 mg/ml Suspension0.13USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
References
  1. Watson M, Abbott KC, Yuan CM: Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Oct;5(10):1723-6. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03700410. Epub 2010 Aug 26. [PubMed:20798253]
  2. Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S: Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May;21(5):733-5. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010010079. Epub 2010 Feb 18. [PubMed:20167700]
  3. Hoffman RS, Stringer JA, Feinberg RS, Goldfrank LR: Comparative efficacy of thallium adsorption by activated charcoal, prussian blue, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(7):833-7. [PubMed:10630266]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 12:12 / Updated on November 13, 2017 21:49