Identification

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates
Name
Tolevamer
Accession Number
DB01344  (DB06658)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used to treat abnormally high potassium levels. It may be taken orally or by rectum, as an enema, and functions as a potassium-binding resin in the intestines. It is also an effective topical microbicide and spermicide, inhibiting the genital transfection of, among others, HIV.

Synonyms
  • poly(styrene-4-sulfonic acid)
  • Polystyrene sulfonate
  • Polystyrene sulfonic acid
  • polystyrenesulfonic acid
  • Tolevamer
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tolevamer calciumHUI2S0079337286-92-3Not applicable
Tolevamer potassium sodium4A5OM7PI181011713-07-7Not applicable
Tolevamer sodium1699G8679Z9080-79-9Not applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
K-exit PoudrePowder, for solutionOral; RectalOmega Laboratories Ltd1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1958-01-082013-04-04Us
KayexalatePowder1 gOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1961-12-31Not applicableCanada
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalConcordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc2013-07-152018-06-30Us
KayexalatePowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalCovis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-07-152018-06-30Us
Resonium CalciumPowder, for solutionOral; RectalSanofi Aventis1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
SolystatSuspensionRectalPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1989-12-312019-07-30Canada
SolystatSuspensionOralPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
SolystatPowderOral; RectalPendopharm Division Of Pharmascience Inc1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sps Suspension 15gm/60mlSuspensionOral; RectalCarolina Medical Products Company1987-12-311999-07-26Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KionexPowder, for suspension4.1 meq/1gOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1998-02-012018-07-31Us
KionexSuspension15 g/60mLOral; RectalPaddock Laboratories, LLC2008-12-30Not applicableUs
Odan-sodium Polystyrene SulfonateSuspensionOral; RectalOdan Laboratories Ltd2018-12-11Not applicableCanada
Odan-sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder, for suspensionOral; RectalOdan Laboratories Ltd2018-10-25Not applicableCanada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Oral SuspensionSuspensionOralPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate PowderPowderOral; RectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072014-02-10Canada
PHL-sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Retention EnemaSuspensionRectalPharmel Inc2004-12-072010-11-25Canada
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonateSuspension15 g/60mLOral; RectalRoxane Laboratories Inc2005-08-032008-11-10Us
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder1 g/1gOral; RectalATLANTIC BIOLOGICALS CORP2012-07-25Not applicableUs
Sodium Polystyrene SulfonatePowder1 g/1gOral; RectalKVK-Tech, Inc.2012-07-25Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
International/Other Brands
Resonium A / Sorbisterit
Categories
UNII
ZSL2FB6GXN
CAS number
28210-41-5

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat abnormally high potassium levels.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Polystyrene sulfonate affects the exchange of sodium and potassium in the body. Polystyrene sulfonate is used to treat high levels of potassium in the blood, also called hyperkalemia. It is a potassium-binding ion-exchange resin that can be administered orally (25 grams in 20% sorbitol) or rectally (50 grams in 20% sorbitol).

Mechanism of action

Polystyrene sulfonate, which is not absorbed, binds excess potassium, carrying it out of the body. The indigestible potassium polystryene sulfonate complex is excreted with the faeces, preventing the absorption of potassium into the blood stream. Hence, the serum potassium level decreases.

TargetActionsOrganism
APotassium
binder
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more
Absorption

Not absorbed following oral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

none

Route of elimination

Feces.

Half life

none

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Overdose symptoms may include confusion, irritability, trouble thinking or concentrating, muscle weakness, or trouble breathing.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AcetyldigoxinThe risk or severity of Cardiac Arrhythmia can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Acetyldigoxin.
AlmasilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Almasilate.
AloglutamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aloglutamol.
AluminiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminium.
Aluminium acetoacetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminium acetoacetate.
Aluminium glycinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminium glycinate.
Aluminium phosphateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminium phosphate.
Aluminum hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
Bismuth subnitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolevamer is combined with Bismuth subnitrate.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
  • Avoid calcium, magnesium and potassium.
  • Take on an empty stomach.

References

Synthesis Reference

Chris Ho, Jugminder Chawla, Hitesh R. Bhagat, "Polystyrene sulfonate polymer tablets, their preparation and use." U.S. Patent US20080299198, issued December 04, 2008.

US20080299198
General References
Not Available
External Links
PubChem Substance
46507832
ChEBI
53278
PharmGKB
PA164749386
Wikipedia
Polystyrene_sulfonate
ATC Codes
V03AE01 — Polystyrene sulfonate
AHFS Codes
  • 40:18.18 — Potassium-removing Agents

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentAntibiotic-Associated Diarrhea / Clostridium Difficile Diarrhea / Pseudomembranous Colitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPseudohypoaldosteronism1
3CompletedTreatmentClostridium Enterocolitis / Diarrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentClostridium Enterocolitis / Pseudomembranous Colitis1
3TerminatedTreatmentClostridium Difficile / Diarrhea / Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hyperkalemia1
4TerminatedSupportive CareHyperkalemia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Carolina Medical Products Co.
  • KVK-Tech Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderOral; Rectal1 g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal
SuspensionRectal
Powder, for solutionOral; Rectal
PowderOral1 g/1g
PowderOral; Rectal1 g/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral4.1 meq/1g
Powder, for suspensionOral; Rectal1 g/1g
SuspensionOral; Rectal15 g/60mL
SuspensionOral; Rectal4.1 meq/1g
PowderOral; Rectal
SuspensionOral
SuspensionOral; Rectal
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Pms-Sod Polystyr Sulf (120 Ml) 30 g/enm Retention Enema15.36USD enema
Kayexalate Powder0.9USD gm
Kayexalate powder0.86USD g
Sod poly sulfonate powder0.69USD g
Kionex Powder0.46USD gm
Kionex powder0.44USD g
Kalexate powder0.39USD g
Sodium polystyrene sulf powder0.39USD g
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Powder0.31USD gm
Kayexalate Powder0.2USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. Powder0.15USD g
Pms-Sodium Polystyrene Sulf. 250 mg/ml Suspension0.13USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
References
  1. Watson M, Abbott KC, Yuan CM: Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Oct;5(10):1723-6. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03700410. Epub 2010 Aug 26. [PubMed:20798253]
  2. Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S: Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May;21(5):733-5. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010010079. Epub 2010 Feb 18. [PubMed:20167700]
  3. Hoffman RS, Stringer JA, Feinberg RS, Goldfrank LR: Comparative efficacy of thallium adsorption by activated charcoal, prussian blue, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(7):833-7. [PubMed:10630266]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 12:12 / Updated on January 23, 2020 17:20