Identification

Name
Clotiazepam
Accession Number
DB01559
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit
Description

Clotiazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative, not approved for sale in the U.S. or Canada, but has been approved in the U.K. It is a schedule IV drug in Canada.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Clotiazepamum
  • Rize
International/Other Brands
Clozan (Pfizer) / Distensan (Esteve) / Rize (Dae Woong) / Rizen (Formenti) / Tienor (Farmaka)
Categories
UNII
ZCN055599V
CAS number
33671-46-4
Weight
Average: 318.821
Monoisotopic: 318.059361509
Chemical Formula
C16H15ClN2OS
InChI Key
CHBRHODLKOZEPZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H15ClN2OS/c1-3-10-8-12-15(11-6-4-5-7-13(11)17)18-9-14(20)19(2)16(12)21-10/h4-8H,3,9H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
5-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-ethyl-1-methyl-1H,2H,3H-thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepin-2-one
SMILES
CCC1=CC2=C(S1)N(C)C(=O)CN=C2C1=CC=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Clotiazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative possessing anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Stage 2 NREM sleep is significantly increased by clotiazepam.

Mechanism of action

Clotiazepam acts at the benzodiazepine receptors (BZD). This agonizes the action of GABA, increasing the frequency of opening of the channel chlorinates and penetration of the ions chlorinates through the ionophore. Increase in membrane polarization decreases the probability of discharge of neurons.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
potentiator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

99% bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

4 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clotiazepam is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Investigational
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabergoline is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Withdrawn
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Clotiazepam.Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Clotiazepam.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergonovine is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LisurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisuride is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Clotiazepam.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Clotiazepam.Experimental
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Experimental
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PergolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pergolide is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
RanolazineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Clotiazepam.Experimental
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Clotiazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TopiramateThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Experimental
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
YohimbineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clotiazepam can be decreased when used in combination with Yohimbine.Approved, Vet Approved
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Nakanishi, M., Araki, K.,Tahara, T. and Shiroki, M.; US. Patent 3,849,405; November 19, 1974; assigned to Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

General References
  1. Nakazawa Y, Kotorii M, Oshima M, Horikawa S, Tachibana H: Effects of thienodiazepine derivatives on human sleep as compared to those of benzodiazepine derivatives. Psychopharmacologia. 1975 Oct 31;44(2):165-71. [PubMed:709]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15512
PubChem Compound
2811
PubChem Substance
46508776
ChemSpider
2709
ChEBI
31425
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1697737
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000932
PharmGKB
PA164752437
Wikipedia
Clotiazepam
ATC Codes
N05BA21 — Clotiazepam

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)105-106Nakanishi, M., Araki, K.,Tahara, T. and Shiroki, M.; US. Patent 3,849,405; November 19, 1974; assigned to Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.
logP3.18MARUYAMA,T ET AL. (1992)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00537 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.58ALOGPS
logP4.11ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.67 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity85.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9849
Blood Brain Barrier+0.97
Caco-2 permeable+0.662
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6147
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7404
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7762
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5527
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7485
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8558
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7356
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8341
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5206
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8462
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.6555
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5194
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7292
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7848
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7554
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.3701 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9974
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8359
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-014u-3494000000-432038f1e527960b02fc
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thienodiazepines. These are heteropolycyclic containing a thiophene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Thiophene is 5-membered ring consisting of four carbon and one sulfur atoms. Diazepine is a 7-membered ring consisting of five carbon and two nitrogen atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Thienodiazepines
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Thienodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acids and derivatives / 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes / 1,4-diazepines / Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Lactams / Ketimines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds
show 6 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Thieno-para-diazepine / 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene / Para-diazepine / Chlorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [PubMed:18604239]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG1
Uniprot ID
Q8N1C3
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
Molecular Weight
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [PubMed:18604239]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [PubMed:18604239]
  2. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG3
Uniprot ID
Q99928
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
Molecular Weight
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB1
Uniprot ID
P18505
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Baburin I, Khom S, Timin E, Hohaus A, Sieghart W, Hering S: Estimating the efficiency of benzodiazepines on GABA(A) receptors comprising gamma1 or gamma2 subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):424-33. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.271. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [PubMed:18604239]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRD
Uniprot ID
O14764
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
Molecular Weight
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRE
Uniprot ID
P78334
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
Molecular Weight
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the ute...
Gene Name
GABRP
Uniprot ID
O00591
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
Molecular Weight
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR1
Uniprot ID
P24046
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
Molecular Weight
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR2
Uniprot ID
P28476
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
Molecular Weight
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRR3
Uniprot ID
A8MPY1
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
Molecular Weight
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA: Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Oct;9(8):827-44. [PubMed:18855614]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID
P33260
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Molecular Weight
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:10 / Updated on November 09, 2017 03:01