Identification

Name
Agmatine
Accession Number
DB08838
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental, Investigational
Description

Agmantine is a natural metabolite of the amino acid arginine. It is formed when arginine is decarboxylated by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase and is found naturally in ragweed pollen, ergot fungi, octopus muscle, herring sperm, sponges, and the mammalian brain. Agmatine is both an experimental and investigational drug. As an investigational drug, it is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy between the ages of 18 to 75 years. Up to now (July 2013), the results of this study have not yet been published. As an experimental drug, agmatine is being studied for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). The exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (4-aminobutyl) guanidine
  • (4-aminobutyl)guanidine
  • 1-amino-4-guanidobutane
  • N-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine
External IDs
NSC-56332
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Agmatine sulfateRU0176QL8I2482-00-0PTAYFGHRDOMJGC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Categories
UNII
70J407ZL5Q
CAS number
306-60-5
Weight
Average: 130.1915
Monoisotopic: 130.121846468
Chemical Formula
C5H14N4
InChI Key
QYPPJABKJHAVHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H14N4/c6-3-1-2-4-9-5(7)8/h1-4,6H2,(H4,7,8,9)
IUPAC Name
1-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine
SMILES
NCCCCNC(N)=N

Pharmacology

Indication

Agmatine is being studied experimentally for several indications such as cardioprotection, diabetes, decreased kidney function, neuroprotection (stroke, severe CNS injuries, epilepsy, glaucoma, and neuropathic pain), and psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and cognition). As an investigational drug, agamatine is being studied in a non-blinded prospective case study in the United States looking at patients who have been diagnosed with small fiber peripheral neuropathy.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Agmatine has several physiological effects. Its cardiovascular effects include mildly reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Also it promotes a mild hypoglycemic state, reduces cellular oxidative stress, and enhances glomerular filtration rate.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of action is still being investigated for all of the potential indications of agmatine. Some of the biochemical mechanisms discovered so far concern agmatine's indication for diabetes, neuroprotection, and psychiatric conditions. In diabetes, agmatine produces hypoglycemia by increasing the release of insulin form pancreatic islet cells and increasing glucose uptake by the cells through increased endorphin release from the adrenal glands. Concerning neuroprotection, agmatine's effects are thought to involve modulation of receptors (NMDA, alpha 2, and imidazoline) and ion channels (ATP sensitive potassium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels) as well as blocking nitric oxide synthesis. Agmatine blocks nitric oxide synthesis by reducing the nitric oxide synthase -2 (NOS-2) protein in astroglial cells and macrophages. With respect to agmatine's benefit in psychiatric disorders, it is suggested that the mechanism involves neurotransmitter receptor modulation of the NMDA, alpha-2, serotonin, opioid, and imidazoline receptors. Specifically when agmatine binds to the imidazoline and alpha 2 receptors, it acts as a neurotransmitter and releases catecholamines from the adrenal gland.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
ANischarin
agonist
Human
AAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha
antagonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
antagonist
Human
AATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
antagonist
Human
AVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
antagonist
Human
AAcid-sensing ion channel 3
agonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcebutololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AlprenololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmineptineAmineptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
AmoxapineAmoxapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
ArotinololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Arotinolol.Approved, Investigational
AtenololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Atenolol.Approved
BefunololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BetaxololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BevantololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BisoprololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BopindololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BucindololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BufuralolAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BupranololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bupranolol.Approved
BupropionThe serum concentration of Agmatine can be increased when it is combined with Bupropion.Approved
CarteololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved, Vet Approved
CloranololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
CyclobenzaprineCyclobenzaprine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
DibenzepinDibenzepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Experimental
DosulepinDosulepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
EpanololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EsmirtazapineEsmirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Investigational
EsmololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.Approved
ImipramineImipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
IndenololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.Approved, Investigational
IprindoleIprindole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Experimental
LabetalolAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LofepramineLofepramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Experimental
MepindololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MetoprololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Agmatine can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineMirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
NadololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nadolol.Approved
NebivololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NortriptylineNortriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
OpipramolOpipramol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Investigational
OxprenololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
PenbutololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PindololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Pindolol.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PractololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Practolol.Approved
PropranololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
SotalolAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Sotalol.Approved
TalinololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TertatololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TianeptineTianeptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved, Investigational
TimololAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Timolol.Approved
TipiracilThe serum concentration of Tipiracil can be increased when it is combined with Agmatine.Approved
TrimipramineTrimipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Agmatine.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055]
  2. Payandemehr B, Rahimian R, Bahremand A, Ebrahimi A, Saadat S, Moghaddas P, Fadakar K, Derakhshanian H, Dehpour AR: Role of nitric oxide in additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and morphine. Physiol Behav. 2013 Jun 13;118:52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.022. Epub 2013 May 14. [PubMed:23685229]
  3. Huang YC, Tzeng WS, Wang CC, Cheng BC, Chang YK, Chen HH, Lin PC, Huang TY, Chuang TJ, Lin JW, Chang CP: Neuroprotective effect of agmatine in rats with transient cerebral ischemia using MR imaging and histopathologic evaluation. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep;31(7):1174-81. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2013.03.026. Epub 2013 May 1. [PubMed:23642800]
  4. Piletz JE, Aricioglu F, Cheng JT, Fairbanks CA, Gilad VH, Haenisch B, Halaris A, Hong S, Lee JE, Li J, Liu P, Molderings GJ, Rodrigues AL, Satriano J, Seong GJ, Wilcox G, Wu N, Gilad GM: Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation. Drug Discov Today. 2013 Sep;18(17-18):880-93. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.05.017. Epub 2013 Jun 13. [PubMed:23769988]
  5. Regunathan S, Piletz JE: Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and agmatine synthesis in macrophages and astrocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Dec;1009:20-9. [PubMed:15028566]
  6. O'Neil, Maryadele J. (2013). The Merck Index : An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (15th ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry, The. [ISBN:978-1849736701]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01432
KEGG Compound
C00179
PubChem Compound
199
PubChem Substance
175427116
ChemSpider
194
BindingDB
85213
ChEBI
17431
ChEMBL
CHEMBL58343
HET
AG2
Wikipedia
Agmatine
PDB Entries
1aq7 / 1mt1 / 1n13 / 2qqc / 2qqd / 3amu / 3au7 / 3iqd / 3n2o / 4xqe
show 9 more
MSDS
Download (125 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)234-238 degress CelciusFrom MSDS.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.61 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area87.92 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity48.09 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9113
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8116
Caco-2 permeable+0.576
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5247
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9574
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6373
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5877
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8348
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.609
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8303
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8126
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9261
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9428
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9583
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7871
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8883
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7355
Rat acute toxicity2.7458 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8538
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9246
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-a9f6a71ff1ddda580ea9
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1910000000-4c97cf5e84d752009d1a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1910000000-de398de0f062b85c083c
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-1910000000-de398de0f062b85c083c
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-1910000000-de398de0f062b85c083c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00e9-9700000000-dcb266f2466b6490a487
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-e4747ffbbb1c0aa02f4e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-e97e998997ab8bfcedb5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-4843789c1dd06e41493d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9200000000-a6b84c1241179a3739f8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-57f390519e8ddbcb80a8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-e38858b8c1a4fb2a6b14
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-2e6fd942608b84941a7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-075bad34dbbb7544e053
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9600000000-368edccb095766335b38
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-3900000000-21dc8634e0e5c79fc825
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9300000000-55aa9e9ef7923b67457f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-9000000000-ec5b24cf1199482a883d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-9500000000-f8e119f2ba53222591a1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-c4883e27e32ef6874c13
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-2b9c32eb2684272e86a2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-6599222abf093d406584
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-4843789c1dd06e41493d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9200000000-a6b84c1241179a3739f8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-57f390519e8ddbcb80a8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-e38858b8c1a4fb2a6b14
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-2e6fd942608b84941a7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-075bad34dbbb7544e053
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9600000000-368edccb095766335b38
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-9500000000-1c515d08e5bc52668dc4
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as guanidines. These are compounds containing a guanidine moiety, with the general structure (R1R2N)(R3R4N)C=N-R5.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Guanidines
Direct Parent
Guanidines
Alternative Parents
Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Guanidine / Carboximidamide / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary amine / Primary aliphatic amine / Imine / Amine / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
guanidines, primary amino compound (CHEBI:17431) / Amines (C00179)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol binding
Specific Function
Acts either as the functional imidazoline-1 receptor (I1R) candidate or as a membrane-associated mediator of the I1R signaling. Binds numerous imidazoline ligands that induces initiation of cell-si...
Gene Name
NISCH
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2I1
Uniprot Name
Nischarin
Molecular Weight
166627.105 Da
References
  1. Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. 1994 Feb 18;263(5149):966-9. [PubMed:7906055]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID
P02708
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Loring RH: Agmatine acts as an antagonist of neuronal nicotinic receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1990 Jan;99(1):207-11. [PubMed:2331571]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...
Gene Name
GRIN1
Uniprot ID
Q05586
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
Molecular Weight
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Yang XC, Reis DJ: Agmatine selectively blocks the N-methyl-D-aspartate subclass of glutamate receptor channels in rat hippocampal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):544-9. [PubMed:9918557]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than...
Gene Name
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID
P48048
Uniprot Name
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
44794.6 Da
References
  1. Shepherd RM, Hashmi MN, Kane C, Squires PE, Dunne MJ: Elevation of cytosolic calcium by imidazolines in mouse islets of Langerhans: implications for stimulus-response coupling of insulin release. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;119(5):911-6. [PubMed:8922740]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID
Q00975
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
Molecular Weight
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Weng XC, Gai XD, Zheng JQ, Li J: Agmatine blocked voltage-gated calcium channel in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Aug;24(8):746-50. [PubMed:12904272]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Cation channel with high affinity for sodium, which is gated by extracellular protons and inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. Generates a biphasic current with a fast inactivating and a slow susta...
Gene Name
ASIC3
Uniprot ID
Q9UHC3
Uniprot Name
Acid-sensing ion channel 3
Molecular Weight
58904.72 Da
References
  1. Li WG, Yu Y, Zhang ZD, Cao H, Xu TL: ASIC3 channels integrate agmatine and multiple inflammatory signals through the nonproton ligand sensing domain. Mol Pain. 2010 Dec 8;6:88. doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-88. [PubMed:21143836]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Grundemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schomig E: Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):810-7. [PubMed:12538837]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
L-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the sodium-independent uptake of dibasic amino acids and sodium-dependent uptake of some neutral amino acids. Requires coexpression with SLC3A2/4F2hc to mediate the uptake of arginine, ...
Gene Name
SLC7A7
Uniprot ID
Q9UM01
Uniprot Name
Y+L amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
55990.01 Da
References
  1. Satriano J, Isome M, Casero RA Jr, Thomson SC, Blantz RC: Polyamine transport system mediates agmatine transport in mammalian cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):C329-34. [PubMed:11401856]

Drug created on February 21, 2013 16:04 / Updated on December 01, 2017 17:12