Identification

Name
Cilnidipine
Accession Number
DB09232
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Cilnidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist. It was jointly developed by Fuji Viscera Pharmaceutical Company, Japan and Ajinomoto, Japan and approved in 1995. Compared with other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel that existing sympathetic nerve end besides acting on L-type calcium channel that similar to most of the calcium antagonists. Cilnidipine is approved for use in Japan, China, India, Korea and some European countries.[1]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
International/Other Brands
Atelec (Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd) / Cilogard (Cipla Ltd)
Categories
UNII
97T5AZ1JIP
CAS number
132203-70-4
Weight
Average: 492.528
Monoisotopic: 492.18965125
Chemical Formula
C27H28N2O7
InChI Key
KJEBULYHNRNJTE-DHZHZOJOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H28N2O7/c1-18-23(26(30)35-14-8-11-20-9-5-4-6-10-20)25(21-12-7-13-22(17-21)29(32)33)24(19(2)28-18)27(31)36-16-15-34-3/h4-13,17,25,28H,14-16H2,1-3H3/b11-8+
IUPAC Name
3-(2-methoxyethyl) 5-(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
COCCOC(=O)C1=C(C)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC=CC(=C1)[N+]([O-])=O)C(=O)OC\C=C\C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Cilnidipine is indicated for the management of hypertension for end-organ protection.[5] It is reported to be useful in elderly patients and in those with diabetes and albuminuria. Cilnidipine has been increasingly used in patients with chronic kidney disease

Hypertension is the term used to describe the presence of high blood pressure. The blood pressure is generated by the force of the blood pumped from the heart against the blood vessels. Thus hypertension is caused when there is too much pressure on the blood vessels and this effect can damage the blood vessel.[6]

Pharmacodynamics

Administration of cilnidipine has been shown to present an antisympathetic profile in vitro and in vivo. It decreases blood pressure safely and effectively without excessive blood pressure reduction or tachycardia.[2]

Mechanism of action

Cilnidipine acts on the L-type calcium channels of blood vessels by blocking the incoming calcium and suppressing the contraction of blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure. Cilnidipine also works on the N-type calcium channel located at the end of the sympathetic nerve, inhibiting the emission of norepinephrine and suppressing the increase in stress blood pressure.[2]

TargetActionsOrganism
AVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
antagonist
Human
AVoltage dependent L type calcium channel
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Cilnidipine presents a very rapid absorption with a maximum peaked concentration after 2 hours. Its distribution tends to be higher in the liver as well as in kidneys, plasma and other tissues. Cilnidipine does not present a high accumulation in the tissue after repeated oral administration.[8]

Volume of distribution

Drugs on the group of dihydropyridines such as cilnidipine tend to have a large volume of distribution.[4]

Protein binding

Cilnidipine presents a very high protein binding that represents to even 98% of the administered dose.[8]

Metabolism

Cilnidipine is metabolized by both liver and kidney. It is rapidly metabolized by liver microsomes by a dehydrogenation process. The major enzymatic isoform involved in cilnidipine dehydrogenation of the dihydropyridine ring is CYP3A.[7]

Route of elimination

Cilnidipine gets eliminated through the urine in a proportion of 20% of the administered dose and 80% is eliminated by the feces.[7]

Half life

The half-life of the hypotensive effect for cilnidipine is of about 20.4 min.[3]

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The percentage of reports of cilnidipine that express drug toxicity reported as side effects are 5.26%.[9]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONEThe therapeutic efficacy of 2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
2-mercaptobenzothiazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Vet Approved
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Aldesleukin.Approved
AlfuzosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Alfuzosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmorolfineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amorolfine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnidulafunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Anidulafungin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of hypotension, conduction block, and bradycardia can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Cilnidipine.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe therapeutic efficacy of Artemether can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Atenolol.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved, Investigational
Bafilomycin A1The therapeutic efficacy of Bafilomycin A1 can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilnidipine.Experimental
BarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Barbital.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
Benzoic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzoic Acid can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BevantololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bevantolol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
BifonazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Bifonazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Bisoprolol.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
Brefeldin AThe therapeutic efficacy of Brefeldin A can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Bretylium.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Brexpiprazole is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
BucindololThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bucindolol is combined with Cilnidipine.Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BunazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bunazosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Investigational
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
ButenafineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
ButoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Butoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.Approved, Investigational
Calcium CarbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Carbonate.Approved, Investigational
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.Approved
Calcium CitrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Citrate.Approved
Calcium glubionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium glubionate.Approved
Calcium GluceptateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Gluceptate.Approved
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.Approved, Vet Approved
Calcium lactateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Calcium lactate gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium lactate gluconate.Experimental
Calcium levulinateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.Approved, Experimental
Calcium pangamateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium pangamate.Experimental
Calcium PhosphateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Phosphate.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandicidinThe therapeutic efficacy of Candicidin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Withdrawn
Capric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Capric acid can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
CaseinThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Casein.Approved
CaspofunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Caspofungin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
CeruleninThe therapeutic efficacy of Cerulenin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChloroxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chloroxine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CiclopiroxThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciclopirox can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cilnidipine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Clevidipine.Approved, Investigational
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Clofarabine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Clotrimazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Clozapine.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CordycepinThe therapeutic efficacy of Cordycepin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Investigational
CyclosporineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclosporine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextroamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dextroamphetamine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Illicit
DichloropheneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dichlorophene can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
DronedaroneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Dronedarone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
DroperidolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
DuloxetineCilnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Econazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Cilnidipine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfinaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Efinaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Eprosartan.Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Escitalopram is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Esmolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved, Investigational
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Fenoldopam.Approved
FenticonazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenticonazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Fimasartan.Approved, Investigational
FluconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
FlucytosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Flucytosine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FlutrimazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Flutrimazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GlyphosateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyphosate can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
GriseofulvinThe therapeutic efficacy of Griseofulvin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HachimycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Hachimycin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
HaloproginThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloprogin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Withdrawn
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HexetidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexetidine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Iloperidone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Cilnidipine.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Isoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
ItraconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Itraconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
LacidipineCilnidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaCilnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LisdexamfetamineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Lisdexamfetamine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Losartan.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
Magnesium sulfateThe risk or severity of hypotension and neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved, Investigational
MepartricinThe therapeutic efficacy of Mepartricin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MevastatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Mevastatin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
MicafunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Micafungin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
MiconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Miconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MiltefosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Miltefosine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Minoxidil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MonensinThe therapeutic efficacy of Monensin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Vet Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
MyxothiazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Myxothiazol can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nadolol.Approved
NafcillinThe therapeutic efficacy of Cilnidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Nafcillin.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe therapeutic efficacy of Naftifine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
NatamycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Natamycin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nefazodone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Withdrawn
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NicergolineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NifuratelThe therapeutic efficacy of Nifuratel can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
NiguldipineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Niguldipine is combined with Cilnidipine.Experimental
Nikkomycin ZThe therapeutic efficacy of Nikkomycin Z can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nimodipine.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideCilnidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved, Investigational
Nitrous acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Nitrous acid.Approved, Investigational
NitroxolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitroxoline can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
NystatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Nystatin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved, Investigational
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OmoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Omoconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
OxiconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxiconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PafuramidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pafuramidine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Investigational
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Papaverine.Approved, Investigational
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentamidine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Pizotifen is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
PosaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Posaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Promazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropericiazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propericiazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
PropiomazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propiomazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Propiverine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PyrrolnitrinThe therapeutic efficacy of Pyrrolnitrin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Quinidine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
RacepinephrineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Racepinephrine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
RadicicolThe therapeutic efficacy of Radicicol can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Reserpine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Rifabutin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Rifampicin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
RifapentineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Rifapentine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Rifaximin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneCilnidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Rotigotine.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
Salicylhydroxamic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Salicylhydroxamic Acid can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
Salicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Salicylic acid can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sertaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SilodosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Silodosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
SinefunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Sinefungin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Sirolimus can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
TavaboroleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tavaborole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
TerbinafineThe therapeutic efficacy of Terbinafine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Terconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe metabolism of Cilnidipine can be increased when combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioproperazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Thioproperazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThymolThe therapeutic efficacy of Thymol can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Timolol.Approved
TioconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tioconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tizanidine.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolciclateThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolciclate can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
TolnaftateThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolnaftate can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Torasemide.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
TrimazosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trimazosin is combined with Cilnidipine.Experimental
TrimetrexateThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimetrexate can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
UrapidilThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Urapidil is combined with Cilnidipine.Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Voriconazole can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
WortmanninThe therapeutic efficacy of Wortmannin can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Experimental
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Yoshimoto R, Dohmoto H, Yamada K, Goto A: Prolonged inhibition of vascular contraction and calcium influx by the novel 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist cinaldipine (FRC-8653). Jpn J Pharmacol. 1991 Jun;56(2):225-9. [PubMed:1881002]
  2. Lee J, Lee H, Jang K, Lim KS, Shin D, Yu KS: Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between cilnidipine and valsartan, in healthy volunteers. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014 Oct 8;8:1781-8. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S68574. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25336921]
  3. Uneyama H, Uchida H, Konda T, Yoshimoto R, Akaike N: Selectivity of dihydropyridines for cardiac L-type and sympathetic N-type Ca2+ channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 May 28;373(1):93-100. [PubMed:10408255]
  4. Henrich W. (2012). Principles and practice of dialysis. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  5. Centapres monograph [Link]
  6. Hypertension Canada [Link]
  7. Kerala medical journal [Link]
  8. Lloyd healthcare [Link]
  9. Medfacts [Link]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D01173
PubChem Compound
5282138
PubChem Substance
310265136
ChemSpider
4445338
ChEBI
31399
ChEMBL
CHEMBL452076
Wikipedia
Cilnidipine
ATC Codes
C08CA14 — Cilnidipine
MSDS
Download (52.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Strokes1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)110ºC'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)653ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityInsoluble'MSDS'
logP4.70'MSDS'
pKa11.39'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000566 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.39ALOGPS
logP4.1ChemAxon
logS-5.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.46ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area117 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity137.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0012490000-56c247612ff7c5dfa146
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-2915100000-4bb1d47549a538dcee61

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Pyridines and derivatives
Sub Class
Hydropyridines
Direct Parent
Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Nitrobenzenes / Styrenes / Nitroaromatic compounds / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Vinylogous amides / Enoate esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Dialkyl ethers
show 8 more
Substituents
Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative / Nitrobenzene / Nitroaromatic compound / Styrene / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Benzenoid / Enoate ester / Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Vinylogous amide
show 26 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
dihydropyridine (CHEBI:31399)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID
Q00975
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B
Molecular Weight
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Lee J, Lee H, Jang K, Lim KS, Shin D, Yu KS: Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between cilnidipine and valsartan, in healthy volunteers. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014 Oct 8;8:1781-8. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S68574. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25336921]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...

Components:
References
  1. Lee J, Lee H, Jang K, Lim KS, Shin D, Yu KS: Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between cilnidipine and valsartan, in healthy volunteers. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014 Oct 8;8:1781-8. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S68574. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25336921]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...

Components:
References
  1. Kerala medical journal [Link]

Drug created on October 23, 2015 10:20 / Updated on July 02, 2018 19:13