Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase

Details

Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Synonyms
  • XDHA
Gene Name
XDH
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011593|Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
MTADKLVFFVNGRKVVEKNADPETTLLAYLRRKLGLSGTKLGCGEGGCGACTVMLSKYDR
LQNKIVHFSANACLAPICSLHHVAVTTVEGIGSTKTRLHPVQERIAKSHGSQCGFCTPGI
VMSMYTLLRNQPEPTMEEIENAFQGNLCRCTGYRPILQGFRTFARDGGCCGGDGNNPNCC
MNQKKDHSVSLSPSLFKPEEFTPLDPTQEPIFPPELLRLKDTPRKQLRFEGERVTWIQAS
TLKELLDLKAQHPDAKLVVGNTEIGIEMKFKNMLFPMIVCPAWIPELNSVEHGPDGISFG
AACPLSIVEKTLVDAVAKLPAQKTEVFRGVLEQLRWFAGKQVKSVASVGGNIITASPISD
LNPVFMASGAKLTLVSRGTRRTVQMDHTFFPGYRKTLLSPEEILLSIEIPYSREGEYFSA
FKQASRREDDIAKVTSGMRVLFKPGTTEVQELALCYGGMANRTISALKTTQRQLSKLWKE
ELLQDVCAGLAEELHLPPDAPGGMVDFRCTLTLSFFFKFYLTVLQKLGQENLEDKCGKLD
PTFASATLLFQKDPPADVQLFQEVPKGQSEEDMVGRPLPHLAADMQASGEAVYCDDIPRY
ENELSLRLVTSTRAHAKIKSIDTSEAKKVPGFVCFISADDVPGSNITGICNDETVFAKDK
VTCVGHIIGAVVADTPEHTQRAAQGVKITYEELPAIITIEDAIKNNSFYGPELKIEKGDL
KKGFSEADNVVSGEIYIGGQEHFYLETHCTIAVPKGEAGEMELFVSTQNTMKTQSFVAKM
LGVPANRIVVRVKRMGGGFGGKETRSTVVSTAVALAAYKTGRPVRCMLDRDEDMLITGGR
HPFLARYKVGFMKTGTVVALEVDHFSNVGNTQDLSQSIMERALFHMDNCYKIPNIRGTGR
LCKTNLPSNTAFRGFGGPQGMLIAECWMSEVAVTCGMPAEEVRRKNLYKEGDLTHFNQKL
EGFTLPRCWEECLASSQYHARKSEVDKFNKENCWKKRGLCIIPTKFGISFTVPFLNQAGA
LLHVYTDGSVLLTHGGTEMGQGLHTKMVQVASRALKIPTSKIYISETSTNTVPNTSPTAA
SVSADLNGQAVYAACQTILKRLEPYKKKNPSGSWEDWVTAAYMDTVSLSATGFYRTPNLG
YSFETNSGNPFHYFSYGVACSEVEIDCLTGDHKNLRTDIVMDVGSSLNPAIDIGQVEGAF
VQGLGLFTLEELHYSPEGSLHTRGPSTYKIPAFGSIPIEFRVSLLRDCPNKKAIYASKAV
GEPPLFLAASIFFAIKDAIRAARAQHTGNNVKELFRLDSPATPEKIRNACVDKFTTLCVT
GVPENCKPWSVRV
Number of residues
1333
Molecular Weight
146422.99
Theoretical pI
7.7
GO Classification
Functions
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding / electron carrier activity / flavin adenine dinucleotide binding / iron ion binding / molybdopterin cofactor binding / oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors / oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors / protein homodimerization activity / xanthine dehydrogenase activity / xanthine oxidase activity
Processes
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process / lactation / negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation / negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation / negative regulation of gene expression / negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling / negative regulation of protein phosphorylation / negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway / negative regulation of vasculogenesis / nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process / positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade / positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process / purine nucleobase metabolic process / purine nucleotide catabolic process / small molecule metabolic process / xanthine catabolic process
Components
cytosol / extracellular space / peroxisome / sarcoplasmic reticulum
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011594|Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH)
ATGACAGCAGACAAATTGGTTTTCTTTGTGAATGGCAGAAAGGTGGTGGAGAAAAATGCA
GATCCAGAGACAACCCTTTTGGCCTACCTGAGAAGAAAGTTGGGGCTGAGTGGAACCAAG
CTCGGCTGTGGAGAGGGGGGCTGCGGGGCTTGCACAGTGATGCTCTCCAAGTATGATCGT
CTGCAGAACAAGATCGTCCACTTTTCTGCCAATGCCTGCCTGGCCCCCATCTGCTCCTTG
CACCATGTTGCAGTGACAACTGTGGAAGGAATAGGAAGCACCAAGACGAGGCTGCATCCT
GTGCAGGAGAGAATTGCCAAAAGCCACGGCTCCCAGTGCGGGTTCTGCACCCCTGGCATC
GTCATGAGTATGTACACACTGCTCCGGAATCAGCCCGAGCCCACCATGGAGGAGATTGAG
AATGCCTTCCAAGGAAATCTGTGCCGCTGCACAGGCTACAGACCCATCCTCCAGGGCTTC
CGGACCTTTGCCAGGGATGGTGGATGCTGTGGAGGAGATGGGAATAATCCAAATTGCTGC
ATGAACCAGAAGAAAGACCACTCAGTCAGCCTCTCGCCATCTTTATTCAAACCAGAGGAG
TTCACGCCCCTGGATCCAACCCAGGAGCCCATTTTTCCCCCAGAGTTGCTGAGGCTGAAA
GACACTCCTCGGAAGCAGCTGCGATTTGAAGGGGAGCGTGTGACGTGGATACAGGCCTCA
ACCCTCAAGGAGCTGCTGGACCTCAAGGCTCAGCACCCTGACGCCAAGCTGGTCGTGGGG
AACACGGAGATTGGCATTGAGATGAAGTTCAAGAATATGCTGTTTCCTATGATTGTCTGC
CCAGCCTGGATCCCTGAGCTGAATTCGGTAGAACATGGACCCGACGGTATCTCCTTTGGA
GCTGCTTGCCCCCTGAGCATTGTGGAAAAAACCCTGGTGGATGCTGTTGCTAAGCTTCCT
GCCCAAAAGACAGAGGTGTTCAGAGGGGTCCTGGAGCAGCTGCGCTGGTTTGCTGGGAAG
CAAGTCAAGTCTGTGGCGTCCGTTGGAGGGAACATCATCACTGCCAGCCCCATCTCCGAC
CTCAACCCCGTGTTCATGGCCAGTGGGGCCAAGCTGACACTTGTGTCCAGAGGCACCAGG
AGAACTGTCCAGATGGACCACACCTTCTTCCCTGGCTACAGAAAGACCCTGCTGAGCCCG
GAGGAGATACTGCTCTCCATAGAGATCCCCTACAGCAGGGAGGGGGAGTATTTCTCAGCA
TTCAAGCAGGCCTCCCGGAGAGAAGATGACATTGCCAAGGTAACCAGTGGCATGAGAGTT
TTATTCAAGCCAGGAACCACAGAGGTACAGGAGCTGGCCCTTTGCTATGGTGGAATGGCC
AACAGAACCATCTCAGCCCTCAAGACCACTCAGAGGCAGCTTTCCAAGCTCTGGAAGGAG
GAGCTGCTGCAGGACGTGTGTGCAGGACTGGCAGAGGAGCTGCATCTGCCTCCCGATGCC
CCTGGTGGCATGGTGGACTTCCGGTGCACCCTCACCCTCAGCTTCTTCTTCAAGTTCTAC
CTGACAGTCCTTCAGAAGCTGGGCCAAGAGAACCTGGAAGACAAGTGTGGTAAACTGGAC
CCCACTTTCGCCAGTGCAACTTTACTGTTTCAGAAAGACCCCCCAGCCGATGTCCAGCTC
TTCCAAGAGGTGCCCAAGGGTCAGTCTGAGGAGGACATGGTGGGCCGGCCCCTGCCCCAC
CTGGCAGCGGACATGCAGGCCTCTGGTGAGGCCGTGTACTGTGACGACATTCCTCGCTAC
GAGAATGAGCTGTCTCTCCGGCTGGTCACCAGCACCCGGGCCCACGCCAAGATCAAGTCC
ATAGATACATCAGAAGCTAAGAAGGTTCCAGGGTTTGTTTGTTTCATTTCCGCTGATGAT
GTTCCTGGGAGTAACATAACTGGAATTTGTAATGATGAGACAGTCTTTGCGAAGGATAAG
GTTACTTGTGTTGGGCATATCATTGGTGCTGTGGTTGCTGACACCCCGGAACACACACAG
AGAGCTGCCCAAGGGGTGAAAATCACCTATGAAGAACTACCAGCCATTATCACAATTGAG
GATGCTATAAAGAACAACTCCTTTTATGGACCTGAGCTGAAGATCGAGAAAGGGGACCTA
AAGAAGGGGTTTTCCGAAGCAGATAATGTTGTGTCAGGGGAGATATACATCGGTGGCCAA
GAGCACTTCTACCTGGAGACTCACTGCACCATTGCTGTTCCAAAAGGCGAGGCAGGGGAG
ATGGAGCTCTTTGTGTCTACACAGAACACCATGAAGACCCAGAGCTTTGTTGCAAAAATG
TTGGGGGTTCCAGCAAACCGGATTGTGGTTCGAGTGAAGAGAATGGGAGGAGGCTTTGGA
GGCAAGGAGACCCGGAGCACTGTGGTGTCCACGGCAGTGGCCCTGGCTGCATATAAGACC
GGCCGCCCTGTGCGATGCATGCTGGACCGTGATGAGGACATGCTGATAACTGGTGGCAGA
CATCCCTTCCTGGCCAGATACAAGGTTGGCTTCATGAAGACTGGGACAGTTGTGGCTCTT
GAGGTGGACCACTTCAGCAATGTGGGGAACACCCAGGATCTCTCTCAGAGTATTATGGAA
CGAGCTTTATTCCACATGGACAACTGCTATAAAATCCCCAACATCCGGGGCACTGGGCGG
CTGTGCAAAACCAACCTTCCCTCCAACACGGCCTTCCGGGGCTTTGGGGGGCCCCAGGGG
ATGCTCATTGCCGAGTGCTGGATGAGTGAAGTTGCAGTGACCTGTGGGATGCCTGCAGAG
GAGGTGCGGAGAAAAAACCTGTACAAAGAAGGGGACCTGACACACTTCAACCAGAAGCTT
GAGGGTTTCACCTTGCCCAGATGCTGGGAAGAATGCCTAGCAAGCTCTCAGTATCATGCT
CGGAAGAGTGAGGTTGACAAGTTCAACAAGGAGAATTGTTGGAAAAAGAGAGGATTGTGC
ATAATTCCCACCAAGTTTGGAATAAGCTTTACAGTTCCTTTTCTGAATCAGGCAGGAGCC
CTACTTCATGTGTACACAGATGGCTCTGTGCTGCTGACCCACGGGGGGACTGAGATGGGC
CAAGGCCTTCATACCAAAATGGTCCAGGTGGCCAGTAGAGCTCTGAAAATCCCCACCTCT
AAGATTTATATCAGCGAGACAAGCACTAACACTGTGCCCAACACCTCTCCCACGGCTGCC
TCTGTCAGCGCTGACCTCAATGGACAGGCCGTCTATGCGGCTTGTCAGACCATCTTGAAA
AGGCTGGAACCCTACAAGAAGAAGAATCCCAGTGGCTCCTGGGAAGACTGGGTCACAGCT
GCCTACATGGACACAGTGAGCTTGTCTGCCACTGGGTTTTATAGAACACCCAATCTGGGC
TACAGCTTTGAGACTAACTCAGGGAACCCCTTCCACTACTTCAGCTATGGGGTGGCTTGC
TCTGAAGTAGAAATCGACTGCCTAACAGGAGATCATAAGAACCTCCGCACAGATATTGTC
ATGGATGTTGGCTCCAGTCTAAACCCTGCCATTGATATTGGACAGGTGGAAGGGGCATTT
GTCCAGGGCCTTGGCCTCTTCACCCTAGAGGAGCTACACTATTCCCCCGAGGGGAGCCTG
CACACCCGTGGCCCTAGCACCTACAAGATCCCGGCATTTGGCAGCATCCCCATTGAGTTC
AGGGTGTCCCTGCTCCGCGACTGCCCCAACAAGAAGGCCATCTATGCATCGAAGGCTGTT
GGAGAGCCGCCCCTCTTCCTGGCTGCTTCTATCTTCTTTGCCATCAAAGATGCCATCCGT
GCAGCTCGAGCTCAGCACACAGGTAATAACGTGAAGGAACTCTTCCGGCTAGACAGCCCT
GCCACCCCGGAGAAGATCCGCAATGCCTGCGTGGACAAGTTCACCACCCTGTGTGTCACT
GGTGTCCCAGAAAACTGCAAACCCTGGTCTGTGAGGGTCTAA
Chromosome Location
2
Locus
2p23.1
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP47989
UniProtKB Entry NameXDH_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID10336525
GenBank Gene IDD11456
GenAtlas IDXDH
HGNC IDHGNC:12805
General References
  1. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T: Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene. Gene. 1993 Nov 15;133(2):279-84. [PubMed:8224915]
  2. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 15;199(2):998-1004. [PubMed:8135849]
  3. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Oct 4;215(1):429. [PubMed:7575623]
  4. Saksela M, Raivio KO: Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. Biochem J. 1996 Apr 1;315 ( Pt 1):235-9. [PubMed:8670112]
  5. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O: Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. J Clin Invest. 1997 May 15;99(10):2391-7. [PubMed:9153281]
  6. Levartovsky D, Lagziel A, Sperling O, Liberman U, Yaron M, Hosoya T, Ichida K, Peretz H: XDH gene mutation is the underlying cause of classical xanthinuria: a second report. Kidney Int. 2000 Jun;57(6):2215-20. [PubMed:10844591]
  7. Picariello G, Ferranti P, Mamone G, Roepstorff P, Addeo F: Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008 Sep;8(18):3833-47. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200701057. [PubMed:18780401]
  8. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24275569]
  9. Yamaguchi Y, Matsumura T, Ichida K, Okamoto K, Nishino T: Human xanthine oxidase changes its substrate specificity to aldehyde oxidase type upon mutation of amino acid residues in the active site: roles of active site residues in binding and activation of purine substrate. J Biochem. 2007 Apr;141(4):513-24. Epub 2007 Feb 14. [PubMed:17301077]
  10. Sakamoto N, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Teranishi T, Toyoda M, Onishi Y, Kuroda S, Sakaguchi K, Fujisawa T, Maeda M, Hada T: Identification of a new point mutation in the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for a case of classical type I xanthinuria. Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;108(4):279-83. [PubMed:11379872]
  11. Gok F, Ichida K, Topaloglu R: Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Nov;18(11):2278-83. [PubMed:14551354]
  12. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB03147Flavin adenine dinucleotideapprovedunknownDetails
DB03328dioxothiomolybdenum(VI) ionexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00437AllopurinolapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB04854FebuxostatapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB05262OxypurinolinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00127Spermineexperimental, nutraceuticalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00170Menadioneapproved, nutraceuticalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00336Nitrofuralapproved, investigational, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00339Pyrazinamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00694DaunorubicinapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00746Deferoxamineapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00831Trifluoperazineapproved, investigationalunknownconversion inhibitorDetails
DB01136Carvedilolapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB01168Procarbazineapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB01033MercaptopurineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00993AzathioprineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00437AllopurinolapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01685TopiroxostatexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03841Y-700experimentalunknownDetails
DB00583Levocarnitineapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB03516EniluracilinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00958CarboplatinapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB00856Chlorphenesinapproved, experimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB04335Inosineexperimental, investigationalunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB00515CisplatinapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB06478PorfiromycininvestigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00041AldesleukinapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB00997Doxorubicinapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB13257Ferrous sulfate anhydrousapprovedunknownDetails