Identification

Name
Trifluoperazine
Accession Number
DB00831  (APRD00173, DB08616)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A phenothiazine with actions similar to chlorpromazine. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 10-[3-(4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-10H-phenothiazine
  • 10-[3-(4-METHYL-piperazin-1-yl)-propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine
  • Trifluoperazina
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Trifluoperazinum
  • Trifluoromethyl-10-(3'-(1-methyl-4-piperazinyl)propyl)phenothiazine
  • Trifluoroperazine
  • Trifluperazine
External IDs
NSC-17474 / RP-7623
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride6P1Y2SNF5V440-17-5BXDAOUXDMHXPDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PMS Trifluoperazine HCl Syrup 11.8mg/mlSyrup10 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-312012-03-14Canada
PMS Trifluoperazine Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-312012-03-14Canada
PMS Trifluoperazine Tab 1mgTablet1 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-311996-09-10Canada
PMS Trifluoperazine Tab 20mgTablet20 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-311996-09-10Canada
PMS Trifluoperazine Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-312012-03-14Canada
PMS Trifluoperazine Tab 5mgTablet5 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-312012-03-14Canada
Stelazine Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1993-12-312000-11-30Canada
Stelazine Tab 1mgTablet1 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1993-12-312000-11-30Canada
Stelazine Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1992-12-312000-10-18Canada
Stelazine Tab 5mgTablet5 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1993-12-312000-09-28Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Novo-flurazine Tab 1mgTablet1.18 mgOralNovopharm Limited1971-12-311996-09-10Canada
Novo-flurazine Tab 20mgTablet23.6 mgOralNovopharm Limited1971-12-311996-09-10Canada
Novo-trifluzine - Tab 10mgTablet11.8 mgOralNovopharm Limited1971-12-312013-06-03Canada
Novo-trifluzine - Tab 2mgTablet2.36 mgOralNovopharm Limited1971-12-312013-06-03Canada
Novo-trifluzine - Tab 5mgTablet5.9 mgOralNovopharm Limited1971-12-312013-06-03Canada
PMS-trifluoperazine HCl Syr 1.18mg/mlSyrup1 mgOralPharmascience Inc1988-12-312012-10-17Canada
TrifluoperazineTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1981-11-20Not applicableUs
Trifluoperazine HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs53808 081920180907 15195 t2pm5x
Trifluoperazine HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralMylan Institutional1998-03-04Not applicableUs
Trifluoperazine HydrochlorideTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1981-11-202002-06-30Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Stelabid ForteTrifluoperazine (2 mg) + Isopropamide (7.5 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312002-07-31Canada
Stelabid No 1Trifluoperazine (1 mg) + Isopropamide (5 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312002-01-29Canada
Stelabid No 2Trifluoperazine (2 mg) + Isopropamide (5 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1993-12-312002-01-29Canada
International/Other Brands
Eskazine / Eskazinyl / Jatroneural / Modalina / Stelazine / Terfluzine / Trifluoperaz / Triftazin
Categories
UNII
214IZI85K3
CAS number
117-89-5
Weight
Average: 407.496
Monoisotopic: 407.164303088
Chemical Formula
C21H24F3N3S
InChI Key
ZEWQUBUPAILYHI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H24F3N3S/c1-25-11-13-26(14-12-25)9-4-10-27-17-5-2-3-6-19(17)28-20-8-7-16(15-18(20)27)21(22,23)24/h2-3,5-8,15H,4,9-14H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
10-[3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-10H-phenothiazine
SMILES
CN1CCN(CCCN2C3=CC=CC=C3SC3=C2C=C(C=C3)C(F)(F)F)CC1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of anxiety disorders, depressive symptoms secondary to anxiety and agitation.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Trifluoperazine is a trifluoro-methyl phenothiazine derivative intended for the management of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Trifluoperazine has not been shown effective in the management of behaviorial complications in patients with mental retardation.

Mechanism of action

Trifluoperazine blocks postsynaptic mesolimbic dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the brain; depresses the release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones and is believed to depress the reticular activating system thus affecting basal metabolism, body temperature, wakefulness, vasomotor tone, and emesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(2) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
ANeuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon
antagonist
Human
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
UCalmodulin
inhibitor
Human
UTroponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac musclesNot AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A4
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

10-20 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include agitation, coma, convulsions, difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, extreme sleepiness, fever, intestinal blockage, irregular heart rate, low blood pressure, and restlessness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineTrifluoperazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineTrifluoperazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineTrifluoperazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineTrifluoperazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineTrifluoperazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5'-Deoxy-5'-MethylthioadenosineThe serum concentration of Trifluoperazine can be increased when it is combined with 5'-Deoxy-5'-Methylthioadenosine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Trifluoperazine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
AcepromazineTrifluoperazine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Acepromazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014969
KEGG Compound
C07168
PubChem Compound
5566
PubChem Substance
46507961
ChemSpider
5365
BindingDB
79181
ChEBI
45951
ChEMBL
CHEMBL422
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000034
PharmGKB
PA451771
IUPHAR
214
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
TFP
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Trifluoperazine
ATC Codes
N05AB06 — Trifluoperazine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.08.24 — Phenothiazines
PDB Entries
1a29 / 1ctr / 1lin / 1wrk / 1wrl / 3ko0 / 4rjd
MSDS
Download (73.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPsychosis Nos/Other1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Sandoz inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Sandoz
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • UDL Laboratories
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral1.18 mg
TabletOral23.6 mg
TabletOral11.8 mg
TabletOral2.36 mg
TabletOral5.9 mg
SyrupOral1 mg
TabletOral
SyrupOral10 mg
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral5 mg
TabletOral1 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Trifluoperazine HCl 10 mg tablet1.7USD tablet
Trifluoperazine 10 mg tablet1.63USD tablet
Trifluoperazine HCl 5 mg tablet1.09USD tablet
Trifluoperazine 5 mg tablet1.08USD tablet
Trifluoperazine HCl 2 mg tablet0.89USD tablet
Trifluoperazine 2 mg tablet0.86USD tablet
Trifluoperazine HCl 1 mg tablet0.59USD tablet
Trifluoperazine 1 mg tablet0.58USD tablet
Apo-Trifluoperazine 20 mg Tablet0.58USD tablet
Apo-Trifluoperazine 10 mg Tablet0.29USD tablet
Apo-Trifluoperazine 5 mg Tablet0.24USD tablet
Apo-Trifluoperazine 2 mg Tablet0.18USD tablet
Apo-Trifluoperazine 1 mg Tablet0.14USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility12.2 mg/L (at 24 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP5.03HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.52ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00876 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.87ALOGPS
logP4.66ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity110.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.94 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9946
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9814
Caco-2 permeable+0.6856
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8529
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.9058
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9089
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6842
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9109
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.594
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9144
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8995
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5618
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8247
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8944
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9446
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.8411 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9327
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8556
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (10.1 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-03kc-9730000000-49438d7f5a4236b51602
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-08mi-8921200000-2aff2d698385cab14cdb
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0002-9000100000-e2406a8adccd141c03e7
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03kc-9740000000-e505b8906d154e2285a4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-a01e8dfa304983005945
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0000900000-7b23271ee0eec105a7c5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-06r6-0900500000-0ea8c080e1d078157f50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-1900000000-2608f082c54c542054e0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-8910000000-5b36d7157269ff6ba38c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0901000000-06a3d20c96b187c19fad
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0110900000-8af3aa3c7acbf89b8b20

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzothiazines
Sub Class
Phenothiazines
Direct Parent
Phenothiazines
Alternative Parents
Alkyldiarylamines / Diarylthioethers / N-methylpiperazines / Benzenoids / 1,4-thiazines / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organofluorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Phenothiazine / Alkyldiarylamine / Diarylthioether / Aryl thioether / Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine / N-alkylpiperazine / N-methylpiperazine / Para-thiazine / 1,4-diazinane / Piperazine
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenothiazines, organofluorine compound, N-alkylpiperazine, N-methylpiperazine (CHEBI:45951)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Seeman P: Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;47(1):27-38. [PubMed:11873706]
  3. Lahti RA, Evans DL, Stratman NC, Figur LM: Dopamine D4 versus D2 receptor selectivity of dopamine receptor antagonists: possible therapeutic implications. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 4;236(3):483-6. [PubMed:8102973]
  4. Schmidt MH, Lee T: Investigation of striatal dopamine D2 receptor acquisition following prenatal neuroleptic exposure. Psychiatry Res. 1991 Mar;36(3):319-28. [PubMed:1676523]
  5. Cahir M, King DJ: Antipsychotics lack alpha 1A/B adrenoceptor subtype selectivity in the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):231-4. [PubMed:15695070]
  6. Seeman P, Lee T, Chau-Wong M, Wong K: Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors. Nature. 1976 Jun 24;261(5562):717-9. [PubMed:945467]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Clathrin light chain binding
Specific Function
Interacts with clathrin light chain A and stimulates clathrin self-assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Gene Name
CALY
Uniprot ID
Q9NYX4
Uniprot Name
Neuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon
Molecular Weight
23433.49 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Seeman P, Lee T, Chau-Wong M, Wong K: Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors. Nature. 1976 Jun 24;261(5562):717-9. [PubMed:945467]
  3. Madrid PB, Polgar WE, Toll L, Tanga MJ: Synthesis and antitubercular activity of phenothiazines with reduced binding to dopamine and serotonin receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jun 1;17(11):3014-7. Epub 2007 Mar 24. [PubMed:17407813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fujinaga M, Hoffman BB, Baden JM: Receptor subtype and intracellular signal transduction pathway associated with situs inversus induced by alpha 1 adrenergic stimulation in rat embryos. Dev Biol. 1994 Apr;162(2):558-67. [PubMed:8150214]
  4. Huerta-Bahena J, Villalobos-Molina R, Garcia-Sainz JA: Trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine antagonize alpha 1- but not alpha2- adrenergic effects. Mol Pharmacol. 1983 Jan;23(1):67-70. [PubMed:6135146]
Details
4. Calmodulin
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  2. Torres-Piedra M, Figueroa M, Hernandez-Abreu O, Ibarra-Barajas M, Navarrete-Vazquez G, Estrada-Soto S: Vasorelaxant effect of flavonoids through calmodulin inhibition: Ex vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Jan 1;19(1):542-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.10.063. Epub 2010 Nov 4. [PubMed:21129983]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Troponin t binding
Specific Function
Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site fo...
Gene Name
TNNC1
Uniprot ID
P63316
Uniprot Name
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
Molecular Weight
18402.36 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  2. Kleerekoper Q, Liu W, Choi D, Putkey JA: Identification of binding sites for bepridil and trifluoperazine on cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 3;273(14):8153-60. [PubMed:9525919]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Rage receptor binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
S100A4
Uniprot ID
P26447
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A4
Molecular Weight
11728.41 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  2. Malashkevich VN, Dulyaninova NG, Ramagopal UA, Liriano MA, Varney KM, Knight D, Brenowitz M, Weber DJ, Almo SC, Bresnick AR: Phenothiazines inhibit S100A4 function by inducing protein oligomerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11;107(19):8605-10. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913660107. Epub 2010 Apr 26. [PubMed:20421509]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Conversion inhibitor
General Function
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ha...
Gene Name
XDH
Uniprot ID
P47989
Uniprot Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Molecular Weight
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Hirata Y, Ishii K, Taguchi T, Suita S, Takeshige K: Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase during ischemia of the rat small intestine and the effect of trifluoperazine on the conversion. J Pediatr Surg. 1993 Apr;28(4):597-600. [PubMed:8483075]
  2. Greene EL, Paller MS: Calcium and free radicals in hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1994 Jan;266(1 Pt 2):F13-20. [PubMed:8304479]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID
P22310
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4
Molecular Weight
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Kerdpin O, Mackenzie PI, Bowalgaha K, Finel M, Miners JO: Influence of N-terminal domain histidine and proline residues on the substrate selectivities of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, 2B7, and 2B10. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Sep;37(9):1948-55. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028225. Epub 2009 Jun 1. [PubMed:19487247]
  2. Fujiwara R, Nakajima M, Yamanaka H, Katoh M, Yokoi T: Interactions between human UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT1A6 affect their enzymatic activities. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1781-7. Epub 2007 Jul 9. [PubMed:17620344]
  3. Uchaipichat V, Mackenzie PI, Elliot DJ, Miners JO: Selectivity of substrate (trifluoperazine) and inhibitor (amitriptyline, androsterone, canrenoic acid, hecogenin, phenylbutazone, quinidine, quinine, and sulfinpyrazone) "probes" for human udp-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Mar;34(3):449-56. Epub 2005 Dec 28. [PubMed:16381668]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 23, 2018 19:37