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Identification
NameMercaptopurine
Accession NumberDB01033  (APRD01096)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionAn antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
6 MP
6-Mercaptopurine
6-MP
6-Thiohypoxanthine
6-Thioxopurine
Mercaptopurina
mercaptopurinum
Mercapurin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralQuinn Pharmaceuticals, Llc2016-10-05Not applicableUs
Mercaptopurine Tablets USPTablet50 mgOralSterimax Inc2013-11-27Not applicableCanada
PurinetholTablet50 mgOralTeva Canada Limited1954-12-31Not applicableCanada
PurixanSuspension20 mg/mLOralNova Laboratories, Ltd2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-07-14Not applicableUs
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-01Not applicableUs
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-11-03Not applicableUs
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2013-03-152015-12-29Us
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2004-02-11Not applicableUs
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.2004-02-13Not applicableUs
MercaptopurineTablet50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-23Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
LeukerinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Mercaptopurine monohydrate
6112-76-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: WFFQYWAAEWLHJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 170.026232003
  • Average Mass: 170.19
DBSALT001026
Categories
UNIIPKK6MUZ20G
CAS number50-44-2
WeightAverage: 152.177
Monoisotopic: 152.015666838
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4S
InChI KeyGLVAUDGFNGKCSF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H4N4S/c10-5-3-4(7-1-6-3)8-2-9-5/h1-2H,(H2,6,7,8,9,10)
IUPAC Name
6,7-dihydro-3H-purine-6-thione
SMILES
S=C1N=CNC2=C1NC=N2
Pharmacology
IndicationFor remission induction and maintenance therapy of acute lymphatic leukemia.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsMercaptopurine is one of a large series of purine analogues which interfere with nucleic acid biosynthesis and has been found active against human leukemias. It is an analogue of the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine. It is not known exactly which of any one or more of the biochemical effects of mercaptopurine and its metabolites are directly or predominantly responsible for cell death.
Mechanism of actionMercaptopurine competes with hypoxanthine and guanine for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) and is itself converted to thioinosinic acid (TIMP). This intracellular nucleotide inhibits several reactions involving inosinic acid (IMP), including the conversion of IMP to xanthylic acid (XMP) and the conversion of IMP to adenylic acid (AMP) via adenylosuccinate (SAMP). In addition, 6-methylthioinosinate (MTIMP) is formed by the methylation of TIMP. Both TIMP and MTIMP have been reported to inhibit glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, the first enzyme unique to the de novo pathway for purine ribonucleotide synthesis. Experiments indicate that radiolabeled mercaptopurine may be recovered from the DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine. Some mercaptopurine is converted to nucleotide derivatives of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) by the sequential actions of inosinate (IMP) dehydrogenase and xanthylate (XMP) aminase, converting TIMP to thioguanylic acid (TGMP).
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferaseProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP00492 details
AmidophosphoribosyltransferaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ06203 details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenaseProtein groupunknown
Inhibitor
Humannot applicabledetails
Related Articles
AbsorptionClinical studies have shown that the absorption of an oral dose of mercaptopurine in humans is incomplete and variable, averaging approximately 50% of the administered dose. The factors influencing absorption are unknown.
Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution exceeded that of the total body water.

Protein bindingPlasma protein binding averages 19% over the concentration range 10 to 50 µg/mL (a concentration only achieved by intravenous administration of mercaptopurine at doses exceeding 5 to 10 mg/kg).
Metabolism

Hepatic. Degradation primarily by xanthine oxidase. The catabolism of mercaptopurine and its metabolites is complex. In humans, after oral administration of 35S-6-mercaptopurine, urine contains intact mercaptopurine, thiouric acid (formed by direct oxidation by xanthine oxidase, probably via 6-mercapto-8-hydroxypurine), and a number of 6-methylated thiopurines. The methylthiopurines yield appreciable amounts of inorganic sulfate.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Mercaptopurine
6-Thioinosine 5'-monophosphateDetails
6-Thioinosine 5'-monophosphate
Thioxanthine monophosphateDetails
Thioxanthine monophosphate
Thioguanosine monophosphateDetails
Thioguanosine monophosphate
Methyl-thioguanosine monophosphateDetails
Thioguanosine monophosphate
Not Available
Thioguanosine diphosphateDetails
Thioguanosine diphosphate
Not Available
Thioguanosine triphosphateDetails
Thioguanosine diphosphate
Not Available
Thiodeoxyguanosine diphosphateDetails
Thiodeoxyguanosine diphosphate
Not Available
Thiodeoxyguanosine triphosphateDetails
6-Thioinosine 5'-monophosphate
Methyl-thioinosine 5'-monophospateDetails
6-Thioinosine 5'-monophosphate
Not Available
6-Mercaptopurine ribosideDetails
6-Mercaptopurine riboside
6-Methylmercaptopurine-ribosideDetails
6-Methylmercaptopurine-riboside
Methyl-thioinosine 5'-monophospateDetails
Mercaptopurine
8-hydroxythioguanineDetails
Mercaptopurine
Thiouric acidDetails
Mercaptopurine
MethylmercaptopurineDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeTriphasic: 45 minutes, 2.5 hours, and 10 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySigns and symptoms of overdosage may be immediate such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; or delayed such as myelosuppression, liver dysfunction, and gastroenteritis. The oral LD50 of mercaptopurine was determined to be 480 mg/kg in the mouse and 425 mg/kg in the rat.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Azathioprine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00645
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Mercaptopurine Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00609
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00428
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00430
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase
Gene symbol: TPMT
UniProt: P51580
rs1800462 TMPT*2G AlleleHepatotoxicity16509759
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase
Gene symbol: TPMT
UniProt: P51580
rs1800460 TMPT*3AA AlleleHepatotoxicity16509759
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase
Gene symbol: TPMT
UniProt: P51580
rs1142345 TMPT*3CG AlleleHepatotoxicity16509759
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcenocoumarolMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
AllopurinolThe serum concentration of Mercaptopurine can be increased when it is combined with Allopurinol.Approved
ALT-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with ALT-110.Investigational
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Investigational
AzathioprineAzathioprine may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
BalsalazideThe metabolism of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BcgThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Mercaptopurine.Investigational
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved
CDX-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with CDX-110.Investigational
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
DicoumarolMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinDoxorubicin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FebuxostatThe serum concentration of Mercaptopurine can be increased when it is combined with Febuxostat.Approved
FingolimodMercaptopurine may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FluindioneMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
G17DTThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with G17DT.Investigational
GI-5005The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with GI-5005.Investigational
INGN 201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with INGN 201.Investigational
INGN 225The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with INGN 225.Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
MesalazineThe metabolism of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Mercaptopurine.Withdrawn
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineThe metabolism of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Olsalazine.Approved
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenindioneMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with Rabies vaccine.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Mercaptopurine.Approved
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Mercaptopurine.Approved
SRP 299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with SRP 299.Investigational
SulfamethoxazoleSulfamethoxazole may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved
SulfasalazineThe metabolism of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Sulfasalazine.Approved
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
TG4010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mercaptopurine is combined with TG4010.Investigational
TofacitinibMercaptopurine may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved, Investigational
TrimethoprimTrimethoprim may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Mercaptopurine.Approved, Vet Approved
WarfarinMercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Preferably on an empty stomach, drink plenty of liquids, avoid alcohol.
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesL01BB02
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (44.1 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.8 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8854
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8946
Caco-2 permeable-0.6556
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7141
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9143
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9848
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8543
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8607
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8533
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7949
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7555
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6955
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8224
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7472
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6635
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5076
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9369
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.3684 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9857
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg
SuspensionOral20 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mercaptopurine powder33.97USD g
Purinethol 50 mg tablet6.09USD tablet
Mercaptopurine 50 mg tablet4.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point313 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility6.85E+004 mg/LYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.01HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.735 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.13ALOGPS
logP-0.12ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity43.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purinethiones. These are purines in which the purine moiety bears a thioketone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentPurinethiones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purinethione
  • Pyrimidinethione
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Gene Name:
HPRT1
Uniprot ID:
P00492
Molecular Weight:
24579.155 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
Q06203
Molecular Weight:
57398.52 Da
References
  1. Sahasranaman S, Howard D, Roy S: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of thiopurines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;64(8):753-67. doi: 10.1007/s00228-008-0478-6. Epub 2008 May 28. [PubMed:18506437 ]
  2. Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP: ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D1100-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr777. Epub 2011 Sep 23. [PubMed:21948594 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1P20839 Details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2P12268 Details
References
  1. Sahasranaman S, Howard D, Roy S: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of thiopurines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;64(8):753-67. doi: 10.1007/s00228-008-0478-6. Epub 2008 May 28. [PubMed:18506437 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Thiopurine s-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine.
Gene Name:
TPMT
Uniprot ID:
P51580
Molecular Weight:
28180.09 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [PubMed:15354273 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyz...
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular Weight:
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729 ]
  2. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720 ]
  3. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Kruh GD: Transport of cyclic nucleotides and estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide by multidrug resistance protein 4. Resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33747-54. Epub 2001 Jul 10. [PubMed:11447229 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name:
ABCC5
Uniprot ID:
O15440
Molecular Weight:
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Wijnholds J, Mol CA, van Deemter L, de Haas M, Scheffer GL, Baas F, Beijnen JH, Scheper RJ, Hatse S, De Clercq E, Balzarini J, Borst P: Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 20;97(13):7476-81. [PubMed:10840050 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Purine nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent and purine-selective transporter. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cif or N1 subtype (N1/cif) (selective for purine nucleosides and uridine). Plays a critical role in specific uptake and salvage of purine nucleosides in kidney and other tissues.
Gene Name:
SLC28A2
Uniprot ID:
O43868
Molecular Weight:
71925.565 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent, pyrimidine- and purine-selective. Involved in the homeostasis of endogenous nucleosides. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cib or N3 subtype (N3/cib) (with marked transport of both thymidine and inosine). Employs a 2:1 sodium/nucleoside ratio. Also able to transport gemcitabine, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), ribavirin and 3-deazaurid...
Gene Name:
SLC28A3
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAS3
Molecular Weight:
76929.61 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs).
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular Weight:
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Very less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine.
Gene Name:
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID:
Q14542
Molecular Weight:
50112.335 Da
References
  1. Link [Link]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23