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Identification
NameGlutathione
Accession NumberDB00143  (EXPT01650, NUTR00029)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineNot AvailableNot Available
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineNot AvailableNot Available
GlutathioneNot AvailableNot Available
Glutathione-SHNot AvailableNot Available
GSHNot AvailableNot Available
N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineNot AvailableNot Available
Reduced glutathioneNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
IsethionNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Amo Endosol ExtraCalcium Chloride + Dextrose + Glutathione Disulfide + Magnesium Chloride + Potassium Chloride + Sodium Bicarbonate + Sodium Chloride + Sodium Phosphate Dibasic
BSS PlusCalcium Chloride + Dextrose + Glutathione Disulfide + Magnesium Chloride + Potassium Chloride + Sodium Bicarbonate + Sodium Chloride + Sodium Phosphate Dibasic
Categories
CAS number70-18-8
WeightAverage: 307.323
Monoisotopic: 307.083805981
Chemical FormulaC10H17N3O6S
InChI KeyRWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N[C@@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentPeptides
Alternative parentsN-acyl-alpha Amino Acids; Alpha Amino Acid Amides; Amino Fatty Acids; Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Polyols; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Alkylthiols; Monoalkylamines
Substituentsn-acyl-alpha-amino acid; n-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivative; alpha-amino acid amide; alpha-amino acid or derivative; dicarboxylic acid derivative; carboxamide group; polyol; secondary carboxylic acid amide; alkylthiol; polyamine; enolate; carboxylic acid; primary aliphatic amine; primary amine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the peptides. These are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionGlutathione (GSH) participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. Glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II catalyzes the conversion of S-D-Lactoyl Glutathione to Reduced Glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a cofactor in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as it is hypothesized to do to a significant extent with n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450 reactive metabolite formed by toxic overdose of acetaminophen. Glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein sulfhydryl groups which would otherwise be toxically adducted. The preferred medical treatment to an overdose of this nature, whose efficacy has been consistently supported in literature, is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and allow a usable GSH pool.
AbsorptionResearch suggests that glutathione is not orally bioactive, and that very little of oral glutathione tablets or capsules is actually absorbed by the body.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityORL-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IPR-MUS LD50 4020 mg/kg, SCU-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 > 2000 mg/kg, IMS-MUS LD50 4000 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
5-oxoprolinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00500
5-OxoprolinuriaDiseaseSMP00143
Acetaminophen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00710
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00640
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00083
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00109
Tiaprofenic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00705
Salicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00709
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00075
Suprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00101
Bromfenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00102
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00289
Valdecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00116
Celecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00096
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00098
Sulindac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00094
Antrafenine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00693
Flurbiprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00697
Nepafenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00702
Lumiracoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00699
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00708
Tenoxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00706
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00113
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00106
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00703
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00698
Lornoxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00700
Rofecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00087
Cyclophosphamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00447
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00120
Fenoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00696
Tolmetin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00704
Ibuprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00086
Etodolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00084
Ketoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00085
Diclofenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00093
Indomethacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00104
Nabumetone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00114
Antipyrine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00692
Phenylbutazone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00701
Piroxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00077
Carprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00694
Etoricoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00695
Salsalate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00707
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00353
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00212
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00334
Cyclophosphamide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00604
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00501
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00337
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00183
Pyruvate kinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00559
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationMetabolicSMP00459
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolicSMP00015
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2DiseaseSMP00558
Leigh SyndromeDiseaseSMP00196
Pyruvate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00060
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption - 0.7892
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.6491
Caco-2 permeable - 0.8191
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5706
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9195
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.99
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9445
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8791
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8096
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7544
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9437
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9179
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9502
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.919
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.939
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9898
Ames test AMES toxic 0.9107
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9224
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.597
Rat acute toxicity 1.7842 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9897
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9476
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Glutathione crystals21.32USDg
Glutathione-l reduced powder10.71USDg
L-glutathione powder3.0USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point195 °CPhysProp
logP-6.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility8.79e-01 g/lALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.22ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count7ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count6ChemAxon
polar surface area158.82ChemAxon
rotatable bond count9ChemAxon
refractivity69.11ChemAxon
polarizability29.11ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Akihiro Mizutani, “Complexes of polysaccharides or derivatives thereof with reduced glutathione and process for preparing said complexes.” U.S. Patent US4009264, issued February, 1971.

US4009264
General Reference
  1. Struzynska L, Chalimoniuk M, Sulkowski G: The role of astroglia in Pb-exposed adult rat brain with respect to glutamate toxicity. Toxicology. 2005 Sep 1;212(2-3):185-94. Pubmed
  2. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH: The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9. Pubmed
  3. Yim CY, Hibbs JB Jr, McGregor JR, Galinsky RE, Samlowski WE: Use of N-acetyl cysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during the induction of antitumor responses by IL-2. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 15;152(12):5796-805. Pubmed
  4. Drevet JR: The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase family and spermatozoa: a complex story. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 May 16;250(1-2):70-9. Epub 2006 Jan 19. Pubmed
  5. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND: Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00014
KEGG CompoundC00051
PubChem Compound124886
PubChem Substance46504598
ChemSpider111188
ChEBI16856
ChEMBLCHEMBL1543
PharmGKBPA449780
HETGSH
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/glu_0126.shtml
WikipediaGlutathione
ATC CodesV03AB32
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 O14880 Details

References:

  1. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. Pubmed

2. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase O60760 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Aritake K, Kado Y, Inoue T, Miyano M, Urade Y: Structural and functional characterization of HQL-79, an orally selective inhibitor of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 2;281(22):15277-86. Epub 2006 Mar 17. Pubmed
  4. Inoue T, Okano Y, Kado Y, Aritake K, Irikura D, Uodome N, Okazaki N, Kinugasa S, Shishitani H, Matsumura H, Kai Y, Urade Y: First determination of the inhibitor complex structure of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2004 Mar;135(3):279-83. Pubmed
  5. Urade Y, Kitahama K, Ohishi H, Kaneko T, Mizuno N, Hayaishi O: Dominant expression of mRNA for prostaglandin D synthase in leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the adult rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Oct 1;90(19):9070-4. Pubmed
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

3. Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12 O95881 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Glutathione S-transferase A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A1 P08263 Details

References:

  1. Kim I, Keam B, Lee KH, Kim JH, Oh SY, Ra EK, Yoon SS, Park SS, Kim CS, Park S, Hong YC, Kim BK: Glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphisms and acute graft-vs.-host disease in HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):207-13. Pubmed
  2. Soderdahl T, Kuppers-Munther B, Heins N, Edsbagge J, Bjorquist P, Cotgreave I, Jernstrom B: Glutathione transferases in hepatocyte-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Aug;21(5):929-37. Epub 2007 Feb 2. Pubmed
  3. Jonsson LS, Broberg K, Bergendorf U, Axmon A, Littorin M, Jonsson BA: Levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and effect modification of polymorphisms of glutathione-related genes in vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007 Jul;80(7):589-98. Epub 2007 Feb 28. Pubmed
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

5. Glutathione S-transferase A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A2 P09210 Details

References:

  1. Sharma P, Ahmad Shah Z, Kumar A, Islam F, Mishra KP: Role of combined administration of Tiron and glutathione against aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007;21(1):63-70. Epub 2007 Feb 6. Pubmed
  2. Skamarauskas J, Carter W, Fowler M, Madjd A, Lister T, Mavroudis G, Ray DE: The selective neurotoxicity produced by 3-chloropropanediol in the rat is not a result of energy deprivation. Toxicology. 2007 Apr 11;232(3):268-76. Epub 2007 Jan 21. Pubmed
  3. Ozkilic AC, Cengiz M, Ozaydin A, Cobanoglu A, Kanigur G: The role of N-acetylcysteine treatment on anti-oxidative status in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):245-54. Pubmed
  4. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. Pubmed
  5. Gupta S, Sarotra P, Aggarwal R, Dutta N, Agnihotri N: Role of oxidative stress in celecoxib-induced renal damage in wistar rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Nov;52(11):3092-8. Epub 2007 Mar 31. Pubmed

6. Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 P10620 Details

References:

  1. Siritantikorn A, Johansson K, Ahlen K, Rinaldi R, Suthiphongchai T, Wilairat P, Morgenstern R: Protection of cells from oxidative stress by microsomal glutathione transferase 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):592-6. Epub 2007 Feb 12. Pubmed
  2. Busenlehner LS, Alander J, Jegerscohld C, Holm PJ, Bhakat P, Hebert H, Morgenstern R, Armstrong RN: Location of substrate binding sites within the integral membrane protein microsomal glutathione transferase-1. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2812-22. Epub 2007 Feb 13. Pubmed

7. S-formylglutathione hydrolase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
S-formylglutathione hydrolase P10768 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Yurimoto H, Lee B, Yano T, Sakai Y, Kato N: Physiological role of S-formylglutathione hydrolase in C(1) metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. Microbiology. 2003 Aug;149(Pt 8):1971-9. Pubmed
  4. Neben I, Sahm H, Kula MR: Studies on an enzyme, S-formylglutathione hydrolase, of the dissimilatory pathway of methanol in Candida boidinii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jul 10;614(1):81-91. Pubmed
  5. Sabatier L, Hoffschir F, al Achkar WA, Turleau C, de Grouchy J, Dutrillaux B: The decrease of catalase or esterase D activity in patients with microdeletions of 11p or 13q does not increase their radiosensitivity. Ann Genet. 1989;32(3):144-8. Pubmed

8. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1 P19440 Details

References:

  1. Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang C, Oliver DJ: Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(5):878-88. Pubmed
  2. Martin MN, Saladores PH, Lambert E, Hudson AO, Leustek T: Localization of members of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase family identifies sites of glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate hydrolysis. Plant Physiol. 2007 Aug;144(4):1715-32. Epub 2007 Jun 1. Pubmed
  3. Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K: Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):450-4. Pubmed
  4. Adamis PD, Panek AD, Eleutherio EC: Vacuolar compartmentation of the cadmium-glutathione complex protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from mutagenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Aug 30;173(1):1-7. Epub 2007 Jun 14. Pubmed
  5. Zhu Y, Carvey PM, Ling Z: Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neurochem Int. 2007 Mar;50(4):671-80. Epub 2007 Jan 13. Pubmed

9. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2 P28161 Details

References:

  1. Kurtovic S, Jansson R, Mannervik B: Colorimetric endpoint assay for enzyme-catalyzed iodide ion release for high-throughput screening in microtiter plates. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Aug 15;464(2):284-7. Epub 2007 Apr 24. Pubmed
  2. Vararattanavech A, Ketterman AJ: A functionally conserved basic residue in glutathione transferases interacts with the glycine moiety of glutathione and is pivotal for enzyme catalysis. Biochem J. 2007 Sep 1;406(2):247-56. Pubmed
  3. Gallagher EP, Huisden CM, Gardner JL: Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Apr 27;. Pubmed
  4. Yalcinkaya S, Unlucerci Y, Uysal M: Methionine-supplemented diet augments hepatotoxicity and prooxidant status in chronically ethanol-treated rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Aug;58(6):455-9. Epub 2007 May 11. Pubmed
  5. Roh JY, Jung IH, Lee JY, Choi J: Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Toxicology. 2007 Jul 31;237(1-3):126-33. Epub 2007 May 18. Pubmed

10. Glutaredoxin-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutaredoxin-1 P35754 Details

References:

  1. Diwakar L, Kenchappa RS, Annepu J, Ravindranath V: Downregulation of glutaredoxin but not glutathione loss leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice CNS: implications in excitotoxicity. Neurochem Int. 2007 Jul;51(1):37-46. Epub 2007 Apr 5. Pubmed
  2. Rouhier N, Unno H, Bandyopadhyay S, Masip L, Kim SK, Hirasawa M, Gualberto JM, Lattard V, Kusunoki M, Knaff DB, Georgiou G, Hase T, Johnson MK, Jacquot JP: Functional, structural, and spectroscopic characterization of a glutathione-ligated [2Fe-2S] cluster in poplar glutaredoxin C1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 1;104(18):7379-84. Epub 2007 Apr 25. Pubmed
  3. Hakansson KO, Winther JR: Structure of glutaredoxin Grx1p C30S mutant from yeast. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Mar;63(Pt 3):288-94. Epub 2007 Feb 21. Pubmed
  4. Lu J, Chew EH, Holmgren A: Targeting thioredoxin reductase is a basis for cancer therapy by arsenic trioxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 24;104(30):12288-93. Epub 2007 Jul 18. Pubmed
  5. Wang J, Pan S, Berk BC: Glutaredoxin mediates Akt and eNOS activation by flow in a glutathione reductase-dependent manner. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Jun;27(6):1283-8. Epub 2007 Apr 12. Pubmed

11. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, mitochondrial P36969 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Moreno SG, Laux G, Brielmeier M, Bornkamm GW, Conrad M: Testis-specific expression of the nuclear form of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx). Biol Chem. 2003 Apr;384(4):635-43. Pubmed
  4. Baek IJ, Seo DS, Yon JM, Lee SR, Jin Y, Nahm SS, Jeong JH, Choo YK, Kang JK, Lee BJ, Yun YW, Nam SY: Tissue expression and cellular localization of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA in male mice. J Mol Histol. 2007 Jun;38(3):237-44. Epub 2007 May 15. Pubmed
  5. Nam SY, Baek IJ, Lee BJ, In CH, Jung EY, Yon JM, Ahn B, Kang JK, Yu WJ, Yun YW: Effects of 17beta-estradiol and tamoxifen on the selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression in male reproductive organs of rats. J Reprod Dev. 2003 Oct;49(5):389-96. Pubmed

12. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 5 P46439 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Schnakenberg E, Breuer R, Werdin R, Dreikorn K, Schloot W: Susceptibility genes: GSTM1 and GSTM3 as genetic risk factors in bladder cancer. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;91(1-4):234-8. Pubmed
  4. Rao AV, Shaha C: Multiple glutathione S-transferase isoforms are present on male germ cell plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2001 Oct 26;507(2):174-80. Pubmed

13. Glutathione peroxidase 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase 6 P59796 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Brigelius-Flohe R: Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors. Biol Chem. 2006 Oct-Nov;387(10-11):1329-35. Pubmed
  4. Myllyla V, Kihlstrom M, Takala TE, Tolonen U, Salminen A, Vihko V: Activities of some antioxidative and hexose monophosphate shunt enzymes of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular diseases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986 Jul;74(1):17-24. Pubmed
  5. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D’Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Jun 22;. Pubmed

14. Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, mitochondrial Q16775 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Ridderstrom M, Jemth P, Cameron AD, Mannervik B: The active-site residue tyr-175 in human glyoxalase II contributes to binding of glutathione derivatives. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Sep 29;1481(2):344-8. Pubmed
  4. Chyan MK, Elia AC, Principato GB, Giovannini E, Rosi G, Norton SJ: S-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl glutathione and diesters: inhibition of mammalian glyoxalase II. Enzyme Protein. 1994-1995;48(3):164-73. Pubmed
  5. Al-Timari A, Douglas KT: Inhibition by glutathione derivatives of bovine liver glyoxalase II (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase) as a probe of the N- and S-sites for substrate binding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Mar 28;870(2):219-25. Pubmed

15. Glutathione peroxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase Q6NSD4 Details

References:

  1. Chattopadhyay S, Sahoo DK, Subudhi U, Chainy GB: Differential expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in hyperthyroid rats: a temporal analysis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;146(3):383-91. Epub 2007 May 3. Pubmed
  2. Du X, Takagi H: N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jul;75(6):1343-51. Epub 2007 Mar 27. Pubmed
  3. Sheridan PA, Zhong N, Carlson BA, Perella CM, Hatfield DL, Beck MA: Decreased selenoprotein expression alters the immune response during influenza virus infection in mice. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1466-71. Pubmed
  4. Walshe J, Serewko-Auret MM, Teakle N, Cameron S, Minto K, Smith L, Burcham PC, Russell T, Strutton G, Griffin A, Chu FF, Esworthy S, Reeve V, Saunders NA: Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase activity contributes to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;67(10):4751-8. Pubmed
  5. Sordillo LM, O’Boyle N, Gandy JC, Corl CM, Hamilton E: Shifts in thioredoxin reductase activity and oxidant status in mononuclear cells obtained from transition dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Mar;90(3):1186-92. Pubmed

16. Probable glutathione peroxidase 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Probable glutathione peroxidase 8 Q8TED1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

17. Glutathione peroxidase 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase 7 Q96SL4 Details

References:

  1. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D’Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Jun 22;. Pubmed

18. Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 Q99735 Details

References:

  1. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. Pubmed

19. Glutathione S-transferase omega-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase omega-2 Q9H4Y5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Whitbread AK, Masoumi A, Tetlow N, Schmuck E, Coggan M, Board PG: Characterization of the omega class of glutathione transferases. Methods Enzymol. 2005;401:78-99. Pubmed
  4. Board PG, Anders MW: Glutathione transferase omega 1 catalyzes the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones to acetophenones. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007 Jan;20(1):149-54. Pubmed
  5. Whitbread AK, Tetlow N, Eyre HJ, Sutherland GR, Board PG: Characterization of the human Omega class glutathione transferase genes and associated polymorphisms. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Mar;13(3):131-44. Pubmed

20. Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial Q9NS18 Details

References:

  1. Hashemy SI, Johansson C, Berndt C, Lillig CH, Holmgren A: Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14428-36. Epub 2007 Mar 13. Pubmed
  2. Sagemark J, Elgan TH, Burglin TR, Johansson C, Holmgren A, Berndt KD: Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. Proteins. 2007 Sep 1;68(4):879-92. Pubmed
  3. Sheng J, Ye J, Rosen BP: Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coliglutaredoxin 2 in complex with glutathione and of a cysteine-less variant without glutathione. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):280-2. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed

21. Lactoylglutathione lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lactoylglutathione lyase Q04760 Details

References:

  1. Barati MT, Merchant ML, Kain AB, Jevans AW, McLeish KR, Klein JB: Proteomic Analysis Defines Altered Cellular Redox Pathways and Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Metabolism in Glomeruli of db/db Diabetic Mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Jul 3;. Pubmed
  2. Deponte M, Sturm N, Mittler S, Harner M, Mack H, Becker K: Allosteric Coupling of Two Different Functional Active Sites in Monomeric Plasmodium falciparum Glyoxalase I. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28419-30. Epub 2007 Jul 30. Pubmed

22. Leukotriene C4 synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Leukotriene C4 synthase Q16873 Details

References:

  1. Martinez Molina D, Wetterholm A, Kohl A, McCarthy AA, Niegowski D, Ohlson E, Hammarberg T, Eshaghi S, Haeggstrom JZ, Nordlund P: Structural basis for synthesis of inflammatory mediators by human leukotriene C4 synthase. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):613-6. Epub 2007 Jul 15. Pubmed
  2. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. Pubmed

23. Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial P00390 Details

References:

  1. Messarah M, Boulakoud MS, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, El Feki A: The impact of thyroid activity variations on some oxidizing-stress parameters in rats. C R Biol. 2007 Feb;330(2):107-12. Epub 2006 Dec 12. Pubmed
  2. Brocardo PS, Assini F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN, Dafre AL, Rodrigues AL: Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2007 May;97(1):140-8. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed
  3. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. Pubmed
  4. Markaryan AA, Dubinskaya VA, Dargaeva TD: Peroxide-eliminating oxidoreductases as biosensors of antioxidant components of medicinal plants. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006 Jul;142(1):55-6. Pubmed
  5. Maity S, Roy S, Chaudhury S, Bhattacharya S: Antioxidant responses of the earthworm Lampito mauritii exposed to Pb and Zn contaminated soil. Environ Pollut. 2007 May 16;. Pubmed

24. Glutathione synthetase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione synthetase P48637 Details

References:

  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. Pubmed
  2. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK: Cadmium induced oxidative stress influence on glutathione metabolic genes of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Environ Toxicol. 2007 Aug;22(4):368-74. Pubmed
  3. Forcella M, Berra E, Giacchini R, Parenti P: Antioxidant defenses preserve membrane transport activity in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to anoxia. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007 Aug;65(4):181-94. Pubmed
  4. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. Pubmed
  5. Bridges CC, Battle JR, Zalups RK: Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;221(2):251-60. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed

25. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 P09488 Details

References:

  1. Moore LE, Malats N, Rothman N, Real FX, Kogevinas M, Karami S, Garcia-Closas R, Silverman D, Chanock S, Welch R, Tardon A, Serra C, Carrato A, Dosemeci M, Garcia-Closas M: Polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism and trans-sulfuration pathway genes and susceptibility to bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 1;120(11):2452-8. Pubmed
  2. Sakoda LC, Blackston CR, Xue K, Doherty JA, Ray RM, Lin MG, Stalsberg H, Gao DL, Feng Z, Thomas DB, Chen C: Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jul 12;. Pubmed
  3. Ouerhani S, Tebourski F, Slama MR, Marrakchi R, Rabeh M, Hassine LB, Ayed M, Elgaaied AB: The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Dec;33(5-6):529-35. Pubmed
  4. Contreras-Vergara CA, Valenzuela-Soto E, Garcia-Orozco KD, Sotelo-Mundo RR, Yepiz-Plascencia G: A Mu-class glutathione S-transferase from gills of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: purification and characterization. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2007;21(2):62-7. Pubmed
  5. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. Pubmed

26. Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 Q9Y2Q3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Robinson A, Huttley GA, Booth HS, Board PG: Modelling and bioinformatics studies of the human Kappa-class glutathione transferase predict a novel third glutathione transferase family with similarity to prokaryotic 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylate isomerases. Biochem J. 2004 May 1;379(Pt 3):541-52. Pubmed
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

27. Glutathione S-transferase A3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A3 Q16772 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Board PG: Identification of cDNAs encoding two human alpha class glutathione transferases (GSTA3 and GSTA4) and the heterologous expression of GSTA4-4. Biochem J. 1998 Mar 1;330 ( Pt 2):827-31. Pubmed
  4. McHugh TE, Atkins WM, Racha JK, Kunze KL, Eaton DL: Binding of the aflatoxin-glutathione conjugate to mouse glutathione S-transferase A3-3 is saturated at only one ligand per dimer. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 1;271(44):27470-4. Pubmed
  5. McDonagh PD, Judah DJ, Hayes JD, Lian LY, Neal GE, Wolf CR, Roberts GC: Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1999 Apr 1;339 ( Pt 1):95-101. Pubmed
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

28. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3 P21266 Details

References:

  1. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. Pubmed
  2. Moore LE, Brennan P, Karami S, Hung RJ, Hsu C, Boffetta P, Toro J, Zaridze D, Janout V, Bencko V, Navratilova M, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Mukeria A, Holcatova I, Welch R, Chanock S, Rothman N, Chow WH: Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk in the Central and Eastern European Kidney Cancer Study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Sep;28(9):1960-4. Epub 2007 Jul 7. Pubmed

29. Glutathione S-transferase A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A4 O15217 Details

References:

  1. Gallagher EP, Huisden CM, Gardner JL: Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Apr 27;. Pubmed

30. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 Q03013 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Cantlay AM, Smith CA, Wallace WA, Yap PL, Lamb D, Harrison DJ: Heterogeneous expression and polymorphic genotype of glutathione S-transferases in human lung. Thorax. 1994 Oct;49(10):1010-4. Pubmed
  4. Beuckmann CT, Fujimori K, Urade Y, Hayaishi O: Identification of mu-class glutathione transferases M2-2 and M3-3 as cytosolic prostaglandin E synthases in the human brain. Neurochem Res. 2000 May;25(5):733-8. Pubmed
  5. Efferth T, Volm M: Glutathione-related enzymes contribute to resistance of tumor cells and low toxicity in normal organs to artesunate. In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):225-32. Pubmed
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

31. Glutathione S-transferase A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A5 Q7RTV2 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. McDonagh PD, Judah DJ, Hayes JD, Lian LY, Neal GE, Wolf CR, Roberts GC: Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1999 Apr 1;339 ( Pt 1):95-101. Pubmed
  4. McLeod R, Ellis EM, Arthur JR, Neal GE, Judah DJ, Manson MM, Hayes JD: Protection conferred by selenium deficiency against aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the hepatic expression of an aldo-keto reductase and a glutathione S-transferase subunit that metabolize the mycotoxin. Cancer Res. 1997 Oct 1;57(19):4257-66. Pubmed
  5. Kazi S, Ellis EM: Expression of rat liver glutathione-S-transferase GSTA5 in cell lines provides increased resistance to alkylating agents and toxic aldehydes. Chem Biol Interact. 2002 May 20;140(2):121-35. Pubmed

32. Glutathione S-transferase P

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase P P09211 Details

References:

  1. Ramachandran K, Navarro L, Gordian E, Das PM, Singal R: Methylation-mediated silencing of genes is not altered by selenium treatment of prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):921-5. Pubmed
  2. Kadokawa Y, Ohba K, Omagari K, Akazawa S, Hayashida K, Ohnita K, Takeshima F, Mizuta Y, Kohno S: Intracellular balance of oxidative stress and cytoprotective molecules in damaged interlobular bile ducts in autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: In situ detection of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and glutathione-S-transferase-pi. Hepatol Res. 2007 Aug;37(8):620-7. Epub 2007 May 22. Pubmed

33. Glutathione S-transferase omega-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 P78417 Details

References:

  1. Tulayakul P, Dong KS, Li JY, Manabe N, Kumagai S: The effect of feeding piglets with the diet containing green tea extracts or coumarin on in vitro metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by their tissues. Toxicon. 2007 Sep 1;50(3):339-48. Epub 2007 Apr 22. Pubmed
  2. Harju TH, Peltoniemi MJ, Rytila PH, Soini Y, Salmenkivi KM, Board PG, Ruddock LW, Kinnula VL: Glutathione S-transferase omega in the lung and sputum supernatants of COPD patients. Respir Res. 2007 Jul 6;8:48. Pubmed

34. Glutathione peroxidase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase 1 P07203 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G: Anthropological survey on red cell glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) polymorphism in central western Africa: a tentative hypothesis on the interaction between GPX1*2 and Hb beta *S allelic products. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1989 Jun;79(2):217-24. Pubmed
  4. Liddell JR, Hoepken HH, Crack PJ, Robinson SR, Dringen R: Glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione are required to protect mouse astrocytes from iron-mediated hydrogen peroxide toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 15;84(3):578-86. Pubmed
  5. Ursini F, Maiorino M: Native specific activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) does not differ between normo- and hypomotile human sperm samples. Int J Androl. 2005 Feb;28(1):61-2; author reply 63-4. Pubmed

35. Glutathione peroxidase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase 2 P18283 Details

References:

  1. Walshe J, Serewko-Auret MM, Teakle N, Cameron S, Minto K, Smith L, Burcham PC, Russell T, Strutton G, Griffin A, Chu FF, Esworthy S, Reeve V, Saunders NA: Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase activity contributes to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;67(10):4751-8. Pubmed

36. Glutathione S-transferase theta-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase theta-1 P30711 Details

References:

  1. Ouerhani S, Tebourski F, Slama MR, Marrakchi R, Rabeh M, Hassine LB, Ayed M, Elgaaied AB: The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Dec;33(5-6):529-35. Pubmed
  2. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. Pubmed
  3. Moore LE, Brennan P, Karami S, Hung RJ, Hsu C, Boffetta P, Toro J, Zaridze D, Janout V, Bencko V, Navratilova M, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Mukeria A, Holcatova I, Welch R, Chanock S, Rothman N, Chow WH: Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk in the Central and Eastern European Kidney Cancer Study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Sep;28(9):1960-4. Epub 2007 Jul 7. Pubmed
  4. Gawecki W, Kostrzewska-Poczekaj M, Gajecka M, Milecki P, Szyfter K, Szyfter W: The role of genetic factor in etiopathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in young adults. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Jul 26;. Pubmed
  5. Jonsson LS, Broberg K, Bergendorf U, Axmon A, Littorin M, Jonsson BA: Levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and effect modification of polymorphisms of glutathione-related genes in vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007 Jul;80(7):589-98. Epub 2007 Feb 28. Pubmed

37. Maleylacetoacetate isomerase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Maleylacetoacetate isomerase O43708 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Fernandez-Canon JM, Baetscher MW, Finegold M, Burlingame T, Gibson KM, Grompe M: Maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI/GSTZ)-deficient mice reveal a glutathione-dependent nonenzymatic bypass in tyrosine catabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jul;22(13):4943-51. Pubmed
  4. Hagedorn SR, Chapman PJ: Glutathione-independent maleylacetoacetate isomerase in gram-positive bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1985 Aug;163(2):803-5. Pubmed
  5. Lim CE, Matthaei KI, Blackburn AC, Davis RP, Dahlstrom JE, Koina ME, Anders MW, Board PG: Mice deficient in glutathione transferase zeta/maleylacetoacetate isomerase exhibit a range of pathological changes and elevated expression of alpha, mu, and pi class glutathione transferases. Am J Pathol. 2004 Aug;165(2):679-93. Pubmed

38. Epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase O75715 Details

References:

  1. Koh CS, Didierjean C, Navrot N, Panjikar S, Mulliert G, Rouhier N, Jacquot JP, Aubry A, Shawkataly O, Corbier C: Crystal structures of a poplar thioredoxin peroxidase that exhibits the structure of glutathione peroxidases: insights into redox-driven conformational changes. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 13;370(3):512-29. Epub 2007 Apr 19. Pubmed

39. Glutathione peroxidase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione peroxidase 3 P22352 Details

References:

  1. Jacobson GA, Yee KC, Ng CH: Elevated plasma glutathione peroxidase concentration in acute severe asthma: comparison with plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium and malondialdehyde. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(4):423-30. Pubmed
  2. Carmeli E, Bachar A, Barchad S: Biochemical assessments of total antioxidant status in active and nonactive female adults with intellectual disability. Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):93-101. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Glutathione S-transferase A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A2 P09210 Details

References:

  1. Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR: Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:51-88. Pubmed
  2. Armstrong RN: Glutathione S-transferases: reaction mechanism, structure, and function. Chem Res Toxicol. 1991 Mar-Apr;4(2):131-40. Pubmed

2. Glutathione S-transferase A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A1 P08263 Details

References:

  1. Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR: Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:51-88. Pubmed
  2. Armstrong RN: Glutathione S-transferases: reaction mechanism, structure, and function. Chem Res Toxicol. 1991 Mar-Apr;4(2):131-40. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 P33527 Details

References:

  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. Pubmed
  2. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. Pubmed
  3. Jedlitschky G, Leier I, Buchholz U, Barnouin K, Kurz G, Keppler D: Transport of glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate conjugates by the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump. Cancer Res. 1996 Mar 1;56(5):988-94. Pubmed
  4. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. Pubmed

2. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Paulusma CC, van Geer MA, Evers R, Heijn M, Ottenhoff R, Borst P, Oude Elferink RP: Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. Biochem J. 1999 Mar 1;338 ( Pt 2):393-401. Pubmed
  2. Hagmann W, Nies AT, Konig J, Frey M, Zentgraf H, Keppler D: Purification of the human apical conjugate export pump MRP2 reconstitution and functional characterization as substrate-stimulated ATPase. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct 1;265(1):281-9. Pubmed
  3. Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Roy-Chowdhry J, Arias IM: Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Nov;90(5):2130-5. Pubmed
  4. Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ: Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):422-30. Pubmed
  5. Madon J, Hagenbuch B, Landmann L, Meier PJ, Stieger B: Transport function and hepatocellular localization of mrp6 in rat liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;57(3):634-41. Pubmed

3. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2 O15438 Details

References:

  1. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. Pubmed

4. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 O15439 Details

References:

  1. Lai L, Tan TM: Role of glutathione in the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4)-mediated efflux of cAMP and resistance to purine analogues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 1;361(Pt 3):497-503. Pubmed

5. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 O15440 Details

References:

  1. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08