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Identification
NameVitamin E
Accession NumberDB00163  (EXPT03227, NUTR00061)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+)-alpha-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
(+)-α-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
(2R,4'R,8'r)-alpha-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
(2R)-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]chroman-6-olNot AvailableNot Available
(R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
(R,R,R)-α-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
5,7,8-TrimethyltocolNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-TocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
d-alpha-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
d-α-tocopherolNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin eNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
Amino-Opti-ENot Available
Aquasol ENot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number59-02-9
WeightAverage: 430.7061
Monoisotopic: 430.381080844
Chemical FormulaC29H50O2
InChI KeyGVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassPrenol Lipids
SubclassQuinone and Hydroquinone Lipids
Direct parentTocopherols
Alternative parentsDiterpenes; Benzopyrans; Ortho Cresols; Meta Cresols; Toluenes; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Polyamines; Enols
Substituentsditerpene; benzopyran; chromane; o-cresol; m-cresol; phenol derivative; alkyl aryl ether; toluene; benzene; ether; enol; polyamine; amine
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
Pharmacology
IndicationVitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.
PharmacodynamicsVitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.
Mechanism of actionAlthough all forms of Vitamin E exhibit antioxidant activity, it is known that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E is not sufficient to explain the vitamin's biological activity.
Vitamin E's anti-atherogenic activity involves the inhibition of the oxidation of LDL and the accumulation of oxLDL in the arterial wall. It also appears to reduce oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Oxidation of LDL is a key early step in atherogenesis as it triggers a number of events which lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC plays a role in smooth muscle cell proliferation, and, thus, the inhibition of PKC results in inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is involved in atherogenesis.
Vitamin E's antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities involves the downregulation of the expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule(ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule(VCAM)-1 which lowers the adhesion of blood components to the endothelium. In addition, vitamin E upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 which in turn enhances the release of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is a vasodilating factor and inhibitor of platelet aggregation and platelet release. It is also known that platelet aggregation is mediated by a mechanism involving the binding of fibrinogen to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) complex of platelets. GPIIb/IIIa is the major membrane receptor protein that is key to the role of the platelet aggregation response. GPIIb is the alpha-subunit of this platelet membrane protein. Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity which results in reduction of GPIIb protein expression and decreased platelet aggregation. Vitamin E has also been found in culture to decrease plasma production of thrombin, a protein which binds to platelets and induces aggregation. A metabolite of vitamin E called vitamin E quinone or alpha-tocopheryl quinone (TQ) is a potent anticoagulant. This metabolite inhibits vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, which is a major enzyme in the coagulation cascade.
The neuroprotective effects of vitamin E are explained by its antioxidant effects. Many disorders of the nervous system are caused by oxidative stress. Vitamin E protects against this stress, thereby protecting the nervouse system.
The immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, where alpha-tocopherol increases mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. The mechanism of this response by vitamin E is not well understood, however it has been suggested that vitamin E itself may have mitogenic activity independent of its antioxidant activity.
Lastly, the mechanism of action of vitamin E's antiviral effects (primarily against HIV-1) involves its antioxidant activity. Vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis, as well as to the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Vitamin E also affects membrane integrity and fluidity and, since HIV-1 is a membraned virus, altering membrane fluidity of HIV-1 may interfere with its ability to bind to cell-receptor sites, thus decreasing its infectivity.
Absorption50 to 80% absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingBound to beta-lipoproteins in blood.
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9795
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9767
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8484
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7189
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.7598
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.7802
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.7882
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.6949
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7813
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7533
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8122
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7762
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8813
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9965
Rat acute toxicity 2.1598 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.7192
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.6449
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
CreamTopical
LiquidIntramuscular
LiquidOral
OintmentTopical
PowderOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vitamin e acetate liquid1.07USDml
Ester-e 400 unit softgel0.26USDsoftgel capsule
Vit e nat'l blnd 1000 unit capsule0.2USDcapsule
Vitamin e 400 unit tablet0.19USDtablet
E pherol 400 unit tablet0.13USDtablet
Vitamin e 1000 unit capsule0.13USDcapsule
Vitamin e beauty oil0.1USDml
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 800 unit softgel0.09USDsoftgel capsule
Vitamin e 600 unit capsule0.07USDcapsule
Vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.06USDcapsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.05USDcapsule
Vitamin e 200 unit capsule0.05USDeach
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 200 unit softgel0.04USDsoftgel capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit cap0.04USDcapsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.04USDcapsule
Vitamin e 100 unit capsule0.04USDcapsule
Vitamin e 400 unit softgel0.04USDsoftgel capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e plus cream0.03USDg
Natural vit e 200 unit capsule0.03USDcapsule
Vitamin e cream0.02USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point3 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsoluble in water, but water-dispersible.Not Available
logP10Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility7.04e-06 g/lALOGPS
logP8.84ALOGPS
logP10.51ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)10.8ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-4.9ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area29.46ChemAxon
rotatable bond count12ChemAxon
refractivity135.37ChemAxon
polarizability55.29ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability0ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Ralph E. Close, William Oroshnik, “Synthesis of dehydrophytol and Vitamin E.” U.S. Patent US4039591, issued February, 1945.

US4039591
General Reference
  1. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Maranghi M, Frati G, Diczfalusy U, Violi F: Bioavailability of vitamin E as function of food intake in healthy subjects: effects on plasma peroxide-scavenging activity and cholesterol-oxidation products. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):E34-7. Pubmed
  2. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. Pubmed
  3. Horwitt MK, Elliott WH, Kanjananggulpan P, Fitch CD: Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol after ingestion of various vitamin E preparations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug;40(2):240-5. Pubmed
  4. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. Pubmed
  5. Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH: Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Apr 8;367(9517):1145-54. Pubmed
  6. Linus Pauling Institute Link
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC02477
PubChem Compound14985
PubChem Substance46506524
ChemSpider14265
ChEBI18145
ChEMBLCHEMBL47
PharmGKBPA451900
HETVIT
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/vitamin_e.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/vit_0266.shtml
WikipediaVitamin_E
ATC CodesA11HA03
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12
  • 88:20.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(74.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AmprenavirIncreased serum levels of vitamin E
OrlistatOrlistat may impair the absorption of vitamin E, a fat soluble vitamin. Oral vitamin E should be administered 2 hours prior to or post orlistat administration.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2 O75469 Details

References:

  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. Pubmed
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. Pubmed

2. Protein kinase C beta type

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein kinase C beta type P05771 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O’Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. Pubmed
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. Pubmed
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. Pubmed

3. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase P09917 Details

References:

  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. Pubmed

4. Protein kinase C alpha type

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein kinase C alpha type P17252 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. Pubmed
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. Pubmed
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. Pubmed

5. Diacylglycerol kinase alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Diacylglycerol kinase alpha P23743 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

6. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform P62714 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform P67775 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. SEC14-like protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
SEC14-like protein 4 Q9UDX3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

9. SEC14-like protein 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
SEC14-like protein 3 Q9UDX4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. Pubmed

10. SEC14-like protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
SEC14-like protein 2 O76054 Details

References:

  1. Neuzil J, Dong LF, Wang XF, Zingg JM: Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1113-7. Epub 2006 Mar 31. Pubmed
  2. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Glutathione S-transferase A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase A2 P09210 Details

References:

  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. Pubmed

2. Glutathione S-transferase P

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase P P09211 Details

References:

  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. Pubmed

3. Glutathione S-transferase omega-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 P78417 Details

References:

  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. Pubmed

4. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3 P21266 Details

References:

  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. Epub 2008 Sep 11. Pubmed

5. Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit P48506 Details

References:

  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. Pubmed

6. NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 P15559 Details

References:

  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. Pubmed

7. Heme oxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Heme oxygenase 1 P09601 Details

References:

  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. Pubmed

8. Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] P00441 Details

References:

  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein P49638 Details
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08