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Identification
NameL-Glutamic Acid
Accession NumberDB00142  (NUTR00027)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsnutraceutical
Description

A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-Glutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
GluNot AvailableNot Available
Glutamic acidNot AvailableINN
L-GlutamateNot AvailableNot Available
L-Glutaminic acidNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number56-86-0
WeightAverage: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Mass Specshow(8.03 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsAmino Fatty Acids; Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Polyols; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Monoalkylamines
Substituentsdicarboxylic acid derivative; polyol; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; amine; primary amine; primary aliphatic amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Pharmacology
IndicationConsidered to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; helps speed the healing of ulcers; gives a "lift" from fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and the craving for sugar.
PharmacodynamicsIn addition to being one of the building blocks in protein synthesis, it is the most widespread neurotransmitter in brain function, as an excitatory neurotransmitter and as a precursor for the synthesis of GABA in GABAergic neurons.
Mechanism of actionGlutamate activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The ionotropic ones being non-NMDA (AMPA and kainate) and NMDA receptors. Free glutamic acid cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable quantities; instead it is converted into L-glutamine, which the brain uses for fuel and protein synthesis. It is conjectured that glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain, though excessive amounts may cause neuronal damage associated in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. Also, the drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamate at the NMDA receptor, causing behavior reminiscent of schizophrenia. Glutamate in action is extremely difficult to study due to its transient nature.
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes.Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityGlutamate causes neuronal damage and eventual cell death, particularly when NMDA receptors are activated, High dosages of glutamic acid may include symptoms such as headaches and neurological problems.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)DiseaseSMP00369
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00137
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVDiseaseSMP00141
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)DiseaseSMP00370
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00138
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00139
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00140
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00521
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaDiseaseSMP00522
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
5-OxoprolinuriaDiseaseSMP00143
5-oxoprolinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00500
Homocystinuria due to defect of N(5,10)-methylene THF deficiencyDiseaseSMP00543
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00083
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00075
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseDiseaseSMP00240
Mefanamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00109
Lactic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00313
Propionic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00236
Isovaleric acidemiaDiseaseSMP00524
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersDiseaseSMP00201
Malonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00198
Isovaleric AciduriaDiseaseSMP00238
Glutaric Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00186
Methylmalonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00200
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
Piroxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00077
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00430
Celecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00096
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00098
Rofecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00087
Diclofenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00093
Sulindac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00094
Suprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00101
Etodolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00084
Ketoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00085
Nabumetone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00114
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00120
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00289
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Bromfenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00102
Indomethacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00104
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00113
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00106
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00428
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00432
Ibuprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00086
Valdecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00116
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00144
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
AICA-RibosiduriaDiseaseSMP00168
Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00055
Glucose-Alanine CycleMetabolicSMP00127
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolicSMP00045
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Aspartate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00067
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseDiseaseSMP00534
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00173
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
Beta-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduriaDiseaseSMP00499
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00353
Canavan DiseaseDiseaseSMP00175
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00350
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaDiseaseSMP00493
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00523
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00502
Molybdenium Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00013
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00337
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00351
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00183
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)DiseaseSMP00220
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00384
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00501
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Ureidopropionase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00492
Lysine DegradationMetabolicSMP00037
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolicSMP00032
Pyridoxine dependency with seizuresDiseaseSMP00571
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
DimethylglycinuriaDiseaseSMP00484
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseDiseaseSMP00199
Tay-Sachs DiseaseDiseaseSMP00390
Hyperlysinemia I, FamilialDiseaseSMP00527
Folate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00053
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00216
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolicSMP00015
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
Histidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00044
HistidinemiaDiseaseSMP00191
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IIDiseaseSMP00239
Hyperlysinemia II or SaccharopinuriaDiseaseSMP00528
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
HypoacetylaspartiaDiseaseSMP00192
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Xanthinuria type IDiseaseSMP00512
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Sjogren Larsson SyndromeDiseaseSMP00217
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00008
Propanoate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00016
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismMetabolicSMP00048
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolicSMP00063
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
PhenylketonuriaDiseaseSMP00206
SarcosinemiaDiseaseSMP00244
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption Not Available Not Available
Blood Brain Barrier Not Available Not Available
Caco-2 permeable Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein substrate Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Not Available Not Available
Renal organic cation transporter Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 1A2 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C19 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Not Available Not Available
Ames test Not Available Not Available
Carcinogenicity Not Available Not Available
Biodegradation Not Available Not Available
Rat acute toxicity Not Available Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Not Available Not Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Not Available Not Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Amend
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-glutamic acid powder0.03USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point224 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8570 mg/L (at 25 °C)BULL,HB ET AL. (1978)
logP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.23 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility8.06e+01 g/lALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.54ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area100.62ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity31.29ChemAxon
polarizability13.32ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
References
Synthesis Reference

Nobuharu Tujimoto, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Osamu Kurahashi, Yoshiko Kawahara, “Mutant Escherichia coli capable of enhanced L-glutamic acid production.” U.S. Patent US5393671, issued August, 1960.

US5393671
General Reference
  1. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed
  2. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed
  3. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed
  4. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a ‘caged’ L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. Pubmed
  5. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00007
KEGG CompoundC00025
PubChem Compound33032
PubChem Substance46505816
ChemSpider30572
BindingDB17657
ChEBI16015
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000015
PharmGKBPA449776
IUPHAR1369
Guide to Pharmacology1369
HETGLU
WikipediaL-Glutamic_Acid
ATC CodesA09AB01
AHFS Codes
  • 40:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(72 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

1. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 Q13255 Details

References:

  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N- methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Pubmed
  2. Chiocchetti A, Miglio G, Mesturini R, Varsaldi F, Mocellin M, Orilieri E, Dianzani C, Fantozzi R, Dianzani U, Lombardi G: Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;148(6):760-8. Epub 2006 Jun 5. Pubmed
  3. San Gabriel AM, Maekawa T, Uneyama H, Yoshie S, Torii K: mGluR1 in the fundic glands of rat stomach. FEBS Lett. 2007 Mar 20;581(6):1119-23. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Pubmed

2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 Q14833 Details

References:

  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N- methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Pubmed

3. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4 Q16099 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Korczak B, Nutt SL, Fletcher EJ, Hoo KH, Elliott CE, Rampersad V, McWhinnie EA, Kamboj RK: cDNA cloning and functional properties of human glutamate receptor EAA3 (GluR5) in homomeric and heteromeric configuration. Receptors Channels. 1995;3(1):41-9. Pubmed

4. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5 Q16478 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. Pubmed
  4. Murphy DE, Hutchison AJ, Hurt SD, Williams M, Sills MA: Characterization of the binding of [3H]-CGS 19755: a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist with nanomolar affinity in rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Nov;95(3):932-8. Pubmed

5. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 Q14831 Details

References:

  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N- methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Pubmed

6. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 O00222 Details

References:

  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N- methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. Pubmed
  2. Morimoto R, Uehara S, Yatsushiro S, Juge N, Hua Z, Senoh S, Echigo N, Hayashi M, Mizoguchi T, Ninomiya T, Udagawa N, Omote H, Yamamoto A, Edwards RH, Moriyama Y: Secretion of L-glutamate from osteoclasts through transcytosis. EMBO J. 2006 Sep 20;25(18):4175-86. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Pubmed

7. Excitatory amino acid transporter 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 5 O00341 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Takarada T, Hinoi E, Balcar VJ, Taniura H, Yoneda Y: Possible expression of functional glutamate transporters in the rat testis. J Endocrinol. 2004 May;181(2):233-44. Pubmed
  4. Arriza JL, Eliasof S, Kavanaugh MP, Amara SG: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5, a retinal glutamate transporter coupled to a chloride conductance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15;94(8):4155-60. Pubmed

8. 5-oxoprolinase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-oxoprolinase O14841 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Nishimura A, Itoh H, Oyama H, Murao S, Oda K: A simultaneous assay method for L-glutamate and L-pyroglutamate contents in soy sauce using a 5-oxoprolinase (without ATP hydrolyzing activity). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb;65(2):477-9. Pubmed
  4. Van der Werf P, Stephani RA, Orlowski M, Meister A: Inhibition of 5-oxoprolinase by 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Mar;70(3):759-61. Pubmed
  5. Seddon AP, Li LY, Meister A: Resolution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase into a 5-oxo-L-proline-dependent ATPase and a coupling protein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10;259(13):8091-4. Pubmed

9. Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase O15067 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Jayaram HN, Lui MS, Plowman J, Pillwein K, Reardon MA, Elliott WL, Weber G: Oncolytic activity and mechanism of action of a novel L-cysteine derivative, L-cysteine, ethyl ester, S-(N-methylcarbamate) monohydrochloride. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(2):88-92. Pubmed

10. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial O15382 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

11. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D O15399 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Pliss L, Jezova D, Mares V, Balcar VJ, St’astny F: N-Acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate changes functional and structural properties of rat blood-brain barrier. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Jan 11;317(2):85-8. Pubmed
  4. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. Pubmed
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. Pubmed

12. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2 O43424 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

13. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B O60391 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

14. Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrial O75879 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

15. Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial O94925 Details

References:

  1. Karmaker S, Saha TK, Yoshikawa Y, Yasui H, Sakurai H: A novel drug delivery system for type 1 diabetes: insulin-mimetic vanadyl-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex. J Inorg Biochem. 2006 Sep;100(9):1535-46. Epub 2006 May 24. Pubmed
  2. Shi F, Xu Z, Cen P: Efficient production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Jun;133(3):271-82. Pubmed
  3. Yang XX, Hu ZP, Xu AL, Duan W, Zhu YZ, Huang M, Sheu FS, Zhang Q, Bian JS, Chan E, Li X, Wang JC, Zhou SF: A mechanistic study on reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered thalidomide, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):82-104. Epub 2006 Jun 30. Pubmed
  4. Ashiuchi M, Shimanouchi K, Horiuchi T, Kamei T, Misono H: Genetically engineered poly-gamma-glutamate producer from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jul;70(7):1794-7. Pubmed
  5. Ashiuchi M, Nakamura H, Yamamoto M, Misono H: Novel poly-gamma-glutamate-processing enzyme catalyzing gamma-glutamyl DD-amidohydrolysis. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006 Jul;102(1):60-5. Pubmed

16. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P00505 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. Pubmed
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

17. Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase P07814 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Cerini C, Semeriva M, Gratecos D: Evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and the organization of the Drosophila glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene. Intron/exon structure of the gene, control of expression of the two mRNAs, selective advantage of the multienzyme complex. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Feb 15;244(1):176-85. Pubmed
  4. Ting SM, Dignam JD: Post-transcriptional regulation of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase in rat salivary gland. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):8993-8. Pubmed

18. Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] P08243 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

19. Glutamine synthetase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamine synthetase P15104 Details

References:

  1. Re DB, Nafia I, Melon C, Shimamoto K, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Had-Aissouni L: Glutamate leakage from a compartmentalized intracellular metabolic pool and activation of the lipoxygenase pathway mediate oxidative astrocyte death by reversed glutamate transport. Glia. 2006 Jul;54(1):47-57. Pubmed
  2. Singh U, Sarkar D: Development of a simple high-throughput screening protocol based on biosynthetic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase for the identification of novel Inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2006 Dec;11(8):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 14. Pubmed
  3. Yamamoto S, Wakayama M, Tachiki T: Characterization of theanine-forming enzyme from Methylovorus mays no. 9 in respect to utilization of theanine production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):545-52. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Pubmed
  4. Scaraffia PY, Zhang Q, Wysocki VH, Isoe J, Wells MA: Analysis of whole body ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti using [15N]-labeled compounds and mass spectrometry. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Aug;36(8):614-22. Epub 2006 May 19. Pubmed

20. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic P17174 Details

References:

  1. Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Melo TM, Nissim I, Sonnewald U, Nissim I: The Ketogenic Diet and Brain Metabolism of Amino Acids: Relationship to the Anticonvulsant Effect. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007 Aug 21;27:415-430. Pubmed

21. Tyrosine aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tyrosine aminotransferase P17735 Details

References:

  1. Ozturk M, Chiu CY, Akdeniz N, Jenq SF, Chang SC, Hsa CY, Jap TS: Two novel mutations in the MEN1 gene in subjects with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jun;29(6):523-7. Pubmed

22. Alanine aminotransferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 1 P24298 Details

References:

  1. Ohgami N, Upadhyay S, Kabata A, Morimoto K, Kusakabe H, Suzuki H: Determination of the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in a microfluidic system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Feb 15;22(7):1330-6. Epub 2006 Jul 18. Pubmed

23. Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase P38435 Details

References:

  1. Zhu A, Sun H, Raymond RM Jr, Furie BC, Furie B, Bronstein M, Kaufman RJ, Westrick R, Ginsburg D: Fatal hemorrhage in mice lacking gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5270-5. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed
  2. Lal S, Jada SR, Xiang X, Lim WT, Lee EJ, Chowbay B: Pharmacogenetics of target genes across the warfarin pharmacological pathway. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1189-200. Pubmed

24. Excitatory amino acid transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 P43003 Details

References:

  1. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. Pubmed
  2. Beart PM, O’Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. Pubmed
  3. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Pubmed

25. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 P43004 Details

References:

  1. King N, Lin H, McGivan JD, Suleiman MS: Expression and activity of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in cardiac hypertrophy: implications for ischaemia reperfusion injury. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Sep;452(6):674-82. Epub 2006 May 23. Pubmed
  2. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Pubmed
  3. Beart PM, O’Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. Pubmed
  4. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. Pubmed

26. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 P43005 Details

References:

  1. Menaker D, Bendahan A, Kanner BI: The substrate specificity of a neuronal glutamate transporter is determined by the nature of the coupling ion. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct;99(1):20-8. Epub 2006 Jul 11. Pubmed
  2. Yun JY, Park KS, Kim JH, Do SH, Zuo Z: Propofol reverses oxidative stress-attenuated glutamate transporter EAAT3 activity: evidence of protein kinase C involvement. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 22;565(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Mar 3. Pubmed
  3. Tao Z, Grewer C: Cooperation of the conserved aspartate 439 and bound amino acid substrate is important for high-affinity Na+ binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Apr;129(4):331-44. Pubmed
  4. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Pubmed

27. Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit P48506 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

28. Excitatory amino acid transporter 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 4 P48664 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gegelashvili G, Schousboe A: High affinity glutamate transporters: regulation of expression and activity. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;52(1):6-15. Pubmed
  4. Lin CL, Tzingounis AV, Jin L, Furuta A, Kavanaugh MP, Rothstein JD: Molecular cloning and expression of the rat EAAT4 glutamate transporter subtype. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 Dec 10;63(1):174-9. Pubmed

29. Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial P49448 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

30. GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] P49915 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Ravasio S, Dossena L, Martin-Figueroa E, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A, Morandi P, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Properties of the recombinant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase of Synechocystis PCC6803. Comparison with the Azospirillum brasilense NADPH-dependent enzyme and its isolated alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8120-33. Pubmed
  4. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. Pubmed
  5. Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM: Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 11;269(10):7450-7. Pubmed

31. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic P54687 Details

References:

  1. Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Novikova AE, Matrosov NG, Rushkevich NY, Kodera T, Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Shimizu S: A novel strategy for enzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine: identification of an enzyme possessing HMKP (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate) aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):70-7. Epub 2007 Jun 6. Pubmed

32. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P80404 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Imai H, Okuno T, Wu JY, Lee TJ: GABAergic innervation in cerebral blood vessels: an immunohistochemical demonstration of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jan;11(1):129-34. Pubmed
  4. Happola O, Paivarinta H, Soinila S, Wu JY, Panula P: Localization of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase immunoreactivity in the sympathetic ganglia of the rat. Neuroscience. 1987 Apr;21(1):271-81. Pubmed
  5. Far SR, Millimoria FR: Levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-T), glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GLDH) and proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of certain neurological disorders. Indian J Med Sci. 1996 Apr;50(4):99-102. Pubmed

33. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 Q05586 Details

References:

  1. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Pubmed

34. Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrial Q05932 Details

References:

  1. DeMartino JK, Hwang I, Xu L, Wilson IA, Boger DL: Discovery of a potent, nonpolyglutamatable inhibitor of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):2998-3002. Pubmed
  2. Gangjee A, Yang J, McGuire JJ, Kisliuk RL: Synthesis and evaluation of a classical 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as antifolates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8590-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. Pubmed

35. Glutamyl aminopeptidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamyl aminopeptidase Q07075 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Tobe H, Kojima F, Aoyagi T, Umezawa H: Purification by affinity chromatography using amastatin and properties of aminopeptidase A from pig kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jun 13;613(2):459-68. Pubmed
  4. Acarturk F, Parlatan ZI, Saracoglu OF: Comparison of vaginal aminopeptidase enzymatic activities in various animals and in humans. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;53(11):1499-504. Pubmed
  5. Sasaki M, Bosman BW, Tan PS: Comparison of proteolytic activities in various lactobacilli. J Dairy Res. 1995 Nov;62(4):601-10. Pubmed

36. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Rutter AR, Freeman FM, Stephenson FA: Further characterization of the molecular interaction between PSD-95 and NMDA receptors: the effect of the NR1 splice variant and evidence for modulation of channel gating. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(6):1298-307. Pubmed
  4. Rutter AR, Stephenson FA: Coexpression of postsynaptic density-95 protein with NMDA receptors results in enhanced receptor expression together with a decreased sensitivity to L-glutamate. J Neurochem. 2000 Dec;75(6):2501-10. Pubmed
  5. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. Pubmed

37. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B Q13224 Details

References:

  1. Verkhratsky A, Kirchhoff F: NMDA Receptors in glia. Neuroscientist. 2007 Feb;13(1):28-37. Pubmed
  2. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Pubmed

38. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C Q14957 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Kuner T, Schoepfer R, Korpi ER: Ethanol inhibits glutamate-induced currents in heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes. Neuroreport. 1993 Dec 13;5(3):297-300. Pubmed
  4. Olmos G, DeGregorio-Rocasolano N, Paz Regalado M, Gasull T, Assumpcio Boronat M, Trullas R, Villarroel A, Lerma J, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;127(6):1317-26. Pubmed
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. Pubmed

39. Aspartate aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase Q2TU84 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

40. Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial Q5JPH6 Details

References:

  1. Sekine S, Shichiri M, Bernier S, Chenevert R, Lapointe J, Yokoyama S: Structural bases of transfer RNA-dependent amino acid recognition and activation by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2006 Dec;14(12):1791-9. Pubmed

41. Lengsin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lengsin Q5TDP6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

42. Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase Q6IA69 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

43. Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3 Q6YP21 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

44. N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrial Q8N159 Details

References:

  1. Xu Y, Labedan B, Glansdorff N: Surprising arginine biosynthesis: a reappraisal of the enzymology and evolution of the pathway in microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 Mar;71(1):36-47. Pubmed

45. Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial Q8N5Z0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Kocki T, Luchowski P, Luchowska E, Wielosz M, Turski WA, Urbanska EM: L-cysteine sulphinate, endogenous sulphur-containing amino acid, inhibits rat brain kynurenic acid production via selective interference with kynurenine aminotransferase II. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jul 31;346(1-2):97-100. Pubmed

46. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A Q8TCU5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

47. Alanine aminotransferase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 2 Q8TD30 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

48. Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2 Q9H1K4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

49. Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1 Q9H936 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

50. Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial Q9UDR5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gaziola SA, Teixeira CM, Lugli J, Sodek L, Azevedo RA: The enzymology of lysine catabolism in rice seeds—isolation, characterization, and regulatory properties of a lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional polypeptide. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jul 1;247(1):364-71. Pubmed
  4. Goncalves-Butruille M, Szajner P, Torigoi E, Leite A, Arruda P: Purification and Characterization of the Bifunctional Enzyme Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase-Saccharopine Dehydrogenase from Maize. Plant Physiol. 1996 Mar;110(3):765-771. Pubmed
  5. Noda C, Ichihara A: Purification and properties of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate reductase from rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Aug 7;525(2):307-13. Pubmed

51. Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial Q9UI32 Details

References:

  1. Dossena L, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Activation and coupling of the glutaminase and synthase reaction of glutamate synthase is mediated by E1013 of the ferredoxin-dependent enzyme, belonging to loop 4 of the synthase domain. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 17;46(15):4473-85. Epub 2007 Mar 21. Pubmed
  2. Kita K, Suzuki T, Ochi T: Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 May 1;220(3):262-70. Epub 2007 Jan 24. Pubmed
  3. Yoshimune K, Shirakihara Y, Shiratori A, Wakayama M, Chantawannakul P, Moriguchi M: Crystal structure of a major fragment of the salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Aug 11;346(4):1118-24. Epub 2006 Jun 6. Pubmed

52. Aspartyl aminopeptidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartyl aminopeptidase Q9ULA0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Watanabe J, Tanaka H, Akagawa T, Mogi Y, Yamazaki T: Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae Aspartyl Aminopeptidase Expressed in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Oct 7;. Pubmed

53. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-1 Q9ULK0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

54. Cystine/glutamate transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cystine/glutamate transporter Q9UPY5 Details

References:

  1. Natale NR, Magnusson KR, Nelson JK: Can selective ligands for glutamate binding proteins be rationally designed? Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(8):823-47. Pubmed

55. Carboxypeptidase Q

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carboxypeptidase Q Q9Y646 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

56. Phosphoserine aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phosphoserine aminotransferase Q9Y617 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Hester G, Stark W, Moser M, Kallen J, Markovic-Housley Z, Jansonius JN: Crystal structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli at 2.3 A resolution: comparison of the unligated enzyme and a complex with alpha-methyl-l-glutamate. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):829-50. Pubmed
  4. Katsura Y, Shirouzu M, Yamaguchi H, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Kuramitsu S, Hayashi H, Yokoyama S: Crystal structure of a putative aspartate aminotransferase belonging to subgroup IV. Proteins. 2004 May 15;55(3):487-92. Pubmed

57. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial P00367 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Anagnou NP, Seuanez H, Modi W, O’Brien SJ, Papamatheakis J, Moschonas NK: Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23. Hum Hered. 1993 Nov-Dec;43(6):351-6. Pubmed

58. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1 P39086 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Sahara Y, Noro N, Iida Y, Soma K, Nakamura Y: Glutamate receptor subunits GluR5 and KA-2 are coexpressed in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 1;17(17):6611-20. Pubmed
  4. Valgeirsson J, Christensen JK, Kristensen AS, Pickering DS, Nielsen B, Fischer CH, Brauner-Osborne H, Nielsen EO, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U: Synthesis and in vitro pharmacology at AMPA and kainate preferring glutamate receptors of 4-heteroarylmethylidene glutamate analogues. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Oct 1;11(20):4341-9. Pubmed
  5. Stensbol TB, Borre L, Johansen TN, Egebjerg J, Madsen U, Ebert B, Krogsgaard-Larsen P: Resolution, absolute stereochemistry and molecular pharmacology of the enantiomers of ATPA. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):153-62. Pubmed

59. Glutamate receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 1 P42261 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. Pubmed
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. Pubmed
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. Pubmed

60. Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunit

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunit P48507 Details

References:

  1. Giordano G, White CC, McConnachie LA, Fernandez C, Kavanagh TJ, Costa LG: Neurotoxicity of domoic Acid in cerebellar granule neurons in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;70(6):2116-26. Epub 2006 Sep 25. Pubmed

61. Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 Q04609 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Rodriguez CE, Lu H, Martinez AR, Hu Y, Brunelle A, Berkman CE: Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II by phosphonamidothionate derivatives of glutamic acid. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Oct;16(4):359-65. Pubmed
  4. Davis MI, Bennett MJ, Thomas LM, Bjorkman PJ: Crystal structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen, a tumor marker and peptidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 26;102(17):5981-6. Epub 2005 Apr 18. Pubmed
  5. Maung J, Mallari JP, Girtsman TA, Wu LY, Rowley JA, Santiago NM, Brunelle AN, Berkman CE: Probing for a hydrophobic a binding register in prostate-specific membrane antigen with phenylalkylphosphonamidates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Sep 15;12(18):4969-79. Pubmed

62. Glutamate decarboxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase 2 Q05329 Details

References:

  1. Wei J, Lin CH, Wu H, Jin Y, Lee YH, Wu JY: Activity-dependent cleavage of brain glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 by calpain. J Neurochem. 2006 Sep;98(5):1688-95. Epub 2006 Jul 31. Pubmed
  2. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. Pubmed
  3. Pop SM, Wong CP, He Q, Wang Y, Wallet MA, Goudy KS, Tisch R: The type and frequency of immunoregulatory CD4+ T-cells govern the efficacy of antigen-specific immunotherapy in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2007 May;56(5):1395-402. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Pubmed
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. Pubmed
  5. Castelli MP, Piras AP, Melis T, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis MR, Collu S, Grazia Ennas M, Diaz G, Mackie K, Argiolas A: Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus and central control of penile erection: immunocytochemistry, autoradiography and behavioral studies. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 15;147(1):197-206. Epub 2007 May 15. Pubmed

63. Glutamate decarboxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 Q99259 Details

References:

  1. Akama K, Takaiwa F: C-terminal extension of rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGAD2) functions as an autoinhibitory domain and overexpression of a truncated mutant results in the accumulation of extremely high levels of GABA in plant cells. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(10):2699-707. Epub 2007 Jun 11. Pubmed
  2. Tueting P, Doueiri MS, Guidotti A, Davis JM, Costa E: Reelin down-regulation in mice and psychosis endophenotypes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(8):1065-77. Pubmed
  3. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. Pubmed
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. Pubmed
  5. Tronci E, Simola N, Borsini F, Schintu N, Frau L, Carminati P, Morelli M: Characterization of the antiparkinsonian effects of the new adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535: acute and subchronic studies in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 2;566(1-3):94-102. Epub 2007 Mar 24. Pubmed

64. Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase O95954 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gao YS, Alvarez C, Nelson DS, Sztul E: Molecular cloning, characterization, and dynamics of rat formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, a Golgi-associated 58-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 11;273(50):33825-34. Pubmed

65. Glutamate receptor 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 2 P42262 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. Pubmed
  4. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. Pubmed
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. Pubmed

66. Glutamate receptor 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 3 P42263 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. Pubmed

67. Glutamate receptor 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 4 P48058 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Linden AM, Yu H, Zarrinmayeh H, Wheeler WJ, Skolnick P: Binding of an AMPA receptor potentiator ([3H]LY395153) to native and recombinant AMPA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2001 Jun;40(8):1010-8. Pubmed
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. Pubmed
  5. Cristovao AJ, Oliveira CR, Carvalho CM: Expression of AMPA/kainate receptors during development of chick embryo retina cells: in vitro versus in vivo studies. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2002 Feb;20(1):1-9. Pubmed

68. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase P54886 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Morita Y, Nakamori S, Takagi H: L-proline accumulation and freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are caused by a mutation in the PRO1 gene encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jan;69(1):212-9. Pubmed
  4. Krishna RV, Beilstein P, Leisinger T: Biosynthesis of proline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Properties of gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Biochem J. 1979 Jul 1;181(1):223-30. Pubmed
  5. Kamoun P, Aral B, Saudubray JM: [A new inherited metabolic disease: delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate synthetase deficiency] Bull Acad Natl Med. 1998;182(1):131-7; discussion 138-9. Pubmed

69. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 Q13002 Details

References:

  1. Wong AY, MacLean DM, Bowie D: Na+/Cl- dipole couples agonist binding to kainate receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 20;27(25):6800-9. Pubmed

70. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3 Q13003 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bettler B, Egebjerg J, Sharma G, Pecht G, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Moll C, Stevens CF, Heinemann S: Cloning of a putative glutamate receptor: a low affinity kainate-binding subunit. Neuron. 1992 Feb;8(2):257-65. Pubmed
  4. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. Pubmed
  5. Stuhmer T, Amar M, Harvey RJ, Bermudez I, van Minnen J, Darlison MG: Structure and pharmacological properties of a molluscan glutamate-gated cation channel and its likely role in feeding behavior. J Neurosci. 1996 May 1;16(9):2869-80. Pubmed

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed

2. Monocarboxylate transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 P53985 Details

References:

  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 30, 2013 11:50