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Identification
NameL-Glutamic Acid
Accession NumberDB00142  (NUTR00027)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsNutraceutical
Description

A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
(S)-Glutamic acid
Glu
Glutamic acid
L-Glutamate
L-Glutaminic acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
ClinisolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
NovamineHospira, Inc.
Olimel 3.3% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7% EBaxter Corporation
Periolimel 2.5% EBaxter Corporation
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII3KX376GY7L
CAS number56-86-0
WeightAverage: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationConsidered to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; helps speed the healing of ulcers; gives a "lift" from fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and the craving for sugar.
PharmacodynamicsIn addition to being one of the building blocks in protein synthesis, it is the most widespread neurotransmitter in brain function, as an excitatory neurotransmitter and as a precursor for the synthesis of GABA in GABAergic neurons.
Mechanism of actionGlutamate activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The ionotropic ones being non-NMDA (AMPA and kainate) and NMDA receptors. Free glutamic acid cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable quantities; instead it is converted into L-glutamine, which the brain uses for fuel and protein synthesis. It is conjectured that glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain, though excessive amounts may cause neuronal damage associated in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. Also, the drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamate at the NMDA receptor, causing behavior reminiscent of schizophrenia. Glutamate in action is extremely difficult to study due to its transient nature.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the enterocytes.Absorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityGlutamate causes neuronal damage and eventual cell death, particularly when NMDA receptors are activated, High dosages of glutamic acid may include symptoms such as headaches and neurological problems.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00013
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolicSMP00015
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00075
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00106
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00109
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00183
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00217
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IIDiseaseSMP00239
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00350
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)DiseaseSMP00369
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)DiseaseSMP00370
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00501
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00698
Nepafenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00702
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00708
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00721
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Amend
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Emulsionintravenous
Liquidintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-glutamic acid powder0.03USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point224 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8570 mg/L (at 25 °C)BULL,HB ET AL. (1978)
logP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.23 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.03 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nobuharu Tujimoto, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Osamu Kurahashi, Yoshiko Kawahara, “Mutant Escherichia coli capable of enhanced L-glutamic acid production.” U.S. Patent US5393671, issued August, 1960.

US5393671
General References
  1. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. [PubMed:10736373 ]
  2. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. [PubMed:15939876 ]
  3. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. [PubMed:10736365 ]
  4. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. [PubMed:7901400 ]
  5. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. [PubMed:17202478 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 40:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad+ binding
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00367
Molecular Weight:
61397.315 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Anagnou NP, Seuanez H, Modi W, O'Brien SJ, Papamatheakis J, Moschonas NK: Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23. Hum Hered. 1993 Nov-Dec;43(6):351-6. [PubMed:8288265 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIK1
Uniprot ID:
P39086
Molecular Weight:
103979.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Sahara Y, Noro N, Iida Y, Soma K, Nakamura Y: Glutamate receptor subunits GluR5 and KA-2 are coexpressed in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 1;17(17):6611-20. [PubMed:9254673 ]
  4. Valgeirsson J, Christensen JK, Kristensen AS, Pickering DS, Nielsen B, Fischer CH, Brauner-Osborne H, Nielsen EO, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U: Synthesis and in vitro pharmacology at AMPA and kainate preferring glutamate receptors of 4-heteroarylmethylidene glutamate analogues. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Oct 1;11(20):4341-9. [PubMed:13129570 ]
  5. Stensbol TB, Borre L, Johansen TN, Egebjerg J, Madsen U, Ebert B, Krogsgaard-Larsen P: Resolution, absolute stereochemistry and molecular pharmacology of the enantiomers of ATPA. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):153-62. [PubMed:10513575 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. [PubMed:1279377 ]
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. [PubMed:7838123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLM
Uniprot ID:
P48507
Molecular Weight:
30726.745 Da
References
  1. Giordano G, White CC, McConnachie LA, Fernandez C, Kavanagh TJ, Costa LG: Neurotoxicity of domoic Acid in cerebellar granule neurons in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;70(6):2116-26. Epub 2006 Sep 25. [PubMed:17000861 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tetrahydrofolyl-poly(glutamate) polymer binding
Specific Function:
Has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) activity. Has a preference for tri-alpha-glutamate peptides. In the intestine, required for the uptake of folate. In the brain, modulates excitatory neurotransmission through the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide, N-aceylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), thereby releasing glutamate. Isoform PSM-4 and isoform PSM-5 would...
Gene Name:
FOLH1
Uniprot ID:
Q04609
Molecular Weight:
84330.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rodriguez CE, Lu H, Martinez AR, Hu Y, Brunelle A, Berkman CE: Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II by phosphonamidothionate derivatives of glutamic acid. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Oct;16(4):359-65. [PubMed:11916141 ]
  4. Davis MI, Bennett MJ, Thomas LM, Bjorkman PJ: Crystal structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen, a tumor marker and peptidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 26;102(17):5981-6. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [PubMed:15837926 ]
  5. Maung J, Mallari JP, Girtsman TA, Wu LY, Rowley JA, Santiago NM, Brunelle AN, Berkman CE: Probing for a hydrophobic a binding register in prostate-specific membrane antigen with phenylalkylphosphonamidates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Sep 15;12(18):4969-79. [PubMed:15336276 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD2
Uniprot ID:
Q05329
Molecular Weight:
65410.77 Da
References
  1. Wei J, Lin CH, Wu H, Jin Y, Lee YH, Wu JY: Activity-dependent cleavage of brain glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 by calpain. J Neurochem. 2006 Sep;98(5):1688-95. Epub 2006 Jul 31. [PubMed:16879709 ]
  2. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. [PubMed:17600364 ]
  3. Pop SM, Wong CP, He Q, Wang Y, Wallet MA, Goudy KS, Tisch R: The type and frequency of immunoregulatory CD4+ T-cells govern the efficacy of antigen-specific immunotherapy in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2007 May;56(5):1395-402. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17317763 ]
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. [PubMed:16643338 ]
  5. Castelli MP, Piras AP, Melis T, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis MR, Collu S, Ennas MG, Diaz G, Mackie K, Argiolas A: Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus and central control of penile erection: immunocytochemistry, autoradiography and behavioral studies. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 15;147(1):197-206. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17507169 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q99259
Molecular Weight:
66896.065 Da
References
  1. Akama K, Takaiwa F: C-terminal extension of rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGAD2) functions as an autoinhibitory domain and overexpression of a truncated mutant results in the accumulation of extremely high levels of GABA in plant cells. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(10):2699-707. Epub 2007 Jun 11. [PubMed:17562689 ]
  2. Tueting P, Doueiri MS, Guidotti A, Davis JM, Costa E: Reelin down-regulation in mice and psychosis endophenotypes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(8):1065-77. [PubMed:16769115 ]
  3. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. [PubMed:17600364 ]
  4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. [PubMed:16643338 ]
  5. Tronci E, Simola N, Borsini F, Schintu N, Frau L, Carminati P, Morelli M: Characterization of the antiparkinsonian effects of the new adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535: acute and subchronic studies in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 2;566(1-3):94-102. Epub 2007 Mar 24. [PubMed:17445798 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Microtubule binding
Specific Function:
Folate-dependent enzyme, that displays both transferase and deaminase activity. Serves to channel one-carbon units from formiminoglutamate to the folate pool.Binds and promotes bundling of vimentin filaments originating from the Golgi.
Gene Name:
FTCD
Uniprot ID:
O95954
Molecular Weight:
58925.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gao YS, Alvarez C, Nelson DS, Sztul E: Molecular cloning, characterization, and dynamics of rat formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, a Golgi-associated 58-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 11;273(50):33825-34. [PubMed:9837973 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  4. Stein E, Cox JA, Seeburg PH, Verdoorn TA: Complex pharmacological properties of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):864-71. [PubMed:1279377 ]
  5. Li F, Owens N, Verdoorn TA: Functional effects of mutations in the putative agonist binding region of recombinant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;47(1):148-54. [PubMed:7838123 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA3
Uniprot ID:
P42263
Molecular Weight:
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA4
Uniprot ID:
P48058
Molecular Weight:
100870.085 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Linden AM, Yu H, Zarrinmayeh H, Wheeler WJ, Skolnick P: Binding of an AMPA receptor potentiator ([3H]LY395153) to native and recombinant AMPA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2001 Jun;40(8):1010-8. [PubMed:11406192 ]
  4. Henley JM, Jenkins R, Hunt SP: Localisation of glutamate receptor binding sites and mRNAs to the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Jan;32(1):37-41. [PubMed:7679210 ]
  5. Cristovao AJ, Oliveira CR, Carvalho CM: Expression of AMPA/kainate receptors during development of chick embryo retina cells: in vitro versus in vivo studies. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2002 Feb;20(1):1-9. [PubMed:12008069 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme that converts glutamate to glutamate 5-semialdehyde, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of proline, ornithine and arginine.
Gene Name:
ALDH18A1
Uniprot ID:
P54886
Molecular Weight:
87301.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Morita Y, Nakamori S, Takagi H: L-proline accumulation and freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are caused by a mutation in the PRO1 gene encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jan;69(1):212-9. [PubMed:12513997 ]
  4. Krishna RV, Beilstein P, Leisinger T: Biosynthesis of proline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Properties of gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Biochem J. 1979 Jul 1;181(1):223-30. [PubMed:114173 ]
  5. Kamoun P, Aral B, Saudubray JM: [A new inherited metabolic disease: delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate synthetase deficiency]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1998;182(1):131-7; discussion 138-9. [PubMed:9622938 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular Weight:
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Wong AY, MacLean DM, Bowie D: Na+/Cl- dipole couples agonist binding to kainate receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 20;27(25):6800-9. [PubMed:17581967 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This recepto...
Gene Name:
GRIK3
Uniprot ID:
Q13003
Molecular Weight:
104036.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bettler B, Egebjerg J, Sharma G, Pecht G, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Moll C, Stevens CF, Heinemann S: Cloning of a putative glutamate receptor: a low affinity kainate-binding subunit. Neuron. 1992 Feb;8(2):257-65. [PubMed:1371217 ]
  4. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. [PubMed:11058796 ]
  5. Stuhmer T, Amar M, Harvey RJ, Bermudez I, van Minnen J, Darlison MG: Structure and pharmacological properties of a molluscan glutamate-gated cation channel and its likely role in feeding behavior. J Neurosci. 1996 May 1;16(9):2869-80. [PubMed:8622118 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. May participate in the central action of glutamate in the CNS, such as long-term potentiation in the hipp...
Gene Name:
GRM1
Uniprot ID:
Q13255
Molecular Weight:
132355.855 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
  2. Chiocchetti A, Miglio G, Mesturini R, Varsaldi F, Mocellin M, Orilieri E, Dianzani C, Fantozzi R, Dianzani U, Lombardi G: Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;148(6):760-8. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [PubMed:16751798 ]
  3. San Gabriel AM, Maekawa T, Uneyama H, Yoshie S, Torii K: mGluR1 in the fundic glands of rat stomach. FEBS Lett. 2007 Mar 20;581(6):1119-23. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17331504 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Group iii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
GRM4
Uniprot ID:
Q14833
Molecular Weight:
101866.835 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists.
Gene Name:
GRIK4
Uniprot ID:
Q16099
Molecular Weight:
107244.485 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Korczak B, Nutt SL, Fletcher EJ, Hoo KH, Elliott CE, Rampersad V, McWhinnie EA, Kamboj RK: cDNA cloning and functional properties of human glutamate receptor EAA3 (GluR5) in homomeric and heteromeric configuration. Receptors Channels. 1995;3(1):41-9. [PubMed:8589992 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This receptor binds kainate > quisqualate > domoate > L-glutamate >> AMPA >> NMDA = 1S,3R-ACPD.
Gene Name:
GRIK5
Uniprot ID:
Q16478
Molecular Weight:
109263.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Takeda M, Haga M, Yamada H, Kinoshita M, Otsuka M, Tsuboi S, Moriyama Y: Ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Nov 17;294(2):97-100. [PubMed:11058796 ]
  4. Murphy DE, Hutchison AJ, Hurt SD, Williams M, Sills MA: Characterization of the binding of [3H]-CGS 19755: a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist with nanomolar affinity in rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Nov;95(3):932-8. [PubMed:2850065 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
GRM7
Uniprot ID:
Q14831
Molecular Weight:
102250.06 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Group iii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
GRM8
Uniprot ID:
O00222
Molecular Weight:
101739.575 Da
References
  1. Suzuki G, Kimura T, Satow A, Kaneko N, Fukuda J, Hikichi H, Sakai N, Maehara S, Kawagoe-Takaki H, Hata M, Azuma T, Ito S, Kawamoto H, Ohta H: Pharmacological characterization of a new, orally active and potent allosteric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl- 3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1144-53. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17360958 ]
  2. Morimoto R, Uehara S, Yatsushiro S, Juge N, Hua Z, Senoh S, Echigo N, Hayashi M, Mizoguchi T, Ninomiya T, Udagawa N, Omote H, Yamamoto A, Edwards RH, Moriyama Y: Secretion of L-glutamate from osteoclasts through transcytosis. EMBO J. 2006 Sep 20;25(18):4175-86. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16957773 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate; the L-glutamate uptake is sodium- and voltage-dependent and chloride-independent. Its associated chloride conductance may participate in visual processing.
Gene Name:
SLC1A7
Uniprot ID:
O00341
Molecular Weight:
60657.825 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Takarada T, Hinoi E, Balcar VJ, Taniura H, Yoneda Y: Possible expression of functional glutamate transporters in the rat testis. J Endocrinol. 2004 May;181(2):233-44. [PubMed:15128272 ]
  4. Arriza JL, Eliasof S, Kavanaugh MP, Amara SG: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5, a retinal glutamate transporter coupled to a chloride conductance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15;94(8):4155-60. [PubMed:9108121 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Gene Name:
OPLAH
Uniprot ID:
O14841
Molecular Weight:
137456.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Nishimura A, Itoh H, Oyama H, Murao S, Oda K: A simultaneous assay method for L-glutamate and L-pyroglutamate contents in soy sauce using a 5-oxoprolinase (without ATP hydrolyzing activity). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb;65(2):477-9. [PubMed:11302195 ]
  4. Van der Werf P, Stephani RA, Orlowski M, Meister A: Inhibition of 5-oxoprolinase by 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Mar;70(3):759-61. [PubMed:4514988 ]
  5. Seddon AP, Li LY, Meister A: Resolution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase into a 5-oxo-L-proline-dependent ATPase and a coupling protein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10;259(13):8091-4. [PubMed:6145710 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase involved in the purines biosynthetic pathway. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine to yield formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) and glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PFAS
Uniprot ID:
O15067
Molecular Weight:
144733.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Jayaram HN, Lui MS, Plowman J, Pillwein K, Reardon MA, Elliott WL, Weber G: Oncolytic activity and mechanism of action of a novel L-cysteine derivative, L-cysteine, ethyl ester, S-(N-methylcarbamate) monohydrochloride. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(2):88-92. [PubMed:2347042 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
O15382
Molecular Weight:
44287.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID:
O15399
Molecular Weight:
143750.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pliss L, Jezova D, Mares V, Balcar VJ, St'astny F: N-Acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate changes functional and structural properties of rat blood-brain barrier. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Jan 11;317(2):85-8. [PubMed:11755246 ]
  4. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. [PubMed:8886398 ]
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. [PubMed:9417820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists.
Gene Name:
GRID2
Uniprot ID:
O43424
Molecular Weight:
113355.16 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular Weight:
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Translation factor activity, rna binding
Specific Function:
Allows the formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho-Glu-tRNA(Gln).
Gene Name:
GATB
Uniprot ID:
O75879
Molecular Weight:
61863.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
GLS
Uniprot ID:
O94925
Molecular Weight:
73460.56 Da
References
  1. Karmaker S, Saha TK, Yoshikawa Y, Yasui H, Sakurai H: A novel drug delivery system for type 1 diabetes: insulin-mimetic vanadyl-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex. J Inorg Biochem. 2006 Sep;100(9):1535-46. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16824605 ]
  2. Shi F, Xu Z, Cen P: Efficient production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Jun;133(3):271-82. [PubMed:16720907 ]
  3. Yang XX, Hu ZP, Xu AL, Duan W, Zhu YZ, Huang M, Sheu FS, Zhang Q, Bian JS, Chan E, Li X, Wang JC, Zhou SF: A mechanistic study on reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered thalidomide, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):82-104. Epub 2006 Jun 30. [PubMed:16815871 ]
  4. Ashiuchi M, Shimanouchi K, Horiuchi T, Kamei T, Misono H: Genetically engineered poly-gamma-glutamate producer from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jul;70(7):1794-7. [PubMed:16861819 ]
  5. Ashiuchi M, Nakamura H, Yamamoto M, Misono H: Novel poly-gamma-glutamate-processing enzyme catalyzing gamma-glutamyl DD-amidohydrolysis. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006 Jul;102(1):60-5. [PubMed:16952838 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular Weight:
47517.285 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. [PubMed:261660 ]
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna stem-loop binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then transferred to the acceptor end of the cognate tRNA. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective tran...
Gene Name:
EPRS
Uniprot ID:
P07814
Molecular Weight:
170589.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Cerini C, Semeriva M, Gratecos D: Evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and the organization of the Drosophila glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene. Intron/exon structure of the gene, control of expression of the two mRNAs, selective advantage of the multienzyme complex. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Feb 15;244(1):176-85. [PubMed:9063462 ]
  4. Ting SM, Dignam JD: Post-transcriptional regulation of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase in rat salivary gland. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):8993-8. [PubMed:8132637 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASNS
Uniprot ID:
P08243
Molecular Weight:
64369.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function:
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
GLUL
Uniprot ID:
P15104
Molecular Weight:
42064.15 Da
References
  1. Re DB, Nafia I, Melon C, Shimamoto K, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Had-Aissouni L: Glutamate leakage from a compartmentalized intracellular metabolic pool and activation of the lipoxygenase pathway mediate oxidative astrocyte death by reversed glutamate transport. Glia. 2006 Jul;54(1):47-57. [PubMed:16673373 ]
  2. Singh U, Sarkar D: Development of a simple high-throughput screening protocol based on biosynthetic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase for the identification of novel Inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2006 Dec;11(8):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 14. [PubMed:16973920 ]
  3. Yamamoto S, Wakayama M, Tachiki T: Characterization of theanine-forming enzyme from Methylovorus mays no. 9 in respect to utilization of theanine production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):545-52. Epub 2007 Feb 7. [PubMed:17284842 ]
  4. Scaraffia PY, Zhang Q, Wysocki VH, Isoe J, Wells MA: Analysis of whole body ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti using [15N]-labeled compounds and mass spectrometry. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Aug;36(8):614-22. Epub 2006 May 19. [PubMed:16876704 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine a...
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular Weight:
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Melo TM, Nissim I, Sonnewald U, Nissim I: The ketogenic diet and brain metabolism of amino acids: relationship to the anticonvulsant effect. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:415-30. [PubMed:17444813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular Weight:
50398.895 Da
References
  1. Ozturk M, Chiu CY, Akdeniz N, Jenq SF, Chang SC, Hsa CY, Jap TS: Two novel mutations in the MEN1 gene in subjects with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jun;29(6):523-7. [PubMed:16840830 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPT
Uniprot ID:
P24298
Molecular Weight:
54636.415 Da
References
  1. Ohgami N, Upadhyay S, Kabata A, Morimoto K, Kusakabe H, Suzuki H: Determination of the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in a microfluidic system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Feb 15;22(7):1330-6. Epub 2006 Jul 18. [PubMed:16854580 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to calcium-binding gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues with the concomitant conversion of the reduced hydroquinone form of vitamin K to vitamin K epoxide.
Gene Name:
GGCX
Uniprot ID:
P38435
Molecular Weight:
87560.065 Da
References
  1. Zhu A, Sun H, Raymond RM Jr, Furie BC, Furie B, Bronstein M, Kaufman RJ, Westrick R, Ginsburg D: Fatal hemorrhage in mice lacking gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5270-5. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327402 ]
  2. Lal S, Jada SR, Xiang X, Lim WT, Lee EJ, Chowbay B: Pharmacogenetics of target genes across the warfarin pharmacological pathway. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1189-200. [PubMed:17112295 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC1A3
Uniprot ID:
P43003
Molecular Weight:
59571.855 Da
References
  1. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. [PubMed:16855093 ]
  2. Beart PM, O'Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. [PubMed:17088867 ]
  3. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC1A2
Uniprot ID:
P43004
Molecular Weight:
62103.665 Da
References
  1. King N, Lin H, McGivan JD, Suleiman MS: Expression and activity of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in cardiac hypertrophy: implications for ischaemia reperfusion injury. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Sep;452(6):674-82. Epub 2006 May 23. [PubMed:16718509 ]
  2. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
  3. Beart PM, O'Shea RD: Transporters for L-glutamate: an update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;150(1):5-17. Epub 2006 Nov 6. [PubMed:17088867 ]
  4. Glowatzki E, Cheng N, Hiel H, Yi E, Tanaka K, Ellis-Davies GC, Rothstein JD, Bergles DE: The glutamate-aspartate transporter GLAST mediates glutamate uptake at inner hair cell afferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 19;26(29):7659-64. [PubMed:16855093 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate, L- and D-aspartate and L-cystein (PubMed:21123949). Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium. Negatively regulated by ARL6IP5 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC1A1
Uniprot ID:
P43005
Molecular Weight:
57099.835 Da
References
  1. Menaker D, Bendahan A, Kanner BI: The substrate specificity of a neuronal glutamate transporter is determined by the nature of the coupling ion. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct;99(1):20-8. Epub 2006 Jul 11. [PubMed:16831195 ]
  2. Yun JY, Park KS, Kim JH, Do SH, Zuo Z: Propofol reverses oxidative stress-attenuated glutamate transporter EAAT3 activity: evidence of protein kinase C involvement. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 22;565(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Mar 3. [PubMed:17382927 ]
  3. Tao Z, Grewer C: Cooperation of the conserved aspartate 439 and bound amino acid substrate is important for high-affinity Na+ binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Apr;129(4):331-44. [PubMed:17389249 ]
  4. Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA: Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Nov;28(11):1737-48. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
P48506
Molecular Weight:
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Seems to act as a symport by cotransporting sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC1A6
Uniprot ID:
P48664
Molecular Weight:
61564.875 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gegelashvili G, Schousboe A: High affinity glutamate transporters: regulation of expression and activity. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;52(1):6-15. [PubMed:9224806 ]
  4. Lin CL, Tzingounis AV, Jin L, Furuta A, Kavanaugh MP, Rothstein JD: Molecular cloning and expression of the rat EAAT4 glutamate transporter subtype. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 Dec 10;63(1):174-9. [PubMed:9838098 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Leucine binding
Specific Function:
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GLUD2
Uniprot ID:
P49448
Molecular Weight:
61433.465 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important for cell division.
Gene Name:
GMPS
Uniprot ID:
P49915
Molecular Weight:
76714.79 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ravasio S, Dossena L, Martin-Figueroa E, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A, Morandi P, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Properties of the recombinant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase of Synechocystis PCC6803. Comparison with the Azospirillum brasilense NADPH-dependent enzyme and its isolated alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8120-33. [PubMed:12069605 ]
  4. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. [PubMed:16142895 ]
  5. Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM: Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 11;269(10):7450-7. [PubMed:7907328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name:
BCAT1
Uniprot ID:
P54687
Molecular Weight:
42965.815 Da
References
  1. Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Novikova AE, Matrosov NG, Rushkevich NY, Kodera T, Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Shimizu S: A novel strategy for enzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine: identification of an enzyme possessing HMKP (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate) aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):70-7. Epub 2007 Jun 6. [PubMed:17559390 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56438.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Imai H, Okuno T, Wu JY, Lee TJ: GABAergic innervation in cerebral blood vessels: an immunohistochemical demonstration of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jan;11(1):129-34. [PubMed:1983997 ]
  4. Happola O, Paivarinta H, Soinila S, Wu JY, Panula P: Localization of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase immunoreactivity in the sympathetic ganglia of the rat. Neuroscience. 1987 Apr;21(1):271-81. [PubMed:3299141 ]
  5. Far SR, Millimoria FR: Levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-T), glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GLDH) and proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of certain neurological disorders. Indian J Med Sci. 1996 Apr;50(4):99-102. [PubMed:8979623 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (...
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular Weight:
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17662248 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis. Unsubstituted reduced folates are the preferred s...
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
Q05932
Molecular Weight:
64608.53 Da
References
  1. DeMartino JK, Hwang I, Xu L, Wilson IA, Boger DL: Discovery of a potent, nonpolyglutamatable inhibitor of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):2998-3002. [PubMed:16686541 ]
  2. Gangjee A, Yang J, McGuire JJ, Kisliuk RL: Synthesis and evaluation of a classical 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as antifolates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8590-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. [PubMed:16990006 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Appears to have a role in the catabolic pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells.
Gene Name:
ENPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q07075
Molecular Weight:
109243.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tobe H, Kojima F, Aoyagi T, Umezawa H: Purification by affinity chromatography using amastatin and properties of aminopeptidase A from pig kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jun 13;613(2):459-68. [PubMed:7448199 ]
  4. Acarturk F, Parlatan ZI, Saracoglu OF: Comparison of vaginal aminopeptidase enzymatic activities in various animals and in humans. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;53(11):1499-504. [PubMed:11732752 ]
  5. Sasaki M, Bosman BW, Tan PS: Comparison of proteolytic activities in various lactobacilli. J Dairy Res. 1995 Nov;62(4):601-10. [PubMed:8568030 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Rutter AR, Freeman FM, Stephenson FA: Further characterization of the molecular interaction between PSD-95 and NMDA receptors: the effect of the NR1 splice variant and evidence for modulation of channel gating. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(6):1298-307. [PubMed:12068077 ]
  4. Rutter AR, Stephenson FA: Coexpression of postsynaptic density-95 protein with NMDA receptors results in enhanced receptor expression together with a decreased sensitivity to L-glutamate. J Neurochem. 2000 Dec;75(6):2501-10. [PubMed:11080203 ]
  5. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. [PubMed:8886398 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic sites, acts as a central mediator for stroke damage. Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an ...
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular Weight:
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Verkhratsky A, Kirchhoff F: NMDA Receptors in glia. Neuroscientist. 2007 Feb;13(1):28-37. [PubMed:17229973 ]
  2. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17662248 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID:
Q14957
Molecular Weight:
134207.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kuner T, Schoepfer R, Korpi ER: Ethanol inhibits glutamate-induced currents in heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes. Neuroreport. 1993 Dec 13;5(3):297-300. [PubMed:7905294 ]
  4. Olmos G, DeGregorio-Rocasolano N, Paz Regalado M, Gasull T, Assumpcio Boronat M, Trullas R, Villarroel A, Lerma J, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;127(6):1317-26. [PubMed:10455281 ]
  5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. [PubMed:9417820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GIG18
Uniprot ID:
Q2TU84
Molecular Weight:
46319.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
Gene Name:
EARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q5JPH6
Molecular Weight:
58688.1 Da
References
  1. Sekine S, Shichiri M, Bernier S, Chenevert R, Lapointe J, Yokoyama S: Structural bases of transfer RNA-dependent amino acid recognition and activation by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2006 Dec;14(12):1791-9. [PubMed:17161369 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific Function:
May act as a component of the cytoskeleton or as a chaperone for the reorganization of intermediate filament proteins during terminal differentiation in the lens. Does not seem to have enzymatic activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LGSN
Uniprot ID:
Q5TDP6
Molecular Weight:
57277.46 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID:
Q6IA69
Molecular Weight:
79283.945 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). May catalyze the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond (By similarity). Has transaminase activity towards L-kynurenine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, glutamin...
Gene Name:
CCBL2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YP21
Molecular Weight:
51399.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Arginine binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in the regulation of ureagenesis by producing the essential cofactor N-acetylglutamate (NAG), thus modulating carbamoylphosphate synthase I (CPSI) activity.
Gene Name:
NAGS
Uniprot ID:
Q8N159
Molecular Weight:
58155.835 Da
References
  1. Xu Y, Labedan B, Glansdorff N: Surprising arginine biosynthesis: a reappraisal of the enzymology and evolution of the pathway in microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 Mar;71(1):36-47. [PubMed:17347518 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxyl...
Gene Name:
AADAT
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5Z0
Molecular Weight:
47351.17 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kocki T, Luchowski P, Luchowska E, Wielosz M, Turski WA, Urbanska EM: L-cysteine sulphinate, endogenous sulphur-containing amino acid, inhibits rat brain kynurenic acid production via selective interference with kynurenine aminotransferase II. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jul 31;346(1-2):97-100. [PubMed:12850557 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name:
GPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD30
Molecular Weight:
57903.11 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Glutamate is cotransported with H(+).
Gene Name:
SLC25A18
Uniprot ID:
Q9H1K4
Molecular Weight:
33848.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the transport of glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Glutamate is cotransported with H(+).
Gene Name:
SLC25A22
Uniprot ID:
Q9H936
Molecular Weight:
34469.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Saccharopine dehydrogenase (nadp+, l-lysine-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively.
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDR5
Molecular Weight:
102130.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gaziola SA, Teixeira CM, Lugli J, Sodek L, Azevedo RA: The enzymology of lysine catabolism in rice seeds--isolation, characterization, and regulatory properties of a lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional polypeptide. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jul 1;247(1):364-71. [PubMed:9249048 ]
  4. Goncalves-Butruille M, Szajner P, Torigoi E, Leite A, Arruda P: Purification and Characterization of the Bifunctional Enzyme Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase-Saccharopine Dehydrogenase from Maize. Plant Physiol. 1996 Mar;110(3):765-771. [PubMed:12226216 ]
  5. Noda C, Ichihara A: Purification and properties of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate reductase from rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Aug 7;525(2):307-13. [PubMed:687635 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutaminase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI32
Molecular Weight:
66322.225 Da
References
  1. Dossena L, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Activation and coupling of the glutaminase and synthase reaction of glutamate synthase is mediated by E1013 of the ferredoxin-dependent enzyme, belonging to loop 4 of the synthase domain. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 17;46(15):4473-85. Epub 2007 Mar 21. [PubMed:17373776 ]
  2. Kita K, Suzuki T, Ochi T: Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 May 1;220(3):262-70. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17321558 ]
  3. Yoshimune K, Shirakihara Y, Shiratori A, Wakayama M, Chantawannakul P, Moriguchi M: Crystal structure of a major fragment of the salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Aug 11;346(4):1118-24. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16793004 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Aminopeptidase with specificity towards an acidic amino acid at the N-terminus. Likely to play an important role in intracellular protein and peptide metabolism.
Gene Name:
DNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULA0
Molecular Weight:
52427.87 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Watanabe J, Tanaka H, Akagawa T, Mogi Y, Yamazaki T: Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Oct;71(10):2557-60. Epub 2007 Oct 7. [PubMed:17928682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists.
Gene Name:
GRID1
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULK0
Molecular Weight:
112129.96 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name:
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPY5
Molecular Weight:
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Natale NR, Magnusson KR, Nelson JK: Can selective ligands for glutamate binding proteins be rationally designed? Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(8):823-47. [PubMed:16719820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Carboxypeptidase that may play an important role in the hydrolysis of circulating peptides. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of dipeptides with unsubstituted terminals into amino acids. May play a role in the liberation of thyroxine hormone from its thyroglobulin (Tg) precursor.
Gene Name:
CPQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y646
Molecular Weight:
51887.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
O-phospho-l-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine.
Gene Name:
PSAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y617
Molecular Weight:
40422.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hester G, Stark W, Moser M, Kallen J, Markovic-Housley Z, Jansonius JN: Crystal structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli at 2.3 A resolution: comparison of the unligated enzyme and a complex with alpha-methyl-l-glutamate. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):829-50. [PubMed:10024454 ]
  4. Katsura Y, Shirouzu M, Yamaguchi H, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Kuramitsu S, Hayashi H, Yokoyama S: Crystal structure of a putative aspartate aminotransferase belonging to subgroup IV. Proteins. 2004 May 15;55(3):487-92. [PubMed:15103612 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 06, 2015 10:26