You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameTramadol
Accession NumberDB00193  (APRD00028)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A narcotic analgesic proposed for moderate to severe pain. It may be habituating. [PubChem] Tramadol is also prepared as a variable release capsules, marketed under the brand name ConZip. For example, a 150 mg capsule will contain 37.5 mg of the immediate release form and 112.5 mg of the extended release form.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+)-Tramadol
(+)-trans-2-(Dimethylaminomethyl)-1-(m-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Conzipcapsule, extended release300 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Conzipcapsule, extended release200 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Conzipcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Conzipcapsule, extended release300 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Conzipcapsule, extended release200 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Conzipcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralVertical Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Durelacapsule (extended release)300 mgoralCipher Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-03-19Not applicableCanada
Durelacapsule (extended release)200 mgoralCipher Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-03-19Not applicableCanada
Durelacapsule (extended release)100 mgoralCipher Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-03-19Not applicableCanada
Raliviatablet (extended-release)300 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
Raliviatablet (extended-release)200 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
Raliviatablet (extended-release)100 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2007-10-25Not applicableCanada
Ryzolttablet, extended release300 mg/1oralStat Rx USA2008-12-30Not applicableUs
Ryzolttablet, extended release300 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-22Not applicableUs
Ryzolttablet, extended release100 mg/1oralStat Rx USA2008-12-30Not applicableUs
Ryzolttablet, extended release200 mg/1oralStat Rx USA2008-12-30Not applicableUs
Taro-tramadol ERtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Taro-tramadol ERtablet (extended-release)200 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Taro-tramadol ERtablet (extended-release)100 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-01-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule150 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-09-18Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, coated, extended release150 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralKLE 2, Inc.2012-03-142015-12-29Us
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-08Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-01-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralSta3, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2006-01-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-07-17Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridecapsule, extended release150 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2012-03-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasecapsule300 mg/1oralTrigen Laboratories, LLC2015-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasecapsule200 mg/1oralTrigen Laboratories, LLC2015-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasecapsule100 mg/1oralTrigen Laboratories, LLC2015-06-22Not applicableUs
Triduraltablet (extended-release)300 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc2007-08-14Not applicableCanada
Triduraltablet (extended-release)200 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc2007-08-14Not applicableCanada
Triduraltablet (extended-release)100 mgoralPaladin Labs Inc2007-08-14Not applicableCanada
Ultramtablet50 mgoralJanssen Inc2010-06-28Not applicableCanada
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1995-03-03Not applicableUs
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1995-03-03Not applicableUs
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1995-03-03Not applicableUs
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1995-03-03Not applicableUs
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-20Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release200 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-10-01Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release100 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-10-01Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release300 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-27Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-27Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release300 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2005-09-08Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release200 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-20Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release200 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2005-09-08Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2005-09-08Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet, extended release300 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-10-01Not applicableUs
Ultram ERtablet100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralPurdue Pharma2006-12-07Not applicableCanada
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)75 mgoralPurdue Pharma2011-03-02Not applicableCanada
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)400 mgoralPurdue Pharma2006-12-07Not applicableCanada
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)200 mgoralPurdue Pharma2006-12-07Not applicableCanada
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)150 mgoralPurdue Pharma2006-12-07Not applicableCanada
Zytram XLtablet (extended-release)100 mgoralPurdue Pharma2011-03-02Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-tramadoltablet50 mgoralApotex Inc2014-06-23Not applicableCanada
Tramadoltablet50 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare, Inc.2013-10-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol ERtablet, extended release200 mg/1oralStat Rx USA2009-10-27Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrchloridetablet50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-28Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralApotheca, Inc2005-04-26Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-02-04Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/50mgoralAlivio Medical Products, Llc2015-10-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-03-08Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2014-03-31Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-05Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-08-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2002-06-20Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-12-10Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-08-18Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2002-06-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-10-20Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2013-12-02Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-03-23Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-04-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2009-11-23Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2002-08-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-04-02Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-08-18Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-10-20Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-262015-12-31Us
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-06Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2009-11-23Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-12-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2011-09-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-02-26Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-08-18Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-10-20Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralNorthstar Rx LLC2016-04-06Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralSt. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy2014-10-06Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-26Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2014-03-31Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-262015-11-30Us
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-06Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2014-02-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralRx Change Co.2014-11-14Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralNorthstar Rx LLC2011-02-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-26Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-12-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2002-07-10Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-31Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2014-02-20Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-11-23Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-01-09Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2016-03-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-09-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-08-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-10-19Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-09-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2016-03-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-07Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release200 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-02-26Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralReady Meds2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralLife Line Home Care Services, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-11-17Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralKeltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-06-30Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-07Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2016-03-16Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2002-06-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2009-11-13Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-17Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralVirtus Pharmaceuticals2015-05-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-06-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralBiomes Pharmaceuticals LLC2016-02-25Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-11-23Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2002-06-21Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, extended release300 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-12-12Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet, coated50 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2002-06-22Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloridetablet50 mg/1oralAltura Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride ERtablet, extended release100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2012-06-27Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasetablet, film coated, extended release200 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2012-06-27Not applicableUs
Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-releasetablet, film coated, extended release100 mg/1oralPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2012-06-27Not applicableUs
Ultramtablet, coated50 mg/201oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-02-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SynaprynkitoralFusion Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-09-14Not applicableUs
International Brands
NameCompany
RybixNot Available
TramalGrünenthal GmbH
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Act Tramadol/acetActavis Pharma Company
Apo-tramadol/acetApotex Inc
Auro-tramadol/acetaminophenAuro Pharma Inc
Direct RxDIRECT RX
Ipg-tramadol/acetMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc
Jamp-acet-tramadolJamp Pharma Corporation
Lupin-tramadol/acetLupin Pharma Canada Limited
Mar-tramadol/acetMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc
Mint-tramadol/acetMint Pharmaceuticals Inc
Mylan-tramadol/acetMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
Pat-tramadol/acetPatriot A Division Of Janssen Inc
PMS-tramadol-acetPharmascience Inc
Priva-tramadol/acetPharmapar Inc
Ran-tramadol/acetRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.
Riva-tramadol/acetLaboratoire Riva Inc
Teva-tramadol/acetaminophenTeva Canada Limited
Theratramadol-90Physician Therapeutics Llc
TramacetJanssen Inc
Tramadal Hydrochloride and AcetaminophenREMEDYREPACK INC.
Tramadol / AcetaminophenSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc
Tramadol Hydrochloride and AcetaminophenMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Tramadol-acetPro Doc Limitee
Tramadol/acetSanis Health Inc
TramapapLiving Well Pharmacy, Inc.
Tramaphen-odanOdan Laboratories Ltd
UltracetRebel Distributors Corp
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Tramadol Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: PPKXEPBICJTCRU-XMZRARIVSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 299.165206788
  • Average Mass: 299.836
DBSALT000181
Categories
UNII39J1LGJ30J
CAS number27203-92-5
WeightAverage: 263.3752
Monoisotopic: 263.188529049
Chemical FormulaC16H25NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=TVYLLZQTGLZFBW-ZBFHGGJFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H25NO2/c1-17(2)12-14-7-4-5-10-16(14,18)13-8-6-9-15(11-13)19-3/h6,8-9,11,14,18H,4-5,7,10,12H2,1-3H3/t14-,16+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1R,2R)-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexan-1-ol
SMILES
COC1=CC=CC(=C1)[C@@]1(O)CCCC[C@@H]1CN(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anisoles. These are organic compounds containing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentAnisoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanol (CHEBI:75725 )
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Consider for those prone to constipation or respiratory depression. Tramadol is used to treat postoperative, dental, cancer, and acute musculosketetal pain and as an adjuvant to NSAID therapy in patients with osteoarthritis.
PharmacodynamicsTramadol, a centrally-acting analgesic, exists as a racemic mixture of the trans isomer, with important differences in binding, activity, and metabolism associated with the two enantiomers. Although its mode of action is not completely understood, from animal tests, at least two complementary mechanisms appear applicable: binding of parent and M1 metabolite to μ-opioid receptors and weak inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Opioid activity is due to both low affinity binding of the parent compound and higher affinity binding of the O-demethylated metabolite M1 to μ-opioid receptors. In animal models, M1 is up to 6 times more potent than tramadol in producing analgesia and 200 times more potent in μ-opioid binding. Opiate antagonist naloxone only partially antagonized tramadol-induced analgesia.
Mechanism of actionTramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite (M1) are selective, weak OP3-receptor agonists. Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. The analgesic properties of Tramadol can be attributed to norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake blockade in the CNS, which inhibits pain transmission in the spinal cord. The (+) enantiomer has higher affinity for the OP3 receptor and preferentially inhibits serotonin uptake and enhances serotonin release. The (-) enantiomer preferentially inhibits norepinephrine reuptake by stimulating alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRacemic tramadol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration. The mean absolute bioavailability of a 100 mg oral dose is approximately 75%. The mean peak plasma concentration of racemic tramadol and M1 occurs at two and three hours, respectively, after administration in healthy adults.
Volume of distribution
  • 2.6 L/kg [male, 100 mg intravenous dose]
  • 2.9 L/kg [female, 100 mg intravenous dose]
Protein binding20% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Hepatic. The major metabolic pathways appear to be N- and O- demethylation and glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. One metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol, denoted M1) is pharmacologically active in animal models. CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 facilitates the biotransformation of tramadol to N-desmethyl-tramadol. CYP2D6 facilitates the biotransformation of tramadol to O-desmethyl-tramadol.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Tramadol
O-DesmethyltramadolDetails
Tramadol
N-DesmethyltramadolDetails
O-Desmethyltramadol
O-Desmethyl-tramado glucuronideDetails
O-Desmethyltramadol
N,O-didesmethyltramadolDetails
N-Desmethyltramadol
N,O-didesmethyltramadolDetails
N-Desmethyltramadol
N,N-didesmethyltramadolDetails
N,O-didesmethyltramadol
Not Available
N,N,O-tridesmethyl-tramadolDetails
N,N-didesmethyltramadol
Not Available
N,N,O-tridesmethyl-tramadolDetails
Route of eliminationTramadol is eliminated primarily through metabolism by the liver and the metabolites are excreted primarily by the kidneys. Approximately 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, whereas 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites.
Half lifeTramadol and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine with observed plasma half-lives of 6.3 and 7.4 hours for tramadol and M1, respectively.
Clearance
  • 5.9 mL/min/Kg [Healthy Adults, 100 mg qid, MD p.o]
  • 8.5 mL/min/Kg [Healthy Adults, 100 mg SD p.o]
  • 6.89 mL/min/Kg [Geriatric, (<75 yr), 50 mg SD p.o.]
  • 4.23 mL/min/Kg [Hepatic Impaired, 50 mg SD p.o.]
  • 4.23 mL/min/Kg [Renal Impaired, Clcr10-3mL/min, 100 mg SD i.v.]
  • 3.73 mL/min/Kg [Renal Impaired, CLcr<5 mL/min, 100 mg SD i.v.]
  • 6.4 mL/min/Kg [Male following a 100 mg IV dose]
  • 5.7 mL/min/Kg [Female following a 100 mg IV dose]
ToxicityLD50=350mg/kg (orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tramadol Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00637
Tramadol Action Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00671
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9924
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6283
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7807
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9589
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6398
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7678
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7726
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7136
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.704
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.6566
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6841
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6256
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7832
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7899
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6663
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9975
Rat acute toxicity3.0316 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6136
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7098
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Cipher pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purdue pharma products lp
  • Par pharmaceutical
  • Biovail laboratories international srl
  • Victory pharma inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Asta medica inc
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mallinckrodt inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Northstar healthcare holdings ltd
  • Pliva inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseoral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Capsule (extended release)oral100 mg
Capsule (extended release)oral200 mg
Capsule (extended release)oral300 mg
Kitoral
Capsuleoral150 mg/1
Capsule, coated, extended releaseoral150 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral150 mg/1
Tabletoral50 mg/50mg
Tabletoral50 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral50 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral100 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral200 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral50 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral200 mg/1
Capsuleoral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Kit
Tablet (extended-release)oral100 mg
Tabletoral
Tabletoral50 mg
Tablet, coatedoral50 mg/201
Tabletoral100 mg/1
Tablet (extended-release)oral150 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral200 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral300 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral400 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral75 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tramadol hcl powder29.08USD g
Ultram ER 300 mg 24 Hour tablet10.66USD tablet
Ultram er 300 mg tablet10.25USD tablet
Ultram ER 200 mg 24 Hour tablet7.64USD tablet
Ultram er 200 mg tablet7.35USD tablet
TraMADol HCl 200 mg 24 Hour tablet6.25USD tablet
Ultram ER 100 mg 24 Hour tablet4.62USD tablet
Ultram er 100 mg tablet4.44USD tablet
TraMADol HCl 100 mg 24 Hour tablet3.78USD tablet
Ultram 50 mg tablet1.99USD tablet
Tramadol-Acetaminophen 37.5-325 mg tablet1.07USD tablet
Tramadol hcl 50 mg tablet0.7USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2123160 No2003-04-292014-05-09Canada
CA2476201 No2009-09-012023-02-21Canada
US5464632 No1993-03-222013-03-22Us
US6106861 No1997-12-052017-12-05Us
US6339105 Yes2000-04-122020-04-12Us
US6607748 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US7858118 No2002-04-112022-04-11Us
US7988998 No2003-10-272023-10-27Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point180-181 °CNot Available
water solubilitySoluble Not Available
logP2.4FDA label
pKa9.41FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.75 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.71ALOGPS
logP2.45ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity78.27 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9010000000-ffea37e400f0860f2e7fView in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Wolfgang Reimann, “Combination preparation containing tramadol and a calcium channel antagonist.” U.S. Patent US5929122, issued March, 1993.

US5929122
General References
  1. Dayer P, Desmeules J, Collart L: [Pharmacology of tramadol]. Drugs. 1997;53 Suppl 2:18-24. [PubMed:9190321 ]
  2. Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, Edelman S, Greene D, Raskin P, Donofrio P, Cornblath D, Sachdeo R, Siu CO, Kamin M: Double-blind randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6):1842-6. [PubMed:9633738 ]
  3. Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, Edelman SV, Greene D, Raskin P, Donofrio P, Cornblath D, Olson WH, Kamin M: Maintenance of the long-term effectiveness of tramadol in treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. J Diabetes Complications. 2000 Mar-Apr;14(2):65-70. [PubMed:10959067 ]
  4. Gobel H, Stadler T: [Treatment of post-herpes zoster pain with tramadol. Results of an open pilot study versus clomipramine with or without levomepromazine]. Drugs. 1997;53 Suppl 2:34-9. [PubMed:9190323 ]
  5. Boureau F, Legallicier P, Kabir-Ahmadi M: Tramadol in post-herpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2003 Jul;104(1-2):323-31. [PubMed:12855342 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN02AX02N02AX52
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (408 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Abiraterone.
AcenocoumarolTramadol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Tramadol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Acetazolamide.
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Acetophenazine.
AlmotriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Almotriptan.
AlosetronAlosetron may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
AlvimopanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Alvimopan.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Amiloride.
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
Ammonium chlorideAmmonium chloride may increase the excretion rate of Tramadol which could result in a higher serum level.
AmoxapineAmoxapine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Aripiprazole.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AzelastineTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tramadol.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.
BenzquinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Benzquinamide.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Bromocriptine.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Bumetanide.
BupropionThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Bupropion.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Buspirone.
ButorphanolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Cabergoline.
CarbamazepineTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carbamazepine.
CarphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Carphenazine.
CathinoneCathinone may increase the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
CelecoxibThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Celecoxib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Chlorthalidone.
CimetidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Cimetidine.
CinacalcetThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Cinacalcet.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClobazamThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Clobazam.
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Cocaine.
CyclobenzaprineCyclobenzaprine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Cyclothiazide.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Tramadol.
DarifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Delavirdine.
DesipramineDesipramine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Desmopressin.
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Desvenlafaxine.
DextromethorphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DicoumarolTramadol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DiphenhydramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Diphenhydramine.
DolasetronDolasetron may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
DoxepinDoxepin may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
DronedaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Dronedarone.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Duloxetine.
EletriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Eletriptan.
EliglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Eliglustat.
EluxadolineTramadol may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
Ergoloid mesylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ergoloid mesylate.
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ergotamine.
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ethoxzolamide.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Fencamfamine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Fentanyl.
FluoxetineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Fluphenazine.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Fluspirilene.
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
FrovatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Frovatriptan.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Furosemide.
GranisetronGranisetron may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Haloperidol.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocodoneTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineImipramine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IsocarboxazidTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Isocarboxazid.
IsoniazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Isoniazid.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
KetoconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketoconazole.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LinezolidTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Linezolid.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Lithium.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Tramadol.
LorcaserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Lorcaserin.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Loxapine.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Maprotiline.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Mesoridazine.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MetoclopramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Metoclopramide.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Metolazone.
MetyrosineTramadol may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
MirabegronThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Mirabegron.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Mirtazapine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MoclobemideTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moclobemide.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Molindone.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
NaltrexoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Naltrexone.
NaratriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Naratriptan.
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantNetupitant may increase the serotonergic activities of Tramadol.
NicardipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Nicardipine.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NortriptylineNortriptyline may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Olanzapine.
OndansetronOndansetron may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
OrphenadrineTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Paliperidone.
PalonosetronPalonosetron may decrease the analgesic activities of Tramadol.
PanobinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Panobinostat.
ParaldehydeTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
PegvisomantThe therapeutic efficacy of Pegvisomant can be decreased when used in combination with Tramadol.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Pethidine.
PhenelzineTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Phenelzine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Tramadol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Pimozide.
PiperacetazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Piperacetazine.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PramipexoleTramadol may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
ProcarbazineTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Procarbazine.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Prochlorperazine.
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Tramadol.
PromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Promazine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Promethazine.
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Quinidine.
QuinineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Quinine.
RamosetronTramadol may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RasagilineTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rasagiline.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Remoxipride.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Reserpine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RizatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Rizatriptan.
RolapitantThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Rolapitant.
RopiniroleTramadol may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineTramadol may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tramadol.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SelegilineTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Selegiline.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineSertraline may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.
StiripentolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Stiripentol.
SuccinylcholineSuccinylcholine may increase the bradycardic activities of Tramadol.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Sulpiride.
SumatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Sumatriptan.
SuvorexantTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Tramadol.
Tedizolid PhosphateTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tedizolid Phosphate.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
TerbinafineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Terbinafine.
ThalidomideTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThioridazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Thiothixene.
TiclopidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Ticlopidine.
TicrynafenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ticrynafen.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTramadol may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Trazodone.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Trichlormethiazide.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimipramineTrimipramine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Venlafaxine.
VilazodoneVilazodone may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Tramadol.
WarfarinTramadol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolmitriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Zolmitriptan.
ZolpidemTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride with food does not significantly affect its rate or extent of absorption, therefore, tramadol hydrochloride can be administered without regard to food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Gillen C, Haurand M, Kobelt DJ, Wnendt S: Affinity, potency and efficacy of tramadol and its metabolites at the cloned human mu-opioid receptor. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;362(2):116-21. [PubMed:10961373 ]
  2. Potschka H, Friderichs E, Loscher W: Anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of tramadol, its enantiomers and its M1 metabolite in the rat kindling model of epilepsy. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Sep;131(2):203-12. [PubMed:10991912 ]
  3. Raffa RB, Friderichs E, Reimann W, Shank RP, Codd EE, Vaught JL: Opioid and nonopioid components independently contribute to the mechanism of action of tramadol, an 'atypical' opioid analgesic. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Jan;260(1):275-85. [PubMed:1309873 ]
  4. Grond S, Sablotzki A: Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(13):879-923. [PubMed:15509185 ]
  5. Ide S, Minami M, Ishihara K, Uhl GR, Sora I, Ikeda K: Mu opioid receptor-dependent and independent components in effects of tramadol. Neuropharmacology. 2006 Sep;51(3):651-8. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [PubMed:16793069 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Minami K, Uezono Y, Ueta Y: Pharmacological aspects of the effects of tramadol on G-protein coupled receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Mar;103(3):253-60. [PubMed:17380034 ]
  8. Frink MC, Hennies HH, Englberger W, Haurand M, Wilffert B: Influence of tramadol on neurotransmitter systems of the rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996 Nov;46(11):1029-36. [PubMed:8955860 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Sagata K, Minami K, Yanagihara N, Shiraishi M, Toyohira Y, Ueno S, Shigematsu A: Tramadol inhibits norepinephrine transporter function at desipramine-binding sites in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Anesth Analg. 2002 Apr;94(4):901-6, table of contents. [PubMed:11916794 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  3. Berrocoso E, Mico JA: Cooperative opioid and serotonergic mechanisms generate superior antidepressant-like effects in a mice model of depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 Sep;12(8):1033-44. doi: 10.1017/S1461145709000236. Epub 2009 Apr 3. [PubMed:19341511 ]
  4. Frink MC, Hennies HH, Englberger W, Haurand M, Wilffert B: Influence of tramadol on neurotransmitter systems of the rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996 Nov;46(11):1029-36. [PubMed:8955860 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Barann M, Urban B, Stamer U, Dorner Z, Bonisch H, Bruss M: Effects of tramadol and O-demethyl-tramadol on human 5-HT reuptake carriers and human 5-HT3A receptors: a possible mechanism for tramadol-induced early emesis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Feb 15;531(1-3):54-8. Epub 2006 Jan 19. [PubMed:16427041 ]
  2. Driessen B, Reimann W: Interaction of the central analgesic, tramadol, with the uptake and release of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the rat brain in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 1992 Jan;105(1):147-51. [PubMed:1596676 ]
  3. Frink MC, Hennies HH, Englberger W, Haurand M, Wilffert B: Influence of tramadol on neurotransmitter systems of the rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996 Nov;46(11):1029-36. [PubMed:8955860 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Ogata J, Minami K, Uezono Y, Okamoto T, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of tramadol on 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2C receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2004 May;98(5):1401-6, table of contents. [PubMed:15105221 ]
  2. Horishita T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Shiraishi M, Ogata J, Okamoto T, Shigematsu A: The tramadol metabolite, O-desmethyl tramadol, inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2C receptors expressed in Xenopus Oocytes. Pharmacology. 2006;77(2):93-9. Epub 2006 May 5. [PubMed:16679816 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Sun HL, Zheng JW, Wang K, Liu RK, Liang JH: Tramadol reduces the 5-HTP-induced head-twitch response in mice via the activation of mu and kappa opioid receptors. Life Sci. 2003 Jan 31;72(11):1221-30. [PubMed:12570923 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Wentland MP, Lou R, Lu Q, Bu Y, VanAlstine MA, Cohen DJ, Bidlack JM: Syntheses and opioid receptor binding properties of carboxamido-substituted opioids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jan 1;19(1):203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.10.134. Epub 2008 Nov 7. [PubMed:19027293 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Hara K, Minami K, Sata T: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite on glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acidA, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2005 May;100(5):1400-5, table of contents. [PubMed:15845694 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
Q693P7
Molecular Weight:
2987.635 Da
References
  1. Shiraishi M, Minami K, Uezono Y, Yanagihara N, Shigematsu A, Shibuya I: Inhibitory effects of tramadol on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adrenal chromaffin cells and in Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha 7 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 May;136(2):207-16. [PubMed:12010769 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Shiraishi M, Minami K, Uezono Y, Yanagihara N, Shigematsu A: Inhibition by tramadol of muscarinic receptor-induced responses in cultured adrenal medullary cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing cloned M1 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Oct;299(1):255-60. [PubMed:11561087 ]
  2. Shiga Y, Minami K, Shiraishi M, Uezono Y, Murasaki O, Kaibara M, Shigematsu A: The inhibitory effects of tramadol on muscarinic receptor-induced responses in Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned M(3) receptors. Anesth Analg. 2002 Nov;95(5):1269-73, table of contents. [PubMed:12401609 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 31, 2016 03:27