Phosphatidyl serine

Identification

Name
Phosphatidyl serine
Accession Number
DB00144  (NUTR00048)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Phosphatidyl serine (PS) is a phospholipid nutrient found in fish, green leafy vegetables, soybeans and rice, and is essential for the normal functioning of neuronal cell membranes and activates Protein kinase C (PKC) which has been shown to be involved in memory function. In apoptosis, phosphatidyl serine is transferred to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. This is part of the process by which the cell is targeted for phagocytosis. PS has been shown to slow cognitive decline in animal models. PS has been investigated in a small number of double-blind placebo trials and has been shown to increase memory performance in the elderly. Because of the potentail cognitive benefits of phosphatidylserine, the substance is sold as a dietary supplement to people who believe they can benefit from an increased intake.

The dietary supplement was originally processed from bovine sources however Prion disease scares in the 1990s outlawed this process, and a soy-based alternative was adopted.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Phosphatidyl-L-serine
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • PS
  • Ptd-L-Ser
International/Other Brands
LifeExtension PS Caps
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EnBrace HRPhosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Glycine betaine (500 ug/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (5.23 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (25 ug/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals, Llc2015-04-08Not applicableUs
EnLytePhosphatidyl serine (12 mg/1) + 1,2-docosahexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (6.4 mg/1) + 1,2-icosapentoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine calcium (800 ug/1) + Citric acid monohydrate (1.83 mg/1) + Cobamamide (50 ug/1) + Cocarboxylase (25 ug/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (13.6 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (25 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Glycine betaine (500 ug/1) + Leucovorin (2.5 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (7 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (25 ug/1) + Sodium Citrate (3.67 mg/1) + Magnesium L-threonate (1 mg/1) + Magnesium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Zinc ascorbate (1 mg/1)Capsule, delayed release pelletsOralJaymac Pharmaceuticals Llc2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
394XK0IH40
CAS number
1446756-47-3
Weight
Average: 385.3041
Monoisotopic: 385.113782505
Chemical Formula
C13H24NO10P
InChI Key
UNJJBGNPUUVVFQ-ZJUUUORDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H24NO10P/c1-3-5-12(16)24-9(6-21-11(15)4-2)7-22-25(19,20)23-8-10(14)13(17)18/h9-10H,3-8,14H2,1-2H3,(H,17,18)(H,19,20)/t9-,10+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-({[(2R)-2-(butanoyloxy)-3-(propanoyloxy)propoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)propanoic acid
SMILES
CCCC(=O)O[[email protected]](COC(=O)CC)COP(O)(=O)OC[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Phosphatidylserine has demonstrated some usefulness in treating cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease, age-associated memory impairment and some non-Alzheimer's dementias. More research is needed before phosphatidylserine can be indicated for immune enhancement or for reduction of exercise stress.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Phosphatidylserine is indicated in the treatment of cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease, age-associated memory impairment and some non-Alzheimer's dementias. Further research is required before phosphatidylserine can be indicated for immune enhancement or for reduction of exercise stress. Phosphatidylserine was first isolated from brain lipids called cephalins. The major cephalins are phosphatidylserine and phophatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine is involved in signal transduction activity as well as being a basic structural component of biologic membranes.

Mechanism of action

Cholinergic hypofunction is thought to account in part for the cognitive deficits found in Alzheimer's disease. The most commonly used drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease are reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The rationale of these drugs is to increase acetylcholine levels in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, and they may be somewhat effective in some cases. Phosphatidylserine restores acetylcholine release in aging humans by maintaining an adequate supply of the molecule and is able to increase the availability of endogenous choline for de novo acetylcholine synthesis. The hippocampus of the brain is believed to be important for cognitive processes and is affected in those with Alzheimer's disease. The dendritic spines of pyramidal cells, the post-synaptic target of the excitatory input to the hippocampus, have been proposed as a substrate for information storage. Age-dependent dendritic spine loss in pyramidal neurons has been reported in the human brain, and the extent of synaptic loss appears to correlate with the degree of cognitive impairment. Phosphatidylserine treatment prevents the age-related reduction in dendritic spine density in rat hippocampus. Protein kinase C facilitation of acetylcholine release has been reported in rats. Phosphatidylserine was found to restore protein kinase C activity in aging rats. Stimulation of calcium uptake by brain synaptosomes and activation of protein kinase C are yet other speculative mechanisms of phosphatidylserine's putative cognition-enhancing action.

TargetActionsOrganism
UPhosphatidylserine decarboxylase proenzymeNot AvailableHuman
UScavenger receptor class B member 1Not AvailableHuman
UProtein kinase C alpha typeNot AvailableHuman
UPhosphatidylserine synthase 1Not AvailableHuman
UDiacylglycerol kinase gammaNot AvailableHuman
UDiacylglycerol kinase deltaNot AvailableHuman
UPhosphatidylserine synthase 2Not AvailableHuman
USphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4Not AvailableHuman
USphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3Not AvailableHuman
UProbable phospholipid-transporting ATPase IANot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Absorbed in the small intestine.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Following absorption, lysophosphatidylserine is metabolized in intestinal mucosa cells, and its metabolites, which include some phosphatidylserine, enter the lymphatics draining the small intestine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

There are no reports of overdosage. LD50 in rats is more than 5g/kg, and in rabbits is more than 2g/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(14:0/22:1(13Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(14:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(14:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(14:1(9Z)/20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(15:0/15:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(15:0/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(15:0/20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(15:0/24:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/16:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/20:1(11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:0/20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:1(9Z)/14:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:1(9Z)/20:3(5Z,8Z,11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:1(9Z)/20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:1(9Z)/22:1(13Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(16:1(9Z)/22:4(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:0/16:1(9Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:0/18:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:0/20:1(11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:0/24:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/16:0)Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/18:3(9Z,12Z,15Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/20:3(5Z,8Z,11Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z))Metabolic
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(18:1(11Z)/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z))Metabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Lorenzo De Ferra, Pietro Massardo, Oreste Piccolo, Stefano Servi, "Process for the industrial preparation of phosphatidylserine." U.S. Patent US5700668, issued January, 1992.

US5700668
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14291
PubChem Compound
6323481
PubChem Substance
46505650
ChemSpider
13628254
ChEBI
18303
PharmGKB
PA164768860
IUPHAR
3638
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
PSF
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Phosphatidylserine

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2RecruitingTreatmentFamilial Dysautonomia1
4CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy / Postoperative pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Professional Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Phosphatidylserine 40% powder13.2USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1ALOGPS
logP-1.6ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.38ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area171.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count15ChemAxon
Refractivity81.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6612
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5475
Caco-2 permeable-0.666
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5358
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7716
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9679
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9512
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9229
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8056
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6063
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7648
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8731
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8662
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7588
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7248
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9716
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7626
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7671
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7036
Rat acute toxicity2.1996 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9279
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7921
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phosphatidylserines. These are glycerophosphoserines in which two fatty acids are bonded to the glycerol moiety through ester linkages. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylserines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Glycerophospholipids
Sub Class
Glycerophosphoserines
Direct Parent
Phosphatidylserines
Alternative Parents
L-alpha-amino acids / Tricarboxylic acids and derivatives / Phosphoethanolamines / Fatty acid esters / Dialkyl phosphates / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 3 more
Substituents
Diacyl-glycerol-3-phosphoserine / Alpha-amino acid / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / L-alpha-amino acid / Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives / Phosphoethanolamine / Fatty acid ester / Dialkyl phosphate / Organic phosphoric acid derivative / Phosphoric acid ester
show 19 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PISD
Uniprot ID
Q9UG56
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase proenzyme
Molecular Weight
46671.34 Da
References
  1. Wu WI, Voelker DR: Reconstitution of phosphatidylserine transport from chemically defined donor membranes to phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 2 implicates specific lipid domains in the process. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 20;279(8):6635-42. Epub 2003 Dec 4. [PubMed:14660568]
  2. Burgermeister M, Birner-Grunberger R, Heyn M, Daum G: Contribution of different biosynthetic pathways to species selectivity of aminoglycerophospholipids assembled into mitochondrial membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 8;1686(1-2):148-60. [PubMed:15522831]
  3. Burgermeister M, Birner-Grunberger R, Nebauer R, Daum G: Contribution of different pathways to the supply of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine to mitochondrial membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 8;1686(1-2):161-8. [PubMed:15522832]
  4. Roggero R, Zufferey R, Minca M, Richier E, Calas M, Vial H, Ben Mamoun C: Unraveling the mode of action of the antimalarial choline analog G25 in Plasmodium falciparum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Aug;48(8):2816-24. [PubMed:15273086]
  5. Voelker DR: Protein and lipid motifs regulate phosphatidylserine traffic in yeast. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov;33(Pt 5):1141-5. [PubMed:16246067]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma ...
Gene Name
SCARB1
Uniprot ID
Q8WTV0
Uniprot Name
Scavenger receptor class B member 1
Molecular Weight
60877.385 Da
References
  1. Yan X, Poelstra K, Scherphof GL, Kamps JA: A role for scavenger receptor B-I in selective transfer of rhodamine-PE from liposomes to cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Dec 17;325(3):908-14. [PubMed:15541376]
  2. Yancey PG, Kawashiri MA, Moore R, Glick JM, Williams DL, Connelly MA, Rader DJ, Rothblat GH: In vivo modulation of HDL phospholipid has opposing effects on SR-BI- and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. J Lipid Res. 2004 Feb;45(2):337-46. Epub 2003 Nov 1. [PubMed:14594995]
  3. Nakagawa A, Shiratsuchi A, Tsuda K, Nakanishi Y: In vivo analysis of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by testicular Sertoli cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005 Jun;71(2):166-77. [PubMed:15791597]
  4. Zhang J, Fujii S, Wu Z, Hashioka S, Tanaka Y, Shiratsuchi A, Nakanishi Y, Nakanishi H: Involvement of COX-1 and up-regulated prostaglandin E synthases in phosphatidylserine liposome-induced prostaglandin E2 production by microglia. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Mar;172(1-2):112-20. Epub 2005 Dec 20. [PubMed:16371234]
  5. Osada Y, Shiratsuchi A, Nakanishi Y: Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in class B scavenger receptor type I-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006 Jun 10;312(10):1820-30. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [PubMed:16530182]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...
Gene Name
PRKCA
Uniprot ID
P17252
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C alpha type
Molecular Weight
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Yu D, Kazanietz MG, Harvey RG, Penning TM: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon o-quinones inhibit the activity of the catalytic fragment of protein kinase C. Biochemistry. 2002 Oct 1;41(39):11888-94. [PubMed:12269833]
  2. Rodriguez-Alfaro JA, Gomez-Fernandez JC, Corbalan-Garcia S: Role of the lysine-rich cluster of the C2 domain in the phosphatidylserine-dependent activation of PKCalpha. J Mol Biol. 2004 Jan 23;335(4):1117-29. [PubMed:14698304]
  3. Lopez-Andreo MJ, Torrecillas A, Conesa-Zamora P, Corbalan-Garcia S, Gomez-Fernandez JC: Retinoic acid as a modulator of the activity of protein kinase Calpha. Biochemistry. 2005 Aug 30;44(34):11353-60. [PubMed:16114872]
  4. Corbin JA, Evans JH, Landgraf KE, Falke JJ: Mechanism of specific membrane targeting by C2 domains: localized pools of target lipids enhance Ca2+ affinity. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 10;46(14):4322-36. Epub 2007 Mar 17. [PubMed:17367165]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes a base-exchange reaction in which the polar head group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylcholine (PC) is replaced by L-serine. In membranes, PTDSS1 catalyzes mainly the conv...
Gene Name
PTDSS1
Uniprot ID
P48651
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylserine synthase 1
Molecular Weight
55527.18 Da
References
  1. Kuge O, Nishijima M: Biosynthetic regulation and intracellular transport of phosphatidylserine in mammalian cells. J Biochem. 2003 Apr;133(4):397-403. [PubMed:12761285]
  2. Kuge O, Hasegawa K, Ohsawa T, Saito K, Nishijima M: Purification and characterization of Chinese hamster phosphatidylserine synthase 2. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 24;278(43):42692-8. Epub 2003 Aug 11. [PubMed:12912985]
  3. Ohsawa T, Nishijima M, Kuge O: Functional analysis of Chinese hamster phosphatidylserine synthase 1 through systematic alanine mutagenesis. Biochem J. 2004 Aug 1;381(Pt 3):853-9. [PubMed:15130088]
  4. Steenbergen R, Nanowski TS, Nelson R, Young SG, Vance JE: Phospholipid homeostasis in phosphatidylserine synthase-2-deficient mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Mar;1761(3):313-23. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16627002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific Function
Reverses the normal flow of glycerolipid biosynthesis by phosphorylating diacylglycerol back to phosphatidic acid.
Gene Name
DGKG
Uniprot ID
P49619
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase gamma
Molecular Weight
89123.27 Da
References
  1. Yamaguchi Y, Shirai Y, Matsubara T, Sanse K, Kuriyama M, Oshiro N, Yoshino K, Yonezawa K, Ono Y, Saito N: Phosphorylation and up-regulation of diacylglycerol kinase gamma via its interaction with protein kinase C gamma. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 20;281(42):31627-37. Epub 2006 Aug 11. [PubMed:16905533]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
May function as signaling molecule.Isoform 2 may be involved in cell growth and tumorigenesis. Involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis.
Gene Name
DGKD
Uniprot ID
Q16760
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase delta
Molecular Weight
134524.235 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Bregoli L, Baldassare JJ, Raben DM: Nuclear diacylglycerol kinase-theta is activated in response to alpha-thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 29;276(26):23288-95. Epub 2001 Apr 17. [PubMed:11309392]
  4. Sakane F, Imai S, Kai M, Wada I, Kanoh H: Molecular cloning of a novel diacylglycerol kinase isozyme with a pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal tail similar to those of the EPH family of protein-tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 5;271(14):8394-401. [PubMed:8626538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cdp-diacylglycerol-serine o-phosphatidyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes a base-exchange reaction in which the polar head group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylcholine (PC) is replaced by L-serine. PTDSS2 is specific for phosphatatidylethanolam...
Gene Name
PTDSS2
Uniprot ID
Q9BVG9
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylserine synthase 2
Molecular Weight
56252.55 Da
References
  1. Bergo MO, Gavino BJ, Steenbergen R, Sturbois B, Parlow AF, Sanan DA, Skarnes WC, Vance JE, Young SG: Defining the importance of phosphatidylserine synthase 2 in mice. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 6;277(49):47701-8. Epub 2002 Oct 1. [PubMed:12361952]
  2. Vance JE, Vance DE: Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;82(1):113-28. [PubMed:15052332]
  3. Dygas A, Baranska J, Santella L: Ca2+-dependent phosphatidylserine synthesis in immature and mature starfish oocytes. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50(2):377-87. [PubMed:12833164]
  4. Grandmaison PA, Nanowski TS, Vance JE: Externalization of phosphatidylserine during apoptosis does not specifically require either isoform of phosphatidylserine synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Feb 27;1636(1):1-11. [PubMed:14984733]
  5. Wen Z, Kim HY: Inhibition of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in developing rat brain by maternal exposure to ethanol. J Neurosci Res. 2007 May 15;85(7):1568-78. [PubMed:17387686]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase d activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin to form phosphorylcholine and ceramide.
Gene Name
SMPD4
Uniprot ID
Q9NXE4
Uniprot Name
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4
Molecular Weight
93350.76 Da
References
  1. Krut O, Wiegmann K, Kashkar H, Yazdanpanah B, Kronke M: Novel tumor necrosis factor-responsive mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase-3 is a C-tail-anchored protein. J Biol Chem. 2006 May 12;281(19):13784-93. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16517606]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide and phosphocholine. Ceramide mediates numerous cellular functions, such as apoptosis and growth arrest, and is capable of regulating these...
Gene Name
SMPD3
Uniprot ID
Q9NY59
Uniprot Name
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3
Molecular Weight
71080.1 Da
References
  1. Krut O, Wiegmann K, Kashkar H, Yazdanpanah B, Kronke M: Novel tumor necrosis factor-responsive mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase-3 is a C-tail-anchored protein. J Biol Chem. 2006 May 12;281(19):13784-93. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16517606]
  2. Marchesini N, Luberto C, Hannun YA: Biochemical properties of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2 and its role in sphingolipid metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 18;278(16):13775-83. Epub 2003 Feb 3. [PubMed:12566438]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid-translocating atpase activity
Specific Function
Catalytic component of a P4-ATPase flippase complex which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled to the transport of aminophospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of various membranes and...
Gene Name
ATP8A1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2Q0
Uniprot Name
Phospholipid-transporting ATPase IA
Molecular Weight
131368.215 Da
References
  1. Bettache N, Baisamy L, Baghdiguian S, Payrastre B, Mangeat P, Bienvenue A: Mechanical constraint imposed on plasma membrane through transverse phospholipid imbalance induces reversible actin polymerization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. J Cell Sci. 2003 Jun 1;116(Pt 11):2277-84. Epub 2003 Apr 15. [PubMed:12697835]
  2. Wolfs JL, Comfurius P, Rasmussen JT, Keuren JF, Lindhout T, Zwaal RF, Bevers EM: Activated scramblase and inhibited aminophospholipid translocase cause phosphatidylserine exposure in a distinct platelet fraction. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Jul;62(13):1514-25. [PubMed:15971000]
  3. Mandal D, Mazumder A, Das P, Kundu M, Basu J: Fas-, caspase 8-, and caspase 3-dependent signaling regulates the activity of the aminophospholipid translocase and phosphatidylserine externalization in human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 25;280(47):39460-7. Epub 2005 Sep 22. [PubMed:16179347]
  4. Paterson JK, Renkema K, Burden L, Halleck MS, Schlegel RA, Williamson P, Daleke DL: Lipid specific activation of the murine P4-ATPase Atp8a1 (ATPase II). Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 25;45(16):5367-76. [PubMed:16618126]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:31