Identification

Name
Cloxacillin
Accession Number
DB01147  (APRD00882, EXPT01068)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet Approved
Description

A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of oxacillin.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S,5R,6R)-6-({[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl]carbonyl}amino)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
  • (3-(O-Chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)penicillin
  • 6-(3-(O-Chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxamido)penicillanic acid
  • Cloxacilina
  • Cloxacilline
  • Cloxacillinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Cloxacillin benzathineAC79L7PV2G23736-58-5COCFKSXGORCFOW-VZHMHXRYSA-N
Cloxacillin sodiumMWQ645MKMF642-78-4SCLZRKVZRBKZCR-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Cloxacillin sodium hydrate65LCB00B4Y7081-44-9KCUWTKOTPIUBRI-VICXVTCVSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CloxacillinCapsule500 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1994-12-312013-07-15Canada
Cloxacillin for InjectionPowder, for solution1000 mgIntravenousSterimax Inc2011-07-28Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin for InjectionPowder, for solution2000 mgIntravenousSterimax Inc2011-07-28Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin for InjectionPowder, for solution500 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSterimax Inc2011-09-14Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin for InjectionPowder, for solution10 gIntravenousSterimax Inc2013-04-03Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solution2 gIntramuscular; IntravenousTeva1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solution1 gIntravenousTeva1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin Sodium for InjectionPowder, for solution500 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousTeva1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cloxacillin Sodium Sterile Inj 250mg/vialLiquid250 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousNovopharm Limited1992-12-312005-08-10Canada
Cloxacillin-250 CapCapsule250 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1994-12-312009-07-23Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Cloxi Cap 250mgCapsule250 mgOralApotex Corporation1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Cloxi Cap 500mgCapsule500 mgOralApotex Corporation1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Cloxi for Oral Soln 125mg/5mlPowder, for solution125 mgOralApotex Corporation1985-12-31Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Aclox (Southshourne) / Apo-Cloxi (Apotex) / Auropen Inj. (Cirin) / Cloxacil (Saiph) / Cloxam (MacroPhar) / Orbenin (GlaxoSmithKline) / Vaclox (Atlantic) / Vamcloxil (Vamsler)
Categories
UNII
O6X5QGC2VB
CAS number
61-72-3
Weight
Average: 435.881
Monoisotopic: 435.065569098
Chemical Formula
C19H18ClN3O5S
InChI Key
LQOLIRLGBULYKD-JKIFEVAISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H18ClN3O5S/c1-8-11(12(22-28-8)9-6-4-5-7-10(9)20)15(24)21-13-16(25)23-14(18(26)27)19(2,3)29-17(13)23/h4-7,13-14,17H,1-3H3,(H,21,24)(H,26,27)/t13-,14+,17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,5R,6R)-6-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-1,2-oxazole-4-amido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][[email protected]]12SC(C)(C)[[email protected]@H](N1C(=O)[[email protected]]2NC(=O)C1=C(C)ON=C1C1=CC=CC=C1Cl)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci, including pneumococci, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and penicillin G-sensitive and penicillin G-resistant staphylococci.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. Cloxacillin is for use against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase.

Mechanism of action

By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, cloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cloxacillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

TargetActionsOrganism
APenicillin-binding protein 1A
inhibitor
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
UBeta-lactamase
inducer
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
APenicillin-binding protein 2a
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
APenicillin-binding protein 2B
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
APenicillin-binding protein 3
inhibitor
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
UD-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacA
inhibitor
Escherichia coli O6:H1 (strain CFT073 / ATCC 700928 / UPEC)
Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

95%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rat and mouse is 5000 mg/kg. Intravenous LD50 in rat is 1660 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include wheezing, tightness in the chest, fever, itching, bad cough, blue skin color, fits, and swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcenocoumarolCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AclarubicinThe serum concentration of Aclarubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
AmikacinThe serum concentration of Amikacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Vet Approved
AmrubicinThe serum concentration of Amrubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
annamycinThe serum concentration of annamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
ApramycinThe serum concentration of Apramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental, Vet Approved
ArbekacinThe serum concentration of Arbekacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of BCG vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Cloxacillin.Investigational
BekanamycinThe serum concentration of Bekanamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
ChlortetracyclineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloxacillin can be decreased when used in combination with Chlortetracycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClorindioneCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
DemeclocyclineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloxacillin can be decreased when used in combination with Demeclocycline.Approved
DibekacinThe serum concentration of Dibekacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
DicoumarolCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinThe serum concentration of Dihydrostreptomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational, Vet Approved
DiphenadioneCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloxacillin can be decreased when used in combination with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EpirubicinThe serum concentration of Epirubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FluindioneCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FramycetinThe serum concentration of Framycetin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
GeneticinThe serum concentration of Geneticin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
GentamicinThe serum concentration of Gentamicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AThe serum concentration of GENTAMICIN C1A can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
GPX-150The serum concentration of GPX-150 can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
Hygromycin BThe serum concentration of Hygromycin B can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Vet Approved
IdarubicinThe serum concentration of Idarubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
INNO-206The serum concentration of INNO-206 can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
IsepamicinThe serum concentration of Isepamicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
KanamycinThe serum concentration of Kanamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
MetrizamideThe serum concentration of Metrizamide can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
MicronomicinThe serum concentration of Micronomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
MinocyclineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloxacillin can be decreased when used in combination with Minocycline.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Mycophenolic acid can be reduced when Mycophenolic acid is used in combination with Cloxacillin resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
NeamineThe serum concentration of Neamine can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
NeomycinThe serum concentration of Neomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Vet Approved
NetilmicinThe serum concentration of Netilmicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
ParomomycinThe serum concentration of Paromomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
PhenindioneCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Cloxacillin.Approved
PirarubicinThe serum concentration of Pirarubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
PlazomicinThe serum concentration of Plazomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
PlicamycinThe serum concentration of Plicamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Cloxacillin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
PuromycinThe serum concentration of Puromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
RibostamycinThe serum concentration of Ribostamycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
SabarubicinThe serum concentration of Sabarubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
SisomicinThe serum concentration of Sisomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
SP1049CThe serum concentration of SP1049C can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
SpectinomycinThe serum concentration of Spectinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
StreptomycinThe serum concentration of Streptomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Streptozocin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
TioclomarolCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TobramycinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved, Investigational
ValrubicinThe serum concentration of Valrubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Approved
WarfarinCloxacillin may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
Zoptarelin doxorubicinThe serum concentration of Zoptarelin doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Investigational
ZorubicinThe serum concentration of Zorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.Experimental
Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach.

References

Synthesis Reference

Doyle, F.P. and Nayler, J.H.C.; British Patent 905,778; September 12, 1962; assigned to Beecham Research Laboratories, Ltd. Doyle, F.P. and Nayler, J.H.C.; US. Patent 2,996,501; August 15, 1961.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15278
KEGG Compound
C06923
PubChem Compound
6098
PubChem Substance
46507109
ChemSpider
5873
BindingDB
50022788
ChEBI
49566
ChEMBL
CHEMBL891
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001161
PharmGKB
PA449059
HET
CXN
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Cloxacillin
ATC Codes
J01CF02 — CloxacillinJ01CR50 — Combinations of penicillins
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.16.12 — Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins
  • 08:12.16 — Penicillins
MSDS
Download (38 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
2CompletedTreatmentBacteremia1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentBacteremia1
3RecruitingTreatmentMethicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentStaphylococcus Aureus Infections1
3TerminatedTreatmentStaphylococcus1
4CompletedTreatmentSkin Diseases, Infectious1
4TerminatedTreatmentImpaired Renal Function / S. Aureus Bacteremia / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDouble Lumen Infection / Hemodialysis-dependent patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancers / Fevers / Neutropenias1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionIntravenous10 g
Powder, for solutionIntravenous1000 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous2000 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous2 g
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous1 g
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous250 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
CapsuleOral500 mg
Powder, for solutionOral125 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous250 mg
Granule, for solutionOral125 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cloxacillin Sodium 2 g/vial7.69USD vial
Cloxacillin Sodium 1 g/vial5.89USD vial
Cloxacillin Sodium 500 mg/vial4.79USD vial
Apo-Cloxi 500 mg Capsule0.38USD capsule
Novo-Cloxin 500 mg Capsule0.38USD capsule
Nu-Cloxi 500 mg Capsule0.38USD capsule
Apo-Cloxi 250 mg Capsule0.19USD capsule
Novo-Cloxin 250 mg Capsule0.19USD capsule
Nu-Cloxi 250 mg Capsule0.19USD capsule
Apo-Cloxi 25 mg/ml Liquid0.05USD ml
Novo-Cloxin 25 mg/ml Liquid0.05USD ml
Nu-Cloxi 25 mg/ml Liquid0.05USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility13.9 mg/LNot Available
logP2.48SANGSTER (1994)
pKa2.78SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0532 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.61ALOGPS
logP2.3ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.74 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity106.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8368
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9903
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6204
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8951
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9204
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9629
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8262
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.905
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5977
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8592
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.891
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.918
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8832
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.819
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9186
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6979
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5672
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.9946 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9996
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8486
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a5a-0560910000-05dcf2cead0bc1f49482
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-1900000000-a2a9637ec3640b22d439

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dipeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of exactly two alpha-amino acids joined by a peptide bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Dipeptides
Alternative Parents
Penicillins / N-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives / Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Thiazolidines / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Isoxazoles / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Azetidines
show 12 more
Substituents
Alpha-dipeptide / Penicillin / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Penam / Halobenzene / Chlorobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety
show 30 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
penicillin (CHEBI:49566)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific Function
Cell wall formation. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid intermediates. The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan str...
Gene Name
pbpA
Uniprot ID
Q8XJ01
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 1A
Molecular Weight
75176.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kleppe G, Yu W, Strominger JL: Penicillin-binding proteins in Bacillus subtilis mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982 Jun;21(6):979-83. [PubMed:6810758]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Beta-lactamase activity
Specific Function
This protein is a serine beta-lactamase with a substrate specificity for cephalosporins.
Gene Name
ampC
Uniprot ID
P00811
Uniprot Name
Beta-lactamase
Molecular Weight
41555.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Mirelis B, Rivera A, Miro E, Mesa RJ, Navarro F, Coll P: A simple phenotypic method for differentiation between acquired and chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2006 Jun-Jul;24(6):370-2. [PubMed:16792938]
  4. Ruppe E, Bidet P, Verdet C, Arlet G, Bingen E: First detection of the Ambler class C 1 AmpC beta-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii by a new, simple double-disk synergy test. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Nov;44(11):4204-7. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16971653]
  5. Guan XZ, Liu YN, Luo YP, She DY, Zhou G, Chen LA, Xu YP: [A new member of CMY type cephalosporinase prevailing in Escherichia coli]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Nov 17;84(22):1872-5. [PubMed:15631796]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pbp2a
Uniprot ID
Q8DNB6
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 2a
Molecular Weight
80797.94 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Penicillin binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
penA
Uniprot ID
P0A3M5
Uniprot Name
Penicillin-binding protein 2B
Molecular Weight
73872.305 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pbpB
Uniprot ID
Q51504
Uniprot Name
Cell division protein
Molecular Weight
62855.78 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli O6:H1 (strain CFT073 / ATCC 700928 / UPEC)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Removes C-terminal D-alanyl residues from sugar-peptide cell wall precursors.
Specific Function
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Gene Name
dacA
Uniprot ID
P0AEB3
Uniprot Name
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase DacA
Molecular Weight
44443.62 Da
References
  1. Nicola G, Tomberg J, Pratt RF, Nicholas RA, Davies C: Crystal structures of covalent complexes of beta-lactam antibiotics with Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 5: toward an understanding of antibiotic specificity. Biochemistry. 2010 Sep 21;49(37):8094-104. doi: 10.1021/bi100879m. [PubMed:20726582]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bratlid D, Bergan T: Displacement of albumin-bound antimicrobial agents by bilirubin. Pharmacology. 1976;14(5):464-72. [PubMed:1031216]
  2. Friedman LA, Lewis PJ: The effect of semisynthetic penicillins on the binding of bilirubin by neonatal serum. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Jan;9(1):61-5. [PubMed:7356894]
  3. Okore VC: Effect of ascorbic acid on the binding of cloxacillin sodium to bovine serum albumin. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 May;44(5):671-3. [PubMed:8024646]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID
Q16348
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [PubMed:15567297]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [PubMed:10411577]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 22, 2017 12:41