|DB01032||Probenecid||For the reduction of serum uric acid concentrations in chronic gouty arthritis and tophaceous gout in patients with frequent disabling gout attacks. Has also been effectively used to promote uric acid excretion in hyperuricemia secondary to the administration of thiazide and related diuretics. |
|DB01045||Rifampicin||For the treatment of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-related mycobacterial infections.|
|DB01051||Novobiocin||For the treatment of infections due to staphylococci and other susceptible organisms|
|DB01053||Benzylpenicillin||For use in the treatment of severe infections caused by penicillin G-susceptible microorganisms when rapid and high penicillin levels are required such as in the treatment of septicemia, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis and severe pneumonia.|
|DB00695||Furosemide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease, including the nephrotic syndrome. Also for the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.|
|DB00936||Salicylic acid||Key additive in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, callouses, corns, keratosis pilaris and warts.|
|DB00345||Aminohippuric acid||Used to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and to determine the functional capacity of the tubular excretory mechanism.|
|DB01009||Ketoprofen||For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain.|
|DB03553||Glutaric Acid||Not Available|
|DB00369||Cidofovir||For the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)|
|DB00718||Adefovir dipivoxil||Indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adult patients with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease; this is based on histological, virological, biochemical, and serological responses in adult patients with HBeAg+ and HBeAg- chronic hepatitis B with compensated liver function, and in adult patients with clinical evidence of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus with either compensated or decompensated liver function.|
|DB00554||Piroxicam||For treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB03783||Phenacetin||Used principally as an analgesic.|
|DB00328||Indometacin||Oral indometacin is indicated for symptomatic management of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.[A177871,Label]
Intravenous indometacin is indicated to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1750 g when after 48 hours usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.[F4600]|
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB00712||Flurbiprofen||Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. |
|DB00749||Etodolac||For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.|
|DB00861||Diflunisal||For symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. musculoskeletal trauma, post-dental extraction, post-episiotomy), osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00586||Diclofenac||For the acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB01597||Cilastatin||Combined intravenously with imipenem in order to protect it from dehydropeptidase and prolong its antibacterial effect.|
|DB04519||Caprylic acid||Not Available|
|DB00501||Cimetidine||For the treatment and the management of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, and acid indigestion.|
|DB00168||Aspartame||Used as a diet supplement and sugar substitute.|
|DB00759||Tetracycline||Used to treat bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, tick fevers, Q fever, rickettsialpox and Brill-Zinsser disease. May be used to treat infections caused by Chlamydiae spp., B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease), and upper respiratory infections caused by typical (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis) and atypical organisms (C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila). May also be used to treat acne. Tetracycline may be an alternative drug for people who are allergic to penicillin.|
|DB00595||Oxytetracycline||Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by a variety of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pasteurella pestis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (respiratory infections), and Diplococcus pneumoniae.|
|DB01017||Minocycline||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae, upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis.|
|DB00254||Doxycycline||Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of various infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, as well other types of bacteria. A complete list of organisms is available in the FDA label and in the "indications" section of this drug entry [FDA label].
The following are some of the major infections that may be treated with doxycycline [FDA label]:
Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis
**A note regarding anti-microbial resistance**
It is important to note that doxycycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracyclines. Therefore, tetracyclines such as doxycycline should not be used to treat streptococcal infections unless the microorganism has been demonstrated to be susceptible [FDA label].|
|DB01004||Ganciclovir||For induction and maintenance in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used in the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV pneumonia, CMV gastrointestinal disease, and disseminated CMV infections, in immunocompromised patients.|
|DB00787||Acyclovir||For the treatment and management of herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes, and chickenpox. |
|DB00917||Dinoprostone||For the termination of pregnancy during the second trimester (from the 12th through the 20th gestational week as calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period), as well as for evacuation of the uterine contents in the management of missed abortion or intrauterine fetal death up to 28 weeks of gestational age as calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. Also used in the management of nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (benign hydatidiform mole). Other indications include improving the cervical inducibility (cervical "ripening") in pregnant women at or near term with a medical or obstetrical need for labor induction, and the management of postpartum hemorrhage.|
|DB00456||Cefalotin||Used to prevent infection during surgery and to treat many kinds of infections of the blood, bone or joints, respiratory tract, skin, and urinary tract.|
|DB01212||Ceftriaxone||For the treatment of the infections (respiratory, skin, soft tissue, UTI, ENT) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staph|
|DB00493||Cefotaxime||Used to treat gonorrhoea, meningitis, and severe infections including infections of the kidney (pyelonephritis) and urinary system. Also used before an operation to prevent infection after surgery.|
|DB01329||Cefoperazone||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.|
|DB01327||Cefazolin||Mainly used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. It can also be used to treat moderately severe bacterial infections involving the lung, bone, joint, stomach, blood, heart valve, and urinary tract. It is clinically effective against infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci species of Gram positive bacteria. May be used for surgical prophylaxis; if required metronidazole may be added to cover B. fragilis.|
|DB01326||Cefamandole||For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms.|
|DB01140||Cefadroxil||For the treatment of the following infections (skin, UTI, ENT) caused by; S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus pyogenes|
|DB00812||Phenylbutazone||For the treatment of backache and ankylosing spondylitis|
|DB00563||Methotrexate||Methotrexate is indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, methotrexate is indicated in the prophylaxis of meningeal leukemia and is used in maintenance therapy in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Methotrexate is also indicated in the treatment of meningeal leukemia. Methotrexate is used alone or in combination with other anticancer agents in the treatment of breast cancer, epidermoid cancers of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma), and lung cancer, particularly squamous cell and small cell types. Methotrexate is also used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of advanced stage non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Methotrexate is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis. Methotrexate is indicated in the management of selected adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (ACR criteria), or children with active polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. |
|DB00693||Fluorescein||For diagnostic imaging. Primarily indicated in diagnostic fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of the fundus and of the iris vasculature.|
|DB00678||Losartan||May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. May be used as a first line agent to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Losartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors.|
|DB00999||Hydrochlorothiazide||For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.|
|DB00887||Bumetanide||For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic and renal disease including the nephrotic syndrome.|
|DB00520||Caspofungin||For the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other therapies.|
|DB00605||Sulindac||For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis), and acute gouty arthritis.|
|DB00140||Riboflavin||For the treatment of ariboflavinosis (vitamin B2 deficiency).|
|DB00584||Enalapril||For the treatment of essential or renovascular hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure. It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.|
|DB00821||Carprofen||For use as a pain reliever in the treatment of joint pain and post-surgical pain.|
|DB01197||Captopril||For the treatment of essential or renovascular hypertension (usually administered with other drugs, particularly thiazide diuretics). May be used to treat congestive heart failure in combination with other drugs (e.g. cardiac glycosides, diuretics, β-adrenergic blockers). May improve survival in patients with left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction. May be used to treat nephropathy, including diabetic nephropathy. |
|DB01124||Tolbutamide||For treatment of NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) in conjunction with diet and exercise.|
|DB01060||Amoxicillin||For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis. Also for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated gonorrhea (ano-genital and urethral infections) due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).|
|DB00567||Cephalexin||Cephalexin is indicated for the treatment of certain infections caused by susceptible bacteria.[Label,L6550,L6553] These infections include respiratory tract infections, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, bone infections, and genitourinary tract infections.[Label,L6550,L6553]|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
|DB00798||Gentamicin||For treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, Proteus species (indole-positive and indole-negative), E. coli, Klebsiella-Enterobactor-Serratia species, Citrobacter species and Staphylococcus species (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative).|
|DB00779||Nalidixic acid||For the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms, including the majority of E. Coli, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella species, and Proteus species.|
|DB00903||Etacrynic acid||For the treatment of high blood pressure and edema caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure.|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB00703||Methazolamide||For treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma|
|DB00311||Ethoxzolamide||For use in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, as a diuretic, and in the treatment of glaucoma, and may also be useful in the treatment of seizures associated with epilepsy.|
|DB00606||Cyclothiazide||Cyclothiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It is also indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.|
|DB00880||Chlorothiazide||Chlorothiazide is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It is also indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.|
|DB00819||Acetazolamide||For adjunctive treatment of: edema due to congestive heart failure; drug-induced edema; centrencephalic epilepsies; chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma|
|DB02266||Flufenamic Acid||Not Available|
|DB00500||Tolmetin||For the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including the treatment of acute flares long-term management. Also for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00945||Acetylsalicylic acid||**Pain, fever, and inflammation**
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label].
The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label].
ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include:
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label].
Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label].
For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label].
For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label].
For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label].
Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label].
**Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]**
In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405].
|DB01435||Antipyrine||Antipyrine is an analgesic often used to test effects of other drugs on liver enzymes..|
|DB00939||Meclofenamic acid||For the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB01424||Aminophenazone||Formerly widely used as an antipyretic and analgesic in rheumatism, neuritis, and common colds. Currently used to measure total body water.|
|DB00731||Nateglinide||For the treatment of non-insulin dependent-diabetes mellitus in conjunction with diet and exercise.|
|DB01082||Streptomycin||For the treatment of tuberculosis. May also be used in combination with other drugs to treat tularemia (Francisella tularensis), plague (Yersia pestis), severe M. avium complex, brucellosis, and enterococcal endocarditis (e.g. E. faecalis, E. faecium).|
|DB00319||Piperacillin||For the treatment of polymicrobial infections.|
|DB01165||Ofloxacin||For the treatment of infections (respiratory tract, kidney, skin, soft tissue, UTI), urethral and cervical gonorrhoea.|
|DB01059||Norfloxacin||For the treatment of urinary tract infection|
|DB00607||Nafcillin||Indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. |
|DB01147||Cloxacillin||Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci, including pneumococci, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and penicillin G-sensitive and penicillin G-resistant staphylococci.|
|DB00827||Cinoxacin||For the treatment of initial and recurrent urinary tract infections in adults caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae), and Enterobacter species.|
|DB00446||Chloramphenicol||Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.|
|DB00438||Ceftazidime||For the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in the following diseases: lower respiratory tract infections,skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, gynecologic infections, intra abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and central nervous system infections (including meningitis).|
|DB00578||Carbenicillin||For the treatment of acute and chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract and in asymptomatic bacteriuria due to susceptible strains of bacteria.|
|DB00432||Trifluridine||Trifluridine is used for the treatment of primay keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2 in ophthalmic solutions.
Trifluridine, in combination with tipiracil as oral tablets, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF biological therapy, and if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB01016||Glyburide||Indicated as an adjunct to diet to lower the blood glucose in patients with NIDDM whose hyperglycemia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone.|
|DB04348||Taurocholic Acid||Not Available|
|DB00529||Foscarnet||For the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and for treatment of acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous HSV infections in immunocompromised patients.|
|DB00672||Chlorpropamide||For treatment of NIDDM in conjunction with diet and exercise. |
|DB00229||Cefotiam||For treatment of severe infections caused by susceptible bacteria.|
|DB01414||Cefacetrile||Cefacetrile is a broad-spectrum first generation cephalosporin antibiotic effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections.|
|DB08846||Ellagic Acid||Ellagic acid is being investigated for use in follicular lymphoma, brain injury in intrauterine growth restricted babies, obese adolescents, and solar lentigines.|
|DB08912||Dabrafenib||Tafinlar is a kinase inhibitor that was initially indicated as a single agent for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test [FDA label].
Tafinlar in combination with [DB08911] is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations as detected by an FDA-approved test. The use in combination is based on the demonstration of durable response rate. Improvement in disease-related symptoms or overall survival has not been demonstrated for Tafinlar in combination with trametinib [FDA label].
In May 2018, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist ([DB08911]) have been approved in combination to treat anaplastic thyroid cancer caused by an abnormal BRAF V600E gene [L2712].|
|DB01685||Topiroxostat||Indicated for the treatment of gout and hyperurcemia in Japan.|
|DB05016||Ataluren||Ataluren is approved for use by the European Medicines Agency to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in patients aged 5 years and older who are able to walk. More specifically, ataluren is used in the small group of patients whose disease is caused by a specific genetic defect (called a ‘nonsense mutation’) in the dystrophin gene.|
|DB13874||Enasidenib||Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation.|
|DB08930||Dolutegravir||Dolutegravir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection that comply with the characteristics of being adults or children aged 12 years and older and present at least a weight of 40 kg.[A7520] The FDA combination therapy approval of dolutegravir and rilpivirine is indicated for adults with HIV-1 infections whose virus is currently suppressed (< 50 copies/ml) on a stable regimen for at least six months, without history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated to resistance to any of the two components of the therapy.[L1031]|
|DB12332||Rucaparib||Indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with deleterious BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic) associated advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies. Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for rucaparib.|
|DB11817||Baricitinib||Indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate.|
|DB00770||Alprostadil||For palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. Also for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.|
|DB00863||Ranitidine||This drug is used alone or with concomitant antacids for the following conditions [FDA label]:
Treatment of active duodenal ulcer (short-term), maintenance therapy of duodenal ulcers after healing (reduced dose)
**Pathological hypersecretion of gastric acid**
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, and other conditions causing gastric acid hypersecretion
Short term treatment of active gastric ulcer (benign), maintenance of healing after gastric acid ulcer therapy (reduced dose)
Treatment of GERD symptoms (symptoms usually improve within 24 hours), treatment of erosive esophagitis (endoscopically diagnosed) and maintenance of healing [FDA label]
|DB09298||Silibinin||Currently being tested as a treatment of severe intoxications with hepatotoxic substances, such as death cap (Amanita phalloides) poisoning.|
|DB09078||Lenvatinib||Lenvatinib is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.|
|DB00318||Codeine||Codeine sulfate is a form of this drug that is commonly used. It is available in tablet form [FDA label] and indicated for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain, where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate [FDA label].
The solution form is used by itself or combined in a syrup with other drugs and is used as a cough suppressant in adults aged 18 and above [L5521], [L5524]. |
|DB00158||Folic Acid||Folic acid is indicated for the treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia, and in anemias of nutritional origins, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.|
|DB00175||Pravastatin||Pravastatin is indicated for primary prevention of coronary events hypercholesterolemic patients without clinical evidence of coronary heart disease. Its use includes the reduction of risk on myocardial infarction, undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures and cardiovascular mortality.[T274]
As well, pravastatin can be used as a secondary prevention agent for cardiovascular events in patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease. This indication includes the reduction of risk of total mortality by reducing coronary death, myocardial infarction, undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures, stroke, and stroke/transient ischemic attack as well as to slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.[T274]
The term cardiovascular events correspond to all the incidents that can produce damage to the heart muscle including the interruption of blood flow.[L6028]
As adjunctive therapy to diet, pravastatin is used in:
- Patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemias including hyperlipidemia type IIa and IIb.
- Patients with elevated serum triglycerides including type IV hyperlipidemia.
- Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in patients over 8 years of age with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol higher than 190 mg/dl after diet modifications or LDL levels higher than 160 mg/dl and familial history of premature cardiovascular diseases or at least two cardiovascular risk factors.[T274]
In patients that do not respond adequately to diet, pravastatin is used to treat patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (type III hyperlipidemia).[T274]
Dyslipidemia is defined as an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides or both as well as to the presence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein. This condition represents an increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis.[L6025]|